Bible Dictionary: P. 1840
, 1 Cor. 5:7.
- PA'ARAI, [h] (opening), one of David's
mighty captains, 2 Sam. 23:35, called
Naarai, 1 Chron. 11:37.
- PACE, a step, a measure of about five
feet, 2 Sam. 6:13.
- PACIFIED, made peaceful, as the death
of the atrocious Haman, appeased the
king's wrath, Est. 7:10.
- PACIFY, to satisfy so as to remove
anger, Prov. 16:14.
- PA'DAN-A'RAM, (the field of
Syria), the Hebrew name of Mesopo-
tamia, Gen. 24:10; 25:20; 28:6.
- PADDLE, a small spade-like instru-
ment, Deut. 23:13.
- PA'DON, [h] (his redemption), a chief of
the Nethinims, Ezra 2:43, 44.
- PA'GIEL, (prayer of God), a prince
of Asher, Num. 7:72-77.
- PA'HATH-MO'AB, [h] (the governor
of Moab), a chief of a Jewish family
among the captives, Ezra 2:6; Neh. 10:14.
- PAID, did pay, as a price, Jon. 1:3, or
tithes, Heb. 7:9.
- PAIN, sensation of uneasiness, Job 14:
22: grief, Psal. 55:4: misery, Jer. 15:
18: fear, Ezek. 30:4: care and anxiety,
Job 15:20: mortal humiliation, Acts 2:
- PAINED, grieved, Isa. 23:5: put in
pain, Rev. 12:2.
- PAINFUL, difficult or perplexing, Psal.
- PAINFULNESS, laboriousness, 2 Cor.
- PAINTED, coloured to beautify, 2 Kings
9:30; Jer. 22:14; Ezek. 23:40.
- PAINTING, colouring to beautify, Jer.
- PAIR, a couple, Luke 2:24: a set, Rev.
- PALACE, a royal dwelling, 1 Kings 16:
18; Dan. 5:1-5: a magnificent building,
2 Chron. 36:19. Solomon's temple,
as the residence of God, 1 Chron. 29:
1-19: a meeting place of the church,
- PALE, whitish or deathly, Isa. 29:
22; Rev. 6:8.
- PALENESS, deathliness of countenance,
- PAL'ESTINA, [h] (which is covered, or
watered, or to bring ruin), Palestine, the
land of Canaan, Exod. 15:14, Isa. 14:
29-31; but properly the country of the
Philistines. See PHILISTIA, CANAAN,
- Jewish Palestine, the Land of Israel.
- PALM, the hollow of the hand, Lev.
- PALM-BRANCHES, boughs of the palm-
tree, Neh. 8:15.
- PALMER-WORM, a destructive species
of caterpillar, Joel 1:4; 2:25.
- PALMS, the hands, 2 Kings 9:35:
branches of the palm-tree, Rev. 7:9.
- PALM-TREE, a tall, fruit-bearing, sha-
dowy tree, whose fruit is the date: it
arrives at perfection in about thirty
years, and thus continues about seventy
years, bearing fifteen or twenty clusters
of dates, each cluster weighing from
fifteen to twenty pounds, Exod. 15:27.
The palm-tree is held in great estimation
by the inhabitants of Arabia, Egypt, and
Persia, on account of its adaptation to
various valuable purposes. The Arabs
celebrate its three hundred and sixty
uses to which the different parts may be
applied: they used the leaves for making
ropes, sacks, mats, hats, sandals, and
other things; and many people subsist
almost entirely on its fruit. Palm-
branches were carried as tokens of vic-
tory or joy, Lev. 23:40; John 12:13;
and the beasty of this tree is made an
emblem of the active virtues of a Chris-
tian, Psal. 92:12.
- PALSY, a disease by which the limbs
are paralyzed, deprived of motion or
feeling, or both. Grievous cases of
palsy are common in eastern countries,
and such were among the miraculous
cures of our Saviour, Matt. 4:24; 8:6;
9:2; John 5:5-14.
- PAL'TI, [h] (deliverance or flight), one
of the twelve spies sent by Moses to
search the land of Canaan, Num. 13:9.
- PAL'TIEL, [h] (deliverance of God),
the prime commissioner of Issachar, for
dividing the land of Canaan, Num. 34:
- PAMPHYL'IA, [g] (of every tribe),
a hilly province of Asia Minor, having
Cilicia on the east, Pisidia on the north,
Lycia on the west, and the Mediterranean
on the south. Perga and Attalia were
its chief cities, Acts 13:13; 14:24, 25.
- PAN, a vessel of iron or brass, for
baking or boiling food, Lev. 2:5; 7:9.
- PANGS, extreme pains, Isa. 13:8.
- PANNAG, supposed to be myrrh, cassia,
or balm, an article of commerce at Tyre,
- PANT, to beat, as the heart with
anxiety or thirst, Psal. 41:1; or as the
covetous with desire for wealth, Amos
- PANTED, did pant, as the pious for
the consolations of God, Psal. 42:1; or
in apprehension of the Divine judgments
in calamities, Isa. 21:4.
- PAPER, the material on which we
write, 2 John 12; so called as made from
the papyrus, or paper-reed of Egypt, Isa.
- PAPER-REED (Cyperes papyrus of Lin-
neus), the bulrush growing in Egypt,
Isa. 19:7; Job 8:11: it grows to the
height of eighteen feet, and in such
quantities as to seem "a forest without
branches, a thicket without leaves, a
harvest of the waters, and an ornament
of the marshes." Writing-paper was
made of the rind of this reed, which
being esculent, it is scarcely surprising
that the prophets should speak of books
being eaten, Job 15:16; Ezek. 3:1; Rev.
10:10. See BULRUSH.
- PA'PHOS, [g] (which boils, or is hot), a
maritime city on the west of Cyprus, Acts
13:6-16: it is now a miserable village
of about thirty huts, and called Baffa.
- PAPS, the [mastos] of the breasts, Luke
11:27: the breast, Rev. 1:13.
- PARABLE, a comparison or similitude,
ingeniously and impressively represent-
ing moral or religious truth, Matt. 13:
3, 10, 18, 23. Jotham's parable is the
most ancient on record, Judg. 9:7-15.
Our Saviour's parables are most instruc-
tive, Matt. 13:53, 54; and the following
are the principal recorded :--
SUBJECT OF PARABLE. PLACE. RECORD. 1. Building on rock and sand Galilee . . . Matt. 7:24. 2. Blind leading the blind Do. Luke 6:39. 3. Two debtors Do. Luke 7:41. 4. Evil spirit returning Do. Matt. 12:43. 5. Sower and the seed Do. Matt. 13:3. 6. Tares in the field Do. Matt. 13:25. 7. Growth of seed Do. Mark 4:26. 8. Grain of mustard seed Do. Matt. 13:31. 9. Leaven in meal Do. Matt. 13:33. 10. Treasure hid in the field Do. Matt. 13:44. 11. Pearl of great price Do. Matt. 13:45. 12. Net cast into the sea Do. Matt. 13:47. 13. Good householder Do. Matt. 13:52. 14. Who need a physician Do. Matt. 9:12. 15. Bridegroom's attendants Do. Matt. 9:15. 16. New cloth on an old garment Do. Matt. 9:16. 17. New wine in old bottles Do. Matt. 9:17. 18. Bread of life Do. John 6:32. 19. What defiles a man Do. Matt. 15:11. 20. Lost sheep Do. Matt. 18:12. 21. The lord and unmerciful servant Do. Matt. 18:23. 22. Good Samaritan Jerusalem . . Luke 10:30. 23. Rich fool Galilee . . . Luke 12:16. 24. Lord and his servants Do. Luke 12:36. 25. Barren fig-tree Do. Luke 13:6. 26. Ambitious guests Do. Luke 14:7. 27. Great supper Do. Luke 14:16. 28. Hating father and mother Do. Luke 14:26. 29. Building a tower Do. Luke 14:28. 30. King going to war Do. Luke 14:31. 31. Lost sheep, with additions Do. Luke 15:3. 32. Lost piece of silver Do. Luke 15:8. 33. Prodigal son Do. Luke 15:11. 34. Unjust steward Do. Luke 16:1. 35. Rich man and Lazarus Do. Luke 16:19.
SUBJECT OF PARABLE. PLACE. RECORD. 36. Master and servant Galilee . . . Luke 17:7. 37. Unjust judge and widow Jerusalem . . Luke 18:1. 38. Pharisee and publican Do. Luke 18:9. 39. Sheepfold Do. John 10:1. 40. Good shepherd Do. John 10:11. 41. Labourers in the vineyard Beyond Jordan Matt. 20:1 42. Ten pounds for trading Jericho . . . Luke 19:11. 43. Two sons Jerusalem . . Matt. 21:28. 44. Husbandmen and vineyard Do. Matt. 21:33. 45. Haughty builders Do. Matt. 21:42. 46. Marriage feast Do. Matt. 22:1. 47. Wedding garment Do. Matt. 22:11. 48. Budding of trees Do. Matt. 22:29. 49. Wicked servant Do. Matt. 24:44. 50. Ten virgins Do. Matt. 25:1. 51. Talents for trading Do. Matt. 25:14. 52. Sheep and goats Do. Matt. 25:31. 53. True vine Do. John 15:1.
- PAR'ADISE, Παραδεισος (a delightful gar-
den or park): this word is found only in
the New Testament, signifying the bliss-
ful regions of Heaven, Luke 23:43;
2 Cor. 12:4; Rev. 2:7 The garden of
Eden is commonly called Paradise, Gen.
2:8. See EDEN.
- PARAMOUR, a lover, Ezek. 23:20.
- PA'RAN, [h] (beauty, glory, or ornament),
a district of Arabia Petrea, south-east
of Canaan, comprehending "the wilder-
ness" of Kadesh and of Zin, in which
the Israelites excamped thirty-eight
years on their way from Egypt, Gen.
21:21; Num. 10:12; Hab. 3:3.
- PARCEL, a part or portion, as of land,
Gen. 33:19; Ruth 4:3.
- PARCHED, scorched, as corn prepared
for food, 1 Sam. 17:17: sun-burnt, as
land, Isa. 35:7.
- PARCHMENT, skins of sheep or goats
prepared for the writer: Paul refers to
some parchments which probably con-
tained some of the original copies of the
sacred Scriptures, 2 Tim. 4:13.
- PARCHMENT. See Bibliology.
- PARDON, to forgive crimes, Exod.
34:9: to excuse a fault, 1 Sam. 15:
25. God is ready to pardon, and He will
abundantly pardon, the sins of men,
through the infinitely precious propitia-
tion of Christ, Isa. 53:5; 55:7; Rom. 3:
24-26. See FORGIVENESS.
- PARDONED, forgiven, as transgressions
of the law of God, Isa. 40:2; Num. 14:20.
- PARE, to cut round, as the nails, Deut.
- PARENTS, fathers and mothers, Matt.
10:21; Heb. 11:23.
- PARENTS. See Biblical Counseling.
- PARLOUR, a chamber for repose or
entertainment, Judg. 3:20-24.
- PAR'MENAS, Παρμενας (that is perma-
nent), one of the seven Grecian deacons
in the first Christian church, Acts 6:5.
- PART, a division, as of land, Exod. 19:
17: a share, 29:36: a portion, Lev. 2:
- PART, to divide, Lev. 2:6: to share,
Psal. 22:18; Matt. 27:36.
- PARTAKER, a sharer of anything, Rom.
15:27. Believers are partakers of Christ,
by receiving the grace of his Spirit, and
thus become heirs of the kingdom of God,
Heb. 3:1-14; 1 Pet. 5:1.
- PARTED, did part or divide, 2 Kings
2:11-14; Acts 2:45.
- PARTED, separated, Luke 24:51.
- PARTH'IANS, [g] (horsemen), native
Jews of Parthia, who had come to Jeru-
salem to celebrate the feast of Pentecost,
Acts 2:9. Parthia was a country east
of Media, and once a province of it; but
it became an independent kingdom for
about 500 years, until, about A.D. 226, it
was reunited with Persia.
- PARTIAL, regarding only a part, Mal.
- PARTIALITY, favour towards a party,
1 Tim. 5:21; Jam. 3:17.
- PARTICULAR, special or single, 1 Cor.
12:27; Eph. 5:33.
- PARTICULARLY, specially or singly,
Acts 21:19; Heb. 9:5.
- PARTIES, persons concerned in differ-
ent interests, Exod. 22:9.
- PARTING, a division or separation,
- PARTITION, a separation, 1 Kings 6:
21; Eph. 2:12.
- PARTLY, in part, Dan. 2:42; Heb. 10:33.
- PARTNER, a sharer, Prov. 29:24,
especially in business, Luke 5:7-10: a
colleague in service, 2 Cor. 8:23.
- PARTRIDGE (perdix petrosa, or the Bar-
bary partridge), a mountain bird, some-
what different from the game-bird so
called in Europe, 1 Sam. 26:2; Jer.
17:11. The Arabs pursue them till
they are weary with flying, and then
kill them with the hand as alluded to
- PASH'UR, [h] (that extends the hole), a
priest, governor of the temple at Jerusa-
lem, and a bitter enemy of the prophet
Jeremiah. His awful doom was threat-
ened by divine inspiration, Jer. 20:1-6.
- PASS, to go forward, as on a journey, Gen.
18:5: to happen, 41:32: to remove,
Matt. 26:39: to occupy, 1 Pet. 1:17.
- PASSAGE, a road or way, 1 Sam. 13:23;
14:23: a ferry over a river, Josh. 22:11.
- PASSED, moved, Gen. 15:17: travelled,
Josh. 24:17: exceeded, 2 Chron. 9:
22: advanced, Heb. 4:14.
- PASSENGER, a traveller, Prov. 9:15:
Ezek. 39:11, 15.
- PASSING, traveling, Judg. 19:18:
exceeding, 2 Sam. 1:26.
- PASSION, suffering and death; thus the
word is used in reference to Christ, Acts
- PASSIONS, emotions of the mind, as
anger, love, zeal, &c., Acts 14:15; Jam.
- PASSOVER, a feast of the Israelites, so
called and kept, in commemoration of the
destroying angel passing over the Israel-
ites on the night of their deliverance
from Egypt, Exod. 12:11-21; John 2:
13-23. The term "Passover" is, in strict
propriety of speech, applicable only to
the meal of the paschal lamb, eaten on
the fourteenth day of the month, after
which, on the fifteenth day, commenced
the feast of unleavened bread, for seven
days, Exod. 12:6, 21; Lev. 23:5, 6;
Josh. 5:10, 11; but the whole of both
these festivals was afterwards included
in the term as it is used in the New
Testament, Luke 2:41-43; 22:1.
- PASSOVER, a title of Christ, given to
indicate the benefit which we derive from
Him as our Redeemer
PASSOVER, PREPARATION OF THE,
John 19:14; Matt. 27:62, the [four-
teenth, or day preceding the evening of
the feast of unleavened bread: this, at
the time of our Saviour's death, was the
day which preceded the Sabbath. Our
Lord, therefore, ate the passover in the
evening of the preparation after sunset,
at the beginning of the fourteenth, in the
night of which He was betrayed, early in
the morning condemned, before noon]--Tho. Tim.
crucified, and in the evening buried, Luke
- PASSOVER, preparation of the.
See JESUS' LAST WEEK UPON EARTH.
PAST, properly passed, ended, Gen. 50:
4: formerly, Job 9:10: beyond, 2 Sam.
PASTOR, a shepherd, a title given to a
religious instructor and guide of a con-
gregation, in allusion to the office of a
keeper of sheep, Jer. 17:16; 23:1, 2;
Eph. 4:11. See SHEPHERD.
PASTORS, religious instructors, Jer. 2:
8; 23:1, 2: Christian ministers, bishops
of congregations, Eph. 4:11.
- PASTORS. See Church Business.
PASTURE, grass land on which cattle
feed, Gen. 47:4; 1 Kings 4:23: need-
ful provision for body and soul, John 10:9.
PAT'ARA, [g] (which is trodden under
foot), a sea-port of Lycia, on the Mediter-
ranean, Acts 21:1.
PATE, the upper part of the head,
PATH, a road or way, Num. 22:22:
a course of life, Psal. 16:11; 27:11:
Divine providence, 25:10; 65:11.
PATH'ROS, [h] (mouthful of dew), Upper
Egypt, sometimes regarded as Egypt pro-
per, the original location of the first
colonists, Jer. 44:1-15; Ezek. 29:14;
PATHRU'SIM, [h] (mouthful of dew),
the fifth son of Mizraim, and great-grand-
son of Noah: he is believed to have
colonized the upper province of Egypt,
called Pathros, Gen. 10:14.
PATHWAY, a narrow road for travellers
on foot: the more retired course of wis-
dom and righteousness, Prov. 12:28.
PATIENCE, endurance of evil or suffer-
ing, Rom. 5:3: perseverance in duty,
PATIENT, calm under affliction or sor-
row, Rom. 12:12.
PATIENTLY, calmly, especially in afflic-
tion, Psal. 37:7; 1 Pet. 2:20.
PAT'MOS, [g] (mortal), a small rocky
island, about twenty-five miles in circuit,
in the Egean sea, to which John is sup-
posed to have been banished, A.D. 94, by
Domitian, emperor of Rome, and where
he was inspired to write the book of
Revelation, Rev. 1:9: it is a poor place,
and called Patmo.
PATRIARCH, the father, chief, or ruler
of a large family, as David, Acts 2:29,
or Abraham, Heb. 7:4; and the sons of
Jacob are called "the twelve patriarchs,"
Acts 7:8, by way of distinction, as the
ancestors of the several tribes of Israel.
Mankind originally lived in societies
under patriarchal authority and govern-
ment; and many of the ancient patriarchs
lived to an extraordinary age, as the
means of conveying knowledge to man-
kind; and thus the merciful purposes of
God were answered in the transmission
of his revealed will before the writing of
the Holy Scriptures.
PATRIARCHS, LIVES OF THE.
LIVED YEARS.Adam . . . . 930
Seth . . . . . 912
Enos . . . . . 905
Cainan . . . . . 910
Mahalaleel . . . 895
Jared . . . . . 962
Enoch . . . . 365
Methuselah . . . . 969
Lamech . . . . 777
Noah . . . . . 950
Shem . . . . 600
Arphaxad . . . . 438
Salah . . . . 433
Eber . . . . . 464
Peleg . . . . 239
Reu . . . . . 239
Serug . . . . 230
Nahor . . . . . 148
Terah . . . . 205
Abraham . . . . 175
Isaac . . . . . 180
Jacob . . . . . 147
Joseph . . . . 110
PATRIMONY, goods possessed by inhe-
ritance, Deut. 18:8.
PATTERN, a model of an article of
manufacture, Exod. 25:9, 40: an exam-
ple, 1 Tim. 1:16; Tit. 2:7.
PAUL, Παυλος (a worker), the Roman
and common name of Saul the apostle:
this eminent servant of Christ was a
Hebrew by both parents, of the tribe of
Benjamin: he was born at Tarsus in
Cilicia, but finished his education under
the celebrated doctor Gamaliel, at Jeru-
salem. On entering public life, Paul was
a furious bigot for the Jewish forms of
religion as observed by the Pharisees,
and sought the death of the Christians
by every possible means: yet Divine
mercy was magnified in his conversion to
Christianity, by the miraculous appear-
ance and the [saving] grace of the Lord
Jesus, Phil. 3:5, 6; Acts 9:1, 30. Paul
was a most exemplary, laborious, and
successful minister of Christ for about
thirty years, and his life and writings
require a volume worthily to review them:
he is believed to have died at Rome, a
martyr for Christ, A.D. 67, by order of
the monster Nero, the Roman emperor.
PAUL, THE EPISTLES OF.
Epistle. Where written. For whose use. Date
1. Thessalonians I. Corinth. Gentile Christians . . . . 52 2. Thessalonians II. Do. Do. Do. .. 52 3. Galatians. Do. Do. Do. .. 53 4. Corinthians [I]. Ephesus. Do. Do. .. 57 5. Romans. Corinth. Do. Do. .. 58 6. Corinthians II. Macedonia. Do. Do. .. 60 7. Ephesians. Rome. Do. Do. .. 63 8. Philippians. Do. Do. Do. .. 63 9. Colossians. Do. Do. Do. .. 63 10. Philemon. Do. Philemon of Colosse . . . 62 11. Hebrews. Italy. Hebrew Christians . . . 63 12. Timothy I. Macedonia. Timothy the Evangelist . . 65 13. Titus. Do. Titus the Evangelist . . . 65 14. Timothy II. Rome. Timothy the Evangelist . . 66 PAU'LUS, Παυλος, the Latin form of the
name Paul, the name of a Roman deputy
of Cyprus, Acts 13:7. See PAUL, and
PAVED, laid with brick or flag-stone,
as the floor of a court or hall, Exod.
PAVEMENT, the paved floor of a court,
2 Kings 16:17; 2 Chron. 7:3. The
floors of oriental princes were paved with
the most costly marble or painted tiles,
PAVEMENT, a court hall at Jerusalem;
so called on account of its beautiful floor
of tesselated pavement, John 19:13.
PAVILION, a splendid tent, as of a
king, 1 Kings 20:12; Jer. 43:10: the
gracious protection of God, Psal. 27:
PAW, the foot of a beast, 1 Sam. 17:
PAWETH, striking the feet as beasts,
PAY, to recompense as by the price of
anything, Exod. 21:19, 22, 36: to give
tribute or toll, Ezra 4:13: to discharge
debts, Matt. 18:25-34: to fulfil a pro-
mise or vow, Deut. 23:21.
PAYMENT, the discharge of a debt,
PEACE, quietness or stillness; in a
nation, it is public tranquillity, Lev. 26:
6: between kings, it is a respite from
war, with friendly relations, 1 Kings 5:
12: in a family, it is harmony and love,
Judg. 19:20: in a church, it is union of
sentiment and affection, 2 Cor. 13:11.
Peace in the soul is a fruit of the Holy
Spirit, relieving the conscience of the
true believer from guilt, and inspiring
him with assurance of the favour of God,
forgiveness of all sin, and hope of eternal
glory through the propitiation of Christ,
Gal. 5:22; Rom. 5:1-3. Peace, as desired
for the churches by the apostle in his
epistles, means the possession of all
spiritual consolations, Rom. 1:7; Col. 1:2.
"Christ is our peace," as He has made
peace by the blood of His cross, Eph. 2:
14-17, and given that blessing as a legacy
to all believers, John 14:27.
PEACEABLE, harmless, inoffensive, 1
Tim. 2:2; Jam. 3:17: quiet, Isa. 32:
PEACEABLY, in a friendly manner, Gen.
37:4: without contention, Judg. 11:
PEACEMAKER, one who reconciles per-
sons alienated by differences, as between
friends or neighbours, Matt. 5:9.
PEACOCK, a large fowl, eminent for
the beauty of its feathers: it is a native
of India, and it formed an article of com-
merce in the days of Solomon, 1 Kings
PEARL, a beautiful gem generated in
a species of oyster, found especially in
the Indian seas, on the coast of Scotland,
and the gulf of Mexico. The finest
pearls are found near Baharen, in Arabia
Felix, in the Persian gulf: they are
roundish, with a rich polished gloss, white
with an elegant blush of red: some are
of great value. A sceptre in the British
regalia is tipped with a pearl that was
once pawned to Holland for L18,000:
Philip II. of Spain had one valued at
144,000 ducats, or L34,900. Cleopatra,
queen of Egypt, had one estimated at
L80,000; and the Persian emperor is
said to possess a pearl worth L100,000.
Job 28:18; Matt. 13:45, 46; Rev.
21:21. To "cast pearls before swine,"
is to offer the precious doctrines and pro-
mises of the gospel to profane scoffers at
religion, Matt. 7:6. Divine truth in
the gospel is the pearl of great price,
13:46; and the gates of the celestial
city are represented as formed of inesti-
mable pearls, Rev. 21:21.
PECULIAR, special, Exod. 19:5: spe-
cially devoted, Tit. 2:14; 1 Pet. 2:9.
PED'AHZUR, [h] (saviour, or stone of
redemption), a prince of Manasseh, Num.
1:10; 2:20; 7:54.
PED'AHEL, [h] (redemption of God), a
prince of Naphtali, and commissioner
for dividing Canaan, Num. 32:28.
PADAI'AH, [h] (redemption of the Lord),
the maternal grandfather of king Jehoi-
akim, 2 Kings 23:36.
PEDAIAH, a son of king Jeconiah, 1
Chron. 3:18, 19.
PEDIGREE, genealogy, family descent,
PEELED, stripped of property or cloth-
ing, as a tree of its bark, Isa. 18:2;
PEEP, to look with affected wisdom, as
the ancient soothsayers did, Isa. 8:19.
PE'KAH, [h] (he that opens the eye, or that
is at liberty), a wicked king of Israel: he
had been Pekahiah's general before he
slew his royal master, and usurped the
throne, 2 Kings 15:25-38.
PEKAHI'AH, [h] (the Lord that opens), a
wicked king of Israel, who was murdered
after a reign of two years, 2 Kings 15:
PELAI'AH, (miracle, mystery, or secret
of the Lord), a principal Levite at the
return from Babylon, Neh. 8:7; 10:10.
PELATI'AH, [h] (let the Lord deliver),
a Simeonite captain, 1 Chron. 4:42,
PELATIAH, a prince of Judah, who
opposed the counsel of Jeremiah, Jer.
36:14; Ezek. 11:1, 13.
PE'LEG, [h] (division), one of the patri-
archs, so named as he lived in the time
of the confusion of languages at Babel,
and the division of the families, Gen. 10:
PE'LETHITES, [h] (judges or destroyers),
royal messengers or guards of David,
2 Sam. 8:18, as the Cherethites were
the royal executioners. See CHERE-
PELICAN, a large aquatic voracious
bird, measuring nearly six feet from
its bill to its tail, and from ten to twelve
in the expanse of its wings: it lives
upon fish, which it preserves for a time
in a pouch under its bill, so large as to
contain from two to three gallons of
water; the rosy colour of its breast
feathers occasioned the fable of the peli-
can feeding its young with its own blood.
Its solitary life is alluded to by the
Psalmist, Psal. 102:6; Lev. 11:18.
PEN, an instrument for writing, as
pointed iron, a reed, or a quill, Job 19:
24; Isa. 8:1; Judg. 5:14. Writing
materials in the early ages were mostly
hard substances, as stone, or metallic
plates, which required an "iron pen," or
rather a graving tool, as represented by
the prophet, Jer. 17:1: wax tablets
required a stylus of metal, having one
end pointed for tracing the letters, and
the other for smoothing the surface,
flattened and broad. The natives of
Ceylon use a copper stylus several inches
long, in their writing on the leaves of
trees. The reed pen is still used by the
Arabs, Persians, Syrians, Abyssinians,
and other orientals.
PENCE, pennies, Luke 7:41; 10:35.
PENI'EL, [h] or PENUEL (vision of
God, or face of God), a place east of Jordan,
near the brook Jabbok, where Jacob saw
a vision of God, and prevailed in prayer
for the Divine blessing, and had his name
changed to Israel, Gen. 32:22-31.
PENIN'NAH, [h] (pearl or precious stone),
one of the wives of Elkanah, a woman of
a vain and haughty spirit, 1 Sam. 1:2-6.
PENKNIFE, a small knife to cut pens,
PENNY, a Roman denarius, or Greek
drachma, a coin worth about seven pence
halfpenny sterling, Matt. 20:2, 13.
Three hundred pence would, therefore, be
L9. 7s. 6d., John 12:2-5.
PENNYWORTH, the value of a penny:
two hundred pennyworth would be equal
to L6. 5s., Mark 6:37.
PEN'TECOST, Πεντηκοστη (the fiftieth), a
Greek name to the national festival of
the Israelites, called the feast of weeks,
held the fiftieth day after the second day
of the passover, in thanksgiving for the
blessings of harvest, and in grateful com-
memoration of deliverance from Egyp-
tian slavery, Lev. 23:15-21; Deut. 16:
9-12. At this memorable Jewish festival,
the apostles of Christ were qualified to
execute their evangelical commission,
they being enabled to understand the
Scriptures, and to preach in all languages,
by the miraculous endowments of the
gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit, Acts
2:1; Eph. 4:8-12. Learned men have
observed, that it was the anniversary of
the giving of the law to Israel on Sinai,
PENUEL. See PENIEL. PENURY, poverty, Prov. 14:23; Luke
PEOPLE, a nation, Gen. 48:19; Exod.
6:7: the inhabitants of a town or coun-
try, Gen. 19:4; 41:40: the ignorant
inhabitants, Luke 23:14: irrational
creatures of remarkable instinct, Prov.
PE'OR, [h] (hole or opening), a place in
the country of Moab, where many Israel-
ites were seduced to idolatry and various
wickedness, by the atrocious counsel of
Balaam, Num. 23:28; 25:1, 18.
PERADVENTURE, if, Gen. 18:24-32:
perhaps, Rom. 5:7.
PERCEIVE, to understand, Deut. 29:
4: to discover, 2 Sam. 19:6; 1 John 3:16.
PERCEIVED, discovered, Judg. 6:22;
Acts 4:13; 23:6.
PERCEIVING, observing, Mark 12:28:
discovering, Acts 14:9.
PERDITION, utter ruin, Rev. 17:8-11:
everlasting condemnation or damnation,
2 Pet. 3:7.
- PERDITION. See Hell.
PERDITION, SON OF, a title given to
Judas Iscariot, on account of his awful
crimes, John 17:12.
PE'RES, [h] (he is divided), the singular
of the word Pharsin, one of the myste-
rious words which doomed the wicked
Belshazzar. The letter "U" is a prefix,
answering to the English word "and,"
Dan. 5:28. See UPHARSIN.
PERFECT, full and correct, as weights
or measures, according to the standard,
Deut. 18:13: pure, as gold without
alloy, 2 Chron. 4:21: without blemish,
as an animal for sacrifice, Lev. 22:21:
complete, as full information, Luke 1:3:
upright with God and blameless with
men, as a religious person, Gen. 6:9,
Job 8:20: mature, as advanced Chris-
tians, 1 Cor. 2:6; Eph. 4:13: knowledge
and holiness without defect, as desired
by Paul, Phil. 3:18: infinite in all ex-
cellences, as God, whom we should
imitate, Matt. 5:48.
PERFECT, to complete, as in holiness,
preservation, and salvation in Heaven,
PERFECTED, completed, as a building,
2 Chron. 8:16; 24:13: as the work
of our Saviour's ministry, Luke 13:32:
as the work of redemption by the sacri-
fice of Christ, Heb. 10:14.
PERFECTING, completing, as perse-
vering in holiness, 2 Cor. 7:1; Eph. 4:12.
PERFECTION, maturity, as of corn
grown from seeds, Luke 8:14: or of
knowledge and holiness in Christians,
2 Cor. 13:9; Heb. 6:1: absolute com-
pleteness, Job 11:7: worldly riches and
pleasures, Psal. 119:96.
PERFECTLY, completely, Matt. 14:36:
assuredly, 1 Thess. 5:1, 12.
PERFECTNESS, completeness, Col. 3:
PERFORM, to fulfil, as work, or duty,
Num. 4:23: as a promise, Gen. 26:3;
Deut. 4:13; Matt. 5:21; Rom. 4:21.
PERFORMANCE, fulfilment, Luke 1:45. PERFORMED, executed, 1 Sam. 15:11:
fulfilled, Luke 1:20.
PERFORMING, fulfilling, Num. 15:3. PERFUME, a preparation of spices,
compounded to give a strong scent:
useful in destroying injurious effluvia:
Moses prescribed two kinds, one for
anointing oil, Exod. 30:23-32, and the
other for incense, ver. 34-38.
PERFUMED, scented, Prov. 7:17, es-
pecially honoured with precious oint-
ments or spices, Dan. 2:46; Luke 7:
37-46; John 12:3.
PER'GA, [g] (very earthy), a city of
Pamphylia on the river Caystrus, near to
which was a famous temple of Diana,
Acts 13:14; 14:25.
PER'GAMOS, [g] (height or elevation),
a city of Asia Minor, famed for a temple
to Esculapius, as the god of medicine,
and for a library of 200,000 volumes, col-
lected by its king, Attalus. Pergamos is
chiefly noted for its having one of the
seven Christian churches to whom John
addressed his epistles, Rev. 1:11; 2:12.
This city is still a place of note, called
Bergamo; having about 15,000 inhabit-
ants, of whom not 2000 are professors of
PERHAPS, possibly, Acts 8:22: it
may be, 2 Cor. 2:7.
PERIL, great danger, Lam. 5:9; 2 Cor.
PERILOUS, dangerous, 2 Tim. 3:1. PERISH, to be destroyed, Exod. 21:
26; 2 Kings 9:8: to die, 1 Sam. 26:
10: to be damned, 1 Cor. 1:18; 2 Cor. 2:15.
PERISHED, destroyed, Num. 16:33:
become [ruined], 1 Cor. 15:18 [apollumi].
PERISHING, being destroyed, Job 33:
PER'IZZITES, [h] (dwellers in villages),
a tribe of the ancient Canaanites, Gen.
13:7; 15:20; Judg. 3:5. Some of this
people remained till the time of Solomon,
2 Chron. 8:7.
PERJURED, foresworn, 1 Tim. 1:10. PERMISSION, liberty granted, 1 Cor.
PERMIT, to allow without a command,
1 Cor. 16:7; Heb. 5:3.
PERMITTED, allowed, Acts 26:1:
customary, 1 Cor. 14:34.
PERNICIOUS, destructive, 2 Pet. 2:2. PERPETUAL, enduring to the end of
time, Gen. 9:12: during a dispensation,
Exod. 29:9; 30:8: a period decreed,
PERPETUALLY, constantly, 1 Kings 9:
PERPLEXED, agitated with conflicting
anxieties, Est. 3:15; Luke 9:7.
PERPLEXITY, anxiety of mind, Isa.
22:5; Luke 21:25.
PERSECUTE, to pursue with threaten-
ing, to distress, Job 19:22; Psal. 32:
3; Matt. 5:11.
PERSECUTED, did threaten and injure,
Acts 7:52; Gal. 1:13: did distress, Deut.
30:7: did provoke, Gal. 4:29.
PERSECUTING, injuring, destroying,
PERSECUTION, injury by severities or
privations, especially on account of reli-
gion, Acts 8:1; 2 Tim. 2:12. The
Acts of the Apostles and Church History
generally, detail the persecutions endured
- PERSECUTION of Bible-believers.
See "The Trail of Blood". . . .
PERSECUTORS, enemies of the godly,
seeking their injury, Jer. 15:15; Lam.
PERSEVERANCE, constancy in progress,
PER'SIA, [h] (that cuts or divides, or a
horseman), a large country of Asia, origi-
nally called Elam, from a son of Shem,
Gen. 10:22; 14:1. It was bounded on
the east by the river Indus, on the north
by Media, on the west by Assyria, and
on the south by the Persian gulf and
Arabian sea. Cyrus, the conqueror of
Babylon, raised Persia to its highest
glory, and gave freedom to the Jews,
2 Chron. 37:20-23. Persia was con-
quered by Alexander the Great, Dan.
8:20, 21; 11:2, and various has been
its subsequent history: it now is a feeble
monarchy, whose sovereign is called
Shah, or Sophi; and the established
religion is the Moh_mmedan, of a pecu-
liar sect, differing from that called ortho-
dox by the Turks.
- Persian New Testament. See Ministry.
PERSIANS, the people of Persia, Dan.
PERSIS, a Persian, a zealous matron of
the Christian church at Rome, Rom. 16:
PERSON, a particular individual, Gen.
14:21; 1 Sam. 9:2: rank or condition
of any one, Luke 20:21; Acts 10:34:
name or authority, 2 Cor. 2:10.
PERSUADE, to influence, 1 Kings 22:
20-22; Matt. 28:14.
PERSUADED, did persuade, 2 Chron.
18:2: did exhort, Acts 13:43.
PERSUADED, influenced, Acts 19:2:
convinced, Luke 16:31; 20:6: assured,
2 Tim. 1:12.
PERSUADING, exhorting, Acts 19:8;
PERSUASION, opinion, Gal. 5:8. PERTAIN, to belong, 2 Pet. 1:3; Heb.
PERTAINED, belonged, Num. 31:43. PERTAINING, relating, Acts 1:3; Heb.
PERVERSE, stubborn, obstinate in
wrong, Num. 22:32.
PERVERSELY, spitefully, 2 Sam. 19:
PERVERSENESS, obstinate wickedness,
PERVERT, to corrupt, Exod. 23:8;
Deut. 27:19; Gal. 1:7.
PERVERTED, violated or corrupted, 1
PESTILENCE, the plague, a contagious
disorder, still common in Asia and Africa,
Exod. 5:3; 9:15; 2 Sam. 24:13-15.
PESTILENT, malignant or destructive,
PESTLE, an instrument to bruise in a
mortar, Prov. 27:22.
PE'TER, Πετρος (a stone). Cephas
or Peter is the surname given by our
Saviour to His apostle Simon. Before
his call to the ministry he was a fisher-
man of Bethsaida, John 1:42-44. Peter
was a man of peculiar energy of mind;
and although, as a fisherman, his manners
were coarse and his language profane, as
is concluded from his behaviour when
tempted to deny his Lord, Mark 26:
74, he became renovated in heart and
life, and enjoyed the special regard of
Christ; and his character and labours
beautifully illustrate the power and holi-
ness of Christianity, Acts 1:15; 3. 4. 5.
8. 10. 12. Rom. Cat.s say that
Peter was the first bis. of Rome, and
resided there for twenty-five years, until
his martyrdom under Nero, about A.D.
65 or 66. Peter was the "apostle of the
circumcision," and no evidence is found
in Scripture that he ever was at Rome,
much less a Christian pastor in that city,
and no historical evidence exists of Peter
being bishop of the Christians at Rome.
- PETER. See THE TWELVE.
PETER, FIRST EPISTLE OF: this epis-
tle appears to have been written about
A.D. 64, to the Jewish Christians, who
had been scattered by persecution, and
designed for their instruction in the pre-
cious doctrines of the gospel, consoling
them with the prospect of a glorious
immortality, and animating them in the
practice of every virtue, as the redeemed
children of God. See Commentary.
PETER, SECOND EPISTLE OF: this was
addressed to the same persons as the
first epistle, and written about a year
after it, when Peter was anticipating
martyrdom: it urges believers to main-
tain the doctrines of Christ against false
teachers, and to adorn their holy profes-
sion, in the prospect of witnessing dis-
solving nature at the awful manifestation
of God our Saviour. See Commentary.
PE'THOR, [h] (a divine oracle), the
residence of the false prophet Balaam,
near the river Euphrates, Num. 22:5;
PETITION, a prayer, 1 Sam. 1:17-27;
1 John 5:15: a request, 1 Kings 2:16-20.
PHAL'LU, [h] (admirable or hidden), a
son of Reuben, and head of a family in
Israel, Gen. 46:9; Num. 26:5.
PHAL'TI, [h] (deliverance or flight), a
courtier to whom king Saul had married
his daughter Michal, after he had taken
her from David, her husband, 1 Sam. 25:
44; 2 Sam. 3:15.
PHA'NUEL, [g] (face or vision of
God), the father of the pious widow and
prophetess Anna, Luke 2:36.
PHA'RAOH, [h] (the revenger, the de-
stroyer, the king, or the crocodile), in the
Syriac, a common name of the kings of
Egypt; but originally an Egyptian word
for king, as king Hophra, Jer. 44:30:
several of this name are mentioned in
1. PHARAOH who reigned when Abra-
ham went down into Egypt, Gen. 12:
2. PHARAOH who honoured Joseph as
the preserver and father of Egypt, Gen.
3. PHARAOH, probably Ramses, who
oppressed the Israelites at the birth of
Moses, Exod. 1. 2.
4. PHARAOH, probably Amenophis, who,
after being compelled to allow the Israel-
ites to leave Egypt, perished in the Red
sea, Exod. 3. 15.: it is almost certain
that this was another Pharaoh, as his
death happened when Moses was eighty
years of age, Acts 7:23; Deut. 34:7.
5. PHARAOH, who protected Hadad
the Edomite, in the early part of the
reign of David, 1 Kings 11:19-21; 2 Sam.
6. PHARAOH, probably Vaphres, [or]
Osochos, who gave his daughter in mar-
riage to king Solomon, 1 Kings 3:1; 9:
7. PHARAOH SHISHAK, who besieged
Jerusalem, and pillaged the temple of
Solomon, in the fifth year of Rehoboam,
1 Kings 11:40; 14:25; 2 Chron. 12:
8. PHARAOH SO, who was in alliance
with Hoshea, king of Israel, 2 Kings
9. PHARAOH TIRHAKAH, who was in
alliance with king Hezekiah, 2 Kings
18:21; Isa. 37:9.
10. PHARAOH NECHO, who slew king
Josiah, 2 Kings 23:29-35; 2 Chron.
11. PHARAOH HOPHRA, who entered
into an alliance with Zedekiah, king of
Judah, against Nebuchadnezzar, Jer.
44:30; Ezek. 29.; 30.; 31.; 32.
PHA'REZ, [h] (breach or rupture), a son
of Judah by Tamar, the twin brother of
Zarah, Gen. 38:29.
PHARISEES, a denomination which
formed one of the two principal sects in
religion, into which the Jews were divided
in the time of our Saviour, Acts 23:
5-9: they were the chief body of the
Jewish professors for more than a century
before the birth of Christ: they derived
their name from [h] perushim, or sepa-
rated from others; and were remarkably
precise in their observance of ceremo-
nies, especially those prescribed by the
elders in their traditions, generally re-
garding their precepts more than the Di-
vine institutions in the Scriptures. They
were proud, therefore, of their religious
attainments, supposing that they merited
the favour of God, haughtily despising
the common people, as ignorant and ac-
cursed. They deluded the people by their
pretences to sanctity and their corrupt
interpretation of the Scriptures: hence
our Lord manifested remarkable severity
in his denunciation against the Pharisees,
as full of hypocrisy and awfully guilty,
less likely than the publicans and harlots
to enter the kingdom of God, Matt. 15:
1-14; 23:2; John 7:45-49.
PHAR'PAR, [h] (that produces fruit, or
the fall of a bull), a river of Damascus,
2 Kings 5:12. See ABANA.
PHE'BE, Φοιβη (shining, or pure), an
opulent matron at Cenchrea, Rom. 16:
1, 2. Some regard her as a "deaconess,"
appointed to attend to strangers and the
church's poor. "And such," Dr. Gill
remarks, "was this woman to the poor
saints at Cenchrea, not as being in such
office by the order and appointment of
the church, but what she took upon her-
self, and performed at her own expense,
which deserved much notice, as worthy
of commendation. The apostle partook
of her succour, which would hardly have
been the case had she been one that had
only the care of the poor sisters of the
church, which was the office of a dea-
coness, but she being a rich and generous
woman, and the apostle having shared in
her bounty, gratefully acknowledged it,
as knowing it would endear her to the
saints at Rome." Phebe appears to have
taken a journey to that metropolis of
the world on business, and to have been
intrusted with the "Epistle of the
Romans," an honour far greater than
that of any ambassador, carrying the
most important document to the noblest
city, from the most distinguished of the
PHENI'CE, [g] (red or purple), a har-
bour on the south-west of Crete, Acts
PHENI'CIA, [g], the territories of
Tyre and Sidon, a country on the eastern
shore of the Mediterranean sea, on the
north-west of Canaan, and south of Syria.
Tyre, Sidon, and Ptolemais, were its
principal cities, and the Phenicians are
celebrated for navigation and commerce,
Acts 15:3. A woman of this country is
called a Syro-phenician, as it had become
in her time a Roman colony of Syria,
Mark 7:24-26. See SYRO-PHENICIAN
PHILADEL'PHIA, Φιλαδελφια (love of a
brother), a city of Lydia, chiefly famous
as the site of one of the "seven churches
in Asia" Minor, addressed by the apostle
John, Rev. 1:11; 3:25. Philadelphia
still exists, called by the Turks All_h-
shehr, or the city of God: it has about
3000 houses, of which about 250 are occu-
pied by Greeks, who have five churches,
bearing the name of Christian, besides
twenty old or small ones, which are not
used: it is the seat of a Greek arch-
bishop, with about twenty inferior clergy.
PHI'CHOL, [h] (the mouth of all), the
chief general of king Abimelech, Gen.
PHILE'MON, Φιλημων (that kisses, or is
affectionate), a citizen of note at Colosse,
and an [important] Christian, at whose house
the church assembled for worship, Phil.
2. Philemon held office in the church
as a deacon or bishop, with Archippus
and Epaphras, Col. 1:7; 4:17; Phil. 1, 2.
PHILEMON, THE EPISTLE TO: this
was addressed by Paul to Philemon, on
the return of Onesimus his slave, who
had absconded from him, and by the
apostle's ministry had been converted at
Rome: it has always been admired as a
fine specimen of Christian letter-writing.
PHILE'TUS, Φιλητος (amiable or beloved),
a professor of Christianity of some note,
probably a teacher, who had corrupted
the doctrine of the resurrection, 2 Tim.
PHIL'IP, Φιλιππος (a lover of a horse), an
apostle of Christ, John 1:43-45: although
there is but little recorded of Philip, he
appears to have been a man of great
piety and modesty, Matt. 10:3; John 12:
21, 22; 14:9.
- PHILIP. See THE TWELVE.
PHILIP, one of the seven Grecian
deacons in the church at Jerusalem, Acts
6:5: he became an [important] preacher of
the gospel after the persecution about
Stephen, 8:1, 5, 13, 26; and hence he
was known as "the Evangelist," residing
chiefly at Cesarea, ver. 40, 21:8.
PHILIP, a son of Herod the Great, by
his wife Cleopatra. On the death of his
father he became tetrarch of Iturea and
Trachonitis, Luke 3:1. He married
Salome, the daughter of Herodias, who
procured the murder of John, Matt. 14:
PHILIP, or HEROD, as he is called by
Josephus, was also son of Herod the
Great by his wife Mariamne, and the
husband of Herodias: but living in retire-
ment, he was abandoned by his wicked
wife, she being ambitious of the crown
and the palace of Herod Antipas, Matt.
PHILIP'PI, Φιλιπποι, a city of Macedo-
nia, and a Roman colony: its original
name was Dathos, but changed after
being enlarged by Philip, father of Alex-
ander the Great: it was seventy miles
from Thessalonica, and famous for the
defeat of the Roman generals Brutus
and Cassius, when struggling for liberty
against Octavius and Antony, but still
more so for its Christian church, the
fruit of the ministry of the apostle Paul,
Acts 16:12, 40.
PHILIPPIANS, THE EPISTLE TO: this
epistle was written by Paul in return
for the contribution of the church at
Philippi, sent to him while a prisoner at
Rome: it was designed to establish the
saints in their belief of the sublime and
saving doctrines of Christ, to guard them
against the error of false teachers, and
to encourage them in all holiness of life.
PHILIS'TIA, [h] or PALESTINE, the
southern part of Canaan along the east
coast of the Mediterranean, from Joppa
to the border of Egypt: their principal
cities were Ashdod, Gaza, Askelon, Gath,
and Ekron, Psal. 60:8; 87:4; 108:
9; 1 Sam. 6:17. See PALESTINE.
- Philistia, the Land of Israel.
PHILIS'TINES, [h] (dwellers in villa-
ges), a famous people of Canaan, descended
from Mizraim, by his son Casluhim,
after they had colonized Egypt, Gen. 10:
13, 14: they were a powerful people in
the time of Abraham, Gen. 21:34; and
under five lords of their chief cities,
Josh. 13:2, 3, they maintained their
position to the time of Saul and David,
1 Sam. 4. 5. 6. 19.; 2 Sam. 5:17-25, and
continued a distinct people until the time
of Alexander the Great.
PHILOSOPHERS, lovers of wisdom: this
is the proper meaning of the word, but
it is applied by Luke to certain men who
made such a profession at Athens, who
yet opposed the apostle Paul in preaching
the doctrines of Christianity. There
were various sects of philosophers among
the Greeks, some of whom are mentioned
in the New Testament as Epicureans and
Stoics, Acts 17:18.
PHILOSOPHY, the love of wisdom.
Paul admonishes the Colossian Christians,
"Beware lest any man spoil you through
philosophy," Col. 2:8: but he meant that
of the popular philosophers of Greece,
who inculcated the most absurd, contra-
dictory, and pernicious doctrines under
this ven. name. Pagan philosophy,
as taught by those proud professors of
wisdom, is affectingly illustrated by the
apostle in his Epistles to the Romans
and the Corinthians, Rom. 1:18-25; 1 Cor.
1:18-25. Philosophy, in reality, embraces
every science which can enrich and
ennoble the human mind: that branch
which relates to God is called Theology;
that which regards the external world is
called Physics, or Natural Philosophy;
that which contemplates men, regards,
either the mind, and is called Mental or
Intellectual Philosophy, including Logic;
and that which relates to manners or
human duty, Moral Philosophy.
- Philosophy, Pagan. See Humanism.
PHILOL'OGUS, Φιλολογος (a lover of the
word or of learning), a Christian in the
Roman church, Rom. 16:15.
PHIN'EHAS, [h] (a bold countenance, or
face of protection), a son of Eleazar the
son of Aaron, Exod. 6:25: he was an
upright man and zealous for God, and
succeeded his father, as the third high-
priest of Israel, Num. 25:11; Judg. 20:
PHINEHAS, one of the wicked sons of
Eli, the high-priest, 1 Sam. 1:3; 2:34.
PHLE'GON, Φλεγων (zealous or burning),
a Christian at Rome, Rom. 16:14.
PHRYG'IA, Φρυγια (dry or barren), the
largest province, and in the centre, of
Asia Minor, having Bythinia and Gala-
tia on the north, Cappadocia on the east,
Lysia, Pisidia, and Isauria, on the south,
and Mysia, Lydia, and Caria, on the west.
Colosse, Hierapolis, and Laodicea, were
its chief cities, Acts 16:6; 18:23.
PHU'RAH, [h] (that bears fruit), the ser-
vant of Gideon, Judg. 7:10, 11.
PHUT, [h] (prayer, or big, or fat), the
third son of Ham, Gen. 10:6.
PHY'GELLUS, [g] (fugitive), a pro-
fessed convert to Christianity, who for-
sook the apostle Paul, 2 Tim. 1:15.
PHYLACTERIES, things to be observed:
they were texts of Scriptures written on
slips of parchment, to be worn on the
hem of the garment, on the forehead, or
on the arm: those for the latter were
rolled up in a case or box: the custom
was founded on the language of Moses,
Exod. 13:9, 16; Num. 15:37, 40; which
enjoins an intimate practical acquaint-
ance with the law of God. The texts
commonly used were, Exod. 13:8, 9, 14,
16; Num. 15:41; Deut. 6:6, 9; 11:18,
21. Our Lord censures the hypocritical
Pharisees for their vain glory in their
phylacteries, Matt. 23:5. See FRONT-
PHYSICIAN, one who professes the art
of healing, Matt. 9:12; Mark 5:26: an
embalmer of dead bodies, Gen. 50:2: a
teacher of divine doctrine to heal the
mind, Job 13:40. Christ is the great
Physician of body and soul, Mark 2:17.
PICK, to peck or eat slowly, Prov. 30:
PICTURES, paintings, Isa. 2:16: those
of the Canaanites were to be destroyed,
being used to support idolatry, Num.
PIECE, a part, Gen. 15:10-17: a piece
of silver was a shekel, Matt. 17:27: a
piece of bread denotes a trifling advan-
tage, Gen. 37:28; 1 Sam. 2:36.
PIERCE, to bore through, Judg. 5:26:
to pain extremely, Luke 2:35; 1 Tim. 6:
PIERCED, did pierce, John 19:34:
pained with guilt and care, 1 Tim. 6:10.
PIERCING, stinging or biting, Isa.
27:1: penetrating, Heb. 4:12.
PIETY, filial duty in the fear of God,
1 Tim. 5:4.
PIGEON, a name for birds of the
Columbidæ, or dove family, of which
there are many species: the turtle-dove
is especially remarkable in every country,
Gen. 15:9; Lev. 1:14; 5:7.
PI-HAHI'ROTH, [h] (the mouth of
liberty, or the pass of Hiroth), the place at
which the Israelites encamped to march
across the Red sea, Exod. 14:2; Num.
PI'LATE, [g] (who is armed with a
dart), the Roman governor of Judea,
who basely ordered the crucifixion of
Christ, to satisfy the malignity of the
Jews, Luke 3:1; John 19:8-19; Acts
3:13. Pilate had been governor of
Judea about four years: he is not again
mentioned in the Scriptures, but history
records his terminating his own life in
exile, after a series of wickedness and
miseries, which indicate the retribution
PILE, a heap, Isa. 30:33. PILGRIMAGE, a religious journey; the
course of our present life in the service
of God: Jacob spake thus of his own
life and of his fathers', Gen. 47:9:
such was that of the patriarchs, Exod.
PILGRIMS, travellers to a sacred place;
as the pious patriarchs confessed them-
selves in seeking the heavenly country
graciously promised of God, Heb. 11:13.
PILLAR, a prop to support the roof of
a house, Judg. 16:25, 29: a monumental
memorial, Gen. 35:20; 2 Sam. 18:
18: an influential person in a society, as
a prophet, Jer. 1:18: an apostle, Gal. 2:
9: the [N.T.] church, in holding forth the ex-
clusive authority of the Scriptures, 1 Tim.
PILLAR OF SALT: Lot's wife became
a pillar of salt, at the overthrow of
Sodom, when God "rained... brimstone
and fire...out of heaven[,]" Gen. 19:[24-25], 26.
It appears that she, looking back upon
the devoted city with a lingering desire
to return, was struck dead with the
lightning, and stiffened in the place
where she stood. See SALT.
PILLED, peeled or stripped, as bark
from a tree, Gen. 30:37.
PILLOW, a cushion on which to rest
the head for sleeping, Mark 4:38; 1
Sam. 19:13: an instrument of deceitful
repose, Ezek. 13:18-30.
PILOT, the director of a ship's course[,]
PIN, a small wire peg used in dressing,
or in fastening curtains, Judg. 16:14;
PINE, to waste, as by want, sorrow, or
sickness, Lev. 26:39; Lam. 4:9.
PINE, the pine-tree, Neh. 8:15. PINE-TREE, a species of the fir, lofty
and beautiful in appearance, Isa. 41: 19;
PINING, wasting or consuming, Isa.
PINNACLE, a turret or decorated point
on the top of a building: the pinnacle
of the temple was the exceedingly lofty
embattled roof of Solomon's porch, Matt.
PI'NON, [h] (pearl or gem), an Arab
chief, descended from Esau, Gen. 36:
PIPE, a tube for the conveyance of
water or oil, Zech. 4:2, 12: a musical
instrument formed from a tube, 1 Cor.
14:7; 1 Kings 1:40.
PIPED, did pipe or play music with
pipes, 1 Kings 1:10.
PIPER, a musician using a pipe, as the
instrument of his music, Rev. 18:22.
PI'RAM, [h] (wild asses, or fierceness),
a king of Jarmuth overcome by Joshua,
Josh. 10:3, 24, 26.
PIS'GAH, [h] (eminence or fortress), the
highest point of mount Nebo, from which
Balaam beheld Israel, Num. 23:14,
and Moses viewed the land of Canaan,
Deut. 3:27; 34:1.
PISI'DIA, [g] (pitch or pitchy), a
province of Asia Minor, having Phrygia
on the east and north, Lydia and Caria
on the west, and Pamphylia on the
south; its chief city was Antioch, Acts
13:14: it is now called Natolia.
PI'SON, [h] (extension of the mouth), one
of the four rivers of Eden: some regard
it as a branch of the existing Euphrates,
which bounds Havilah in Arabia, Gen.
PIT, a hole in the ground, Exod. 21:
31: the grave, Psal. 28:1: distress,
42:2: Hell, Rev. 20:1.
- Pit, Rev. 9:1, 2. See Hell.
PITCH, bitumen, a combustible mine-
ral tar, Gen. 6:16: in its liquid state it
is called naphtha, when viscid, petroleum,
and when hard, asphaltam. The Greeks
call it asphaltos; hence the name of
Asphaltites given to the sea of Sodom,
on account of abundance of it floating
on its surface: pits of it were found
near to Sodom and in Shinar; but the
word is rendered slime, Gen. 11:3; 14:
10. This production was used by the
builders of Babel, and large masses have
been found in the ruins of Babylon: it
is now used in boat-building and in
careening ships by the Arabs.
PITCH, to plaster or cover with slime
or pitch, Gen. 6:14; Exod. 2:3: to fix or
fasten, as a tent, Isa. 13:20: to settle,
as in a camp, Num. 1:52.
PITCHED, did fix, as a tent, Gen. 12:
8; or a camp, Exod. 17:1.
PITCHER, an earthen vessel for water,
Gen. 24:15, 45: the vena cava supe-
rior, one of the two great veins, which
bring back the blood into the auricle of
the heart, Eccles. 12:6.
PI'THOM, [h] (their mouth, or dilation
of the mouth), a store city of Egypt, built
by the captive Israelites, Exod. 1:11.
PI'THON, [h] (his mouth), a descendant
of king Saul, 1 Chron. 8:35.
PITIED, compassionated, Psal. 106:46. PITIFUL, compassionate, disposed to
show mercy, Lam. 4:10.
PITY, tender sympathy with those in
distress, Deut. 7:16; Job 19:21.
PITY, to compassionate those in dis-
tress, Prov. 28:8.
PLACE, a spot of ground, Gen. 13:14;
Deut. 11:24: a habitation, Gen. 30:25:
a city or country, 18:24-26: situation
or office, 2 Chron. 30:16: opportunity
or advantage, Eph. 4:27: room or stead,
Gen. 50:19: entertainment, John 8:37:
a text, Acts 8:32.
PLACE, to appoint, Exod. 18:21: to
reveal, Isa. 46:13: to establish, Ezek.
PLAGUE, a pestilence, Num. 16:46-49:
a mortal disease, as the leprosy, Lev. 13:
PLAGUE, to distress or afflict, Psal.
PLAGUED, did plague or distress, Gen.
12:17; Josh. 24:35.
PLAIN, smooth or level, Isa. 40:4:
sincere or unostentatious, Gen. 25:27:
evident, Psal. 27:11: distinctly, Mark
PLAIN, a flat open country, Gen. 11:2:
plains are extensive tracts of meadow
land, sometimes near to rivers, especially
those on the banks of the Jordan, Gen.
13:10; Num. 22:1; 2 Kings 25:4.
PLAINLY, legibly, Deut. 27:8: ex-
plicitly, Exod. 21:5: evidently, Heb.
PLAINNESS, fulness of meaning, 2 Cor.
PLAISTER, a plaster, Isa. 38:21:
cement on a wall, Dan. 5:5.
PLAISTER, to cover, as walls with
cement, Lev. 14:42.
PLAISTERED, covered with plaster,
PLAITING, braiding, 1 Pet. 3:3. PLANES, carpenters' instruments for
smoothing articles of wood-work, Isa.
PLANETS, wandering stars, 2 Kings
23:5. See STARS.
PLANKS, thick boards, 1 Kings 6:15;
PLANT, a herb or tree, Gen. 2:5: a
sapling, Job 14:9: a form of religion,
PLANT, to set trees or herbs, Deut.
16:21: to locate, settle, or establish a
people, as Israel in Canaan, Exod. 15:
17; Psal. 44:2: to establish in a reli-
gious society, 2 Sam. 7:10: to establish
gospel privileges among a people, 1 Cor.
PLANTATION, land cultivated and
planted with trees, Ezek. 17:7.
PLANTED, did set in the ground, as
trees for a garden, Gen. 2:8, or vineyard,
PLANTED, set, as a tree in a garden,
Luke 13:6: established in religious
society, Rom. 6:5; Psal. 92:13.
PLANTING, fixing or establishing, as
in religious society, Isa. 60:21; 61:3.
PLAT, a piece of land, as a field, 2
PLATE, a piece of beaten metal, as
gold or silver, Exod. 28:36; Jer. 10:9.
PLATTED, weaved or braided, Matt.
PLATTER, a large earthen dish or
wooden trencher, Matt. 23:25.
PLAY, to sport or frolic, Exod. 32:
6: to act, 1 Sam. 21:15: to perform, as
on music, 1 Sam. 16:16, 17.
PLAYED, acted, 1 Sam. 26:21: per-
formed, as music, 2 Sam. 6:5.
PLAYER, one who plays, as on a musi-
cal instrument, 1 Sam. 16:16.
PLAYING, sporting, Zech. 8:5: per-
forming music, 1 Sam. 16:18.
PLEA, argument, or a cause in judg-
ment, Deut. 17:8.
PLEAD, to argue, Judg. 6:31, 32: to
reason, Isa. 43:26: to punish, Ezek.
PLEADED, did plead or defend, 1 Sam.
PLEADING, reasoning, Job 13:6. PLEASANT, agreeable, Gen. 2:9: beau-
tiful, 2 Kings 2:19: delightful, Psal.
PLEASANTNESS, what is delightful and
satisfying, Prov. 3:17.
PLEASE, to delight or to be agreeable,
according to the disposition of men: as,
to delight the benevolent, Gen. 45:16:
to satisfy the wise, Josh. 22:30: to
flatter the vain, Gal. 1:10: to gratify the
malignant, Acts 12:3. Christ, by His per-
fect obedience as our Mediator, pleased
the Father, John 8:29. Enoch, by
faith and uprightness in his service
pleased God, Heb. 11:5: liberality in his
people is well pleasing to God, 13:16.
PLEASED, did please or delight, Matt.
14:6; Acts 6:6: did flatter, Gal. 1:10.
PLEASED, delighted, 1 Sam. 18:20,
PLEASERS, those who court favour,
PLEASING, agreeable, Est. 8:5: ac-
ceptable or approved, 1 John 3:22.
PLEASURE, holy delight, Psal. 111:2:
worldly gratification, Eccles. 2:1: animal
[carnal] indulgence, 1 Tim. 5:6: authoritative
desire, Ezra 5:17: settled purpose, as
the decree of God, Isa. 46:10: free
choice, Est. 1:8. The pleasure of the
LORD prospering "in the hand of Mes-
siah," is the salvation of sinners, the
fruit of his redemption, Isa. 53:10.
PLEASURES, the holy and blissful satis-
factions of heaven, Psal. 16:11; 36:
8: sensual gratifications, 2 Tim. 3:4;
PLEDGE, a pawn, something taken as
security, Exod. 22:26; Job 34:3-9.
PLEIADES, a brilliant cluster of seven
stars appearing in the constellation Taurus,
Job 38:31; Amos 5:8: their "sweet
influences" indicate their appearance at
the opening season of spring in April.
PLENTEOUS, abundant, as harvest,
Gen. 41:34, 47. God is plenteous in
mercy, in regard to the magnitude of
guilt, and the number of objects par-
doned, Psal. 103:8.
PLENTEOUSNESS, abundance, Gen. 41:
PLENTIFULLY, abundantly, Luke 12:
PLENTY, abundance or fruitfulness,
PLOT, a mischievous device, Psal.
PLOUGH, an instrument to cut the
ground in preparing it for the seed,
Luke 9:62. To "look back" from the
plough would be injurious; so looking
back from any undertaking indicates
dislike or indecision; hence the pro-
verbial expression of our Lord relating
to half-hearted disciples being unfit for
the kingdom of God.
PLOW, to break up land with a plough,
Deut. 22:10: to plot or contrive, Job
PLOWED, laboured or practised, Judg.
14:18; Hos. 10:13: tormented, Psal.
PLOWING, labouring in the field with
the plough, 1 Kings 19:19.
PLOWMAN, the labourer who works at
the plough, Isa. 28:24.
PLOWSHARE, the iron cutting part of
the plough, Isa. 2:4.
PLUCK, to tear or pull with force, Lev.
1:16: to demolish, Jer. 12:14.
PLUCKED, did pluck or tear, Ezra 9:
3; 2 Sam. 23:21.
PLUCKED, torn, Gen. 8:11; Dan. 7:
PLUMB-LINE, a builder's line with a
weight upon it, used as a rule to try
the exactness of his work, Amos 7:7.
PLUMMET, the weight at the end of
a line for discovering depths, or the
perpendicularity of walls and pillars, 2
Kings 21:13; Zech. 4:10.
PLUNGE, to submerse or put suddenly
into water, Job 9:31.
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