Bible Dictionary: S. 1840
, Luke 1:77; Acts 4:12; Heb. 5:
- SABACTHA'NI, Σαβαχθανι, Chal. [h]
(thou hast forsaken me), uttered by our
Lord, when on the cross his human soul
was pierced with grief for our iniquities,
Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34; Isa. 53:10.
- SAB'AOTH, [g], [h] tzabaoth (host
or armies), Rom. 9:29; Jam. 5:4.
- SAB'BATH, שבת, σαββατον sabbaton
(rest from labour), the seventh day of
creation, on which God rested from His
work, and therefore sanctified it as a day
of rest for man, appointing it to be spent
in his worship: so it was observed by
the pious patriarchs to the time of Moses,
Gen. 2:2, 3; 4:3; Exod. 16:23-39.
God specially appointed it in the law at
Sinai, ordaining a double sacrifice on that
day, 20:10; Num. 28:9, 10: but in
Christianity, the sabbath is the first day
of the week, in commemorating of Christ
ceasing from suffering, by His resurrec-
tion, and it is therefore called the Lord's
day, Rev. 1:10. Christ distinguished this
day by many special appearances, Matt.
28:1-9; John 20:19-26; and it has
ever since been observed by Christians
as the sabbath, Acts 1:12; 2:2; 20:7; 1
- SABBATH, a sacred festival, as a day of
rest, Lev. 16:29-31: hence the festivals
of Israel were called Sabbaths, Exod.
31:13; Col. 2:16.
- SABBATH, the sabbatical or seventh
year, in which the land of Canaan was to
rest and lie uncultivated, to ensure the
blessing of God, Lev. 25:2, 20. The
second sabbath after the first was the
second of the sabbaths between the pass-
over and pentecost, Luke 6:1. Sabbath
day's journey was nearly about a mile,
- SABE'ANS, [h] sebayim (captivity), a
daring tribe of Arabs, descended from
Sheba or Seba, Job 1:15; Isa. 45:14;
- SAB'TAH, [h] (windings), the third son
of Cush, who peopled part of Arabia
Felix, Gen. 10:7.
- SAB'TECHA, [h] (that surrounds, or
causes wounding), the fifth son of Cush,
supposed to have peopled part of Arabia,
- SACKBUT, a musical instrument of the
Chaldeans, supposed to have had four
strings, though some think it was a kind
of pipe, but nothing certain is known of
its form, Dan. 3:5-15.
- SACK, a large bag, as for corn, Gen.
42:26; Josh. 9:4.
- SACKCLOTH, coarse cloth made of the
hair of horses, goats, or camels, used for
sacks, 1 Kings 20:31, 32; 21:27; or for
mourning garments, Gen. 37:34;
Est. 4:1, 2; Jon. 3:5-8. Sackcloth was
worn by some Nazarites and prophets, as
Elijah and John, 2 Kings 1:8; Matt. 3:
4: false prophets wore such garments as
the means of imposing on the people,
- SACRIFICE, an act of religious worship,
in which death was inflicted on a living
creature thus offered to God as an atone-
ment for sin, thus acknowledging the
claims of Divine justice to the forfeited
life of the transgressor. Animal sacri-
fices of atonement were the appointment
of God, to prefigure and teach the vicari-
ous sacrifice of Christ, as an all- sufficient
atonement for a guilty world: as such
sacrifices were offered in faith by Abel
and the pious patriarchs and Israelites,
until Jesus appeared once in the end of
the world, to put away sin by the sacri-
fice of Himself, Gen. 4:3, 4; Heb. 9:24,
26; 10:1, 12; 11:4. See OFFERING.
- SACRIFICE, an offering to God accord-
ing to his will, as works of love and
praise are called spiritual sacrifices, Heb.
13:15, 16; 1 Pet. 2:5.
- SACRIFICE, to perform the act of sacri-
ficing, Exod. 3:18; 20:24; 1 Kings 3:4.
- SACRILEGE, profanation of holy things,
or the crime of taking for private use or
profit, things devoted to religion, Rom.
- SAD, sorrowful, Gen. 40:6; Neh. 2:1-3;
- SADDLE, the seat placed upon a horse
or [donkey] for the rider, Lev. 15:9.
- SADDLE, to equip a horse or [donkey] for the
rider, Gen. 22:3; 1 Kings 13:13.
- SADDUCEES, Σαδδουκοι, one of the two
religious sects into which the Jews were
divided, so called from Sadoc or Zadoc,
a famous rabbi, who flourished nearly
three centuries before the advent of
Christ. The professed regard to the
five books of Moses, but disregarded the
other sacred books; and as their first
professors taught that all obedience to
God should be rendered without respect
to future rewards or punishments, those
in the apostolic age denied all idea of a
state after death, and even the existence
of angel or spirit. Sadducees, we find,
filled the most honourable offices in the
Jewish church, in its corrupt state, being
generally of the higher class of society;
they were fewer in number than the Pha-
risees, but equally with them the bitter
enemies of Christ and His apostles, Matt.
3:7; 16:1, 6-12; 22:23-24; Acts 4:1; 5:
- SADLY, sorrowfully, Gen. 40:7.
- SADNESS, sorrowfulness, Eccles. 7:3.
- SA'DOC, Σαδωκ (just or justified), a Jew
noted in the genealogy of Christ, Matt. 1:
- SAFE, free from harm, 2 Sam. 18:
29: in security, Isa. 5:29: beneficial,
- SAFEGUARD, security, 1 Sam. 22:23.
- SAFELY, securely, Prov. 1:33; 3:23.
- SAFETY, freedom from danger, Psal.
12:5: security, 1 Thess. 5:3: wisdom to
effect security or defence, Prov. 11:14.
- SAFFRON, an odoriferous plant, with a
bulbous root, producing a stalk bearing
a blue flower, enclosing three little yellow
threads, which druggists call saffron, Sol.
- SAID, did say, Gen. 2:23: reported, 10:
- SAIL, a large sheet of a ship at sea,
expanded to catch the wind, Ezek. 27:
7; Acts 27:17-40.
- SAIL, to travel by ship at sea, Acts 20:
- SAILORS, mariners, seamen, labourers
in a ship, Rev. 18:17.
- SAINT, a holy person, one [important] for
piety, Psal. 106:16; Phil. 4:21: an angel
of God, Dan. 8:13.
- SAINTS, signifying holy persons, is
applied to holy angels who minister before
God, Deut. 33:2; Jude 14: to the
spirits of just men with God, Rev. 18:
24: and commonly as the descriptive
title of true believers, they having been
regenerated and sanctified by the Holy
Spirit, Phil. 1:1; Eph. 1:1-15; 1 Cor. 6:
- SAKE, on account of, Gen. 8:21; 18:
29-31: out of regard to, John 12:9; Rom.
- SA'LAH, [h] or SALA (mission or sending),
a son of Arphaxad, or of Cainan, Gen. 10:
24; 11:12-15; Luke 3:35.
- SAL'AMIS, [g] (shaken, tossed, or
beaten), the chief city of the isle of Cyprus,
famous for the conversion of the Roman
governor by Paul's ministry, Acts 13:
- SALA'THIEL, [h] (I have asked of
God, or loan of God), a prince of Judah,
1 Chron. 3:17; it is spelled Shealtiel,
Ezra 3:2; 5:2. Some difficulty arises
in comparing Matt. 1:12 with Luke 3:
27, which would be removed by a fuller
acquaintance with the Jewish registers.
- SALE, the act of selling property, Lev.
25:27-50; Deut. 18:8.
- SA'LEM, שלם or SHALEM, (complete, or
peace), the city of which Melchisedec was
king, Gen. 14:18: a contraction of the
name of Jerusalem, Psal. 76:2.
- SA'LIM, Σαλειμ, or SHALIM (fox, or path),
a city on the north-east of Samaria, near
the Jordan, John 3:18; 1 Sam. 9:4:
probably the city of Melchisedec.
- SAL'MON, [h] (peaceable, perfect, or that
rewards), called Salma, 1 Chron. 2:11, a
prince of Judah, Ruth 4:20; Matt. 1:4.
- SALMON, a mountain, Psal. 68:14.
- SALMO'NE, [g] (peaceable), a city
and sea-port of Crete, Acts 27:7.
- SALO'ME, [g] (peaceable), the wife
of Zebedee, and mother of the apostles
James and John, Mark 15:40; Matt. 4:
21; 20:20, 21; 27:56; Mark 10:35.
- SALT, a well-known substance, found
as a fossil, and produced from brine or
sea-water, Gen. 19:26; Deut. 29:23.
Salt in the vast ocean preserves the water
from putrefaction; and it was required
to be used in all the offerings of Israel,
Lev. 2:13: on which Dr. A. Clarke
remarks, "salt was the opposite of leaven,
for it preserved from putrefaction and
corruption, and signified the purity and
persevering fidelity that are necessary in
the worship of God." Salt is an emblem
of wisdom, and hence the exhortation of
Christ, Mark 9:50, and of Paul, Col. 4:
6: it denotes perpetuity, Num. 18:19,
and desolation, Judg. 9:45.
- SALTED, seasoned with salt, Matt. 5:
13: anointed for cleansing and health,
Ezek. 16:4. "[S]alted with fire," means
brought to judgment, Matt. 9:. "Salted
with the salt of the palace," as the mar-
gin reads from the Chaldee, Ezra 4:4,
means supported by the king. In like
manner, "I eat his salt," meaning, I am
supported by him, is a common expression
at the present time in the East Indies.
- SALTNESS, the natural strength and
properties of salt, Mark 9:50.
- SALT SEA, the lake of the sea of Sodom,
miraculously formed or enlarged by the
overthrow of the four guilty cities, Gen.
14:10; 19:24, 25; Deut. 29:23; and
into which the river Jordan flows, 3:16;
12:13. On the eastern shore salt is
found in lumps often more than a foot in
thickness, in places which the lake had
overflowed: the stones on the shores are
covered with an incrustation of lime or
gypsum. Branches which fall from the
bushes into the water soon become encased
in salt: pieces of wood thrown in are
quickly covered with a rind of salt; and
thus some suppose Lot's wife was incased
by the nitro-sulphureous matter which
descended; and being as it were em-
balmed, she became a salso-bituminous
mass or pillar; a monument of the holy
visitations of the Divine power. See
- SALT, VALLEY OF, a desert covered
with salt in Idumea, 2 Sam. 8:13; 1
Chron. 18:12; Psal. 60. title, 2 Kings
14:7; 2 Chron. 25:11. Dr. Halifax
mentions, in his account of Palmyra, the
Tadmor of Solomon, 2 Chron. 8:4, such
a valley or desert near to that city in
Idumea, probably this same Valley of
- SA'LU, [h] (basket, treading of fear, or
elevation), a prince of Simeon, slain in the
abomination of Baal-peor, Num. 25:6,
- SALVATION, deliverance from threaten-
ing danger or from a powerful enemy, as
the Israelites from the rage of Pharaoh,
Exod. 14:13; or Jonah from the horrors
of the deep, Jon. 2:9. God, being the
preserver of the life and the deliverer of
the souls of the saints, is called their sal-
vation, Exod. 15:2; Psal. 27:1.
- SALVATION, deliverance from guilt and
condemnation, with an interest in im-
mortal happiness through the mediation
9. Salvation is, therefore, applied to
Christ Himself, as the Author of that
glorious deliverance, Isa. 49:6; Luke 2:
30; and to the present state of believers
as made meet for the kingdom of Heaven,
2 Cor. 7:10; 1 Pet. 1:9.
- Salvation. See Personal Evangelism.
SALUTATION, an affectionate address,
Luke 1:29; Col. 4:18.
SALUTE, to address with friendship or
affection, 1 Sam. 10:4; Matt. 5:47; Tit. 3:
SAMA'RIA, [h], Σωμερων (his lees, his
prison, his throne, or his diamond), one of
the five provinces of Canaan, situated in
the centre of that division west of the
Jordan, John 4:3-5; Acts 9:31.
SAMARIA, the capital city of the king-
dom of Israel, after its division from
Judah. King Omri bought the hill from
Shemer or Shomeron, and built the city:
it was a strong place, and beautifully
situated in the centre of the province,
1 Kings 16:24; 20:1. Samaria was
reduced to ruins by Shalmanezer, king
of Assyria, 2 Kings 17:4-6, as predicted
by the prophet Micah, on account of the
wickedness of the people, Mic. 1:6.
Alexander the Great planted a colony of
Macedonians here, and it was partially
rebuilt by Gabinius, a Roman governor.
Herod the Great restored it to a con-
siderable degree of its former glory,
calling it Sebaste, in Latin Augusta, in
honour of his patron the emperor Augus-
tus[.] Philip, who preached the gospel in
Samaria, Acts 8:1, 3, 9; and churches
were gathered through the province, 9:
31. Christianity continued here, at least
in name, for several centuries; but it is
now reduced to the condition of a poor
village called SEBASTE.
SAMARITANS, inhabitants of the city
or province of Samaria, Matt. 10:5.
SAMARITANS, a Jewish sect, composed
of the descendants of those whom Shal-
manezer left in the country, and those
whom he sent as colonists, who by inter-
marriage became one people. They re-
tained various forms of idolatry, with
which some of the inhabitants of Moses
were united, 2 Kings 17:25, 32. Al-
though they admitted the five books of
Moses to be divine, and became partially
reformed, they were not permitted to
unite with the Jews in rebuilding their
temple at Jerusalem, hence their original
enmity was strengthened, especially as
they built a rival temple on mount Geri-
zim, Ezra 4:1-4; Neh. 2:10-20. Cor-
rupted, as the Jews had the simplicity
of the religion of the Scriptures, the
Samaritans were, in general, much farther
from the truth; still it is evident that
some entertained sound views relating
to the expected Messiah, John 4:49;
SAME, the identical person, Gen. 5:29;
24:14; Acts 1:11; or thing, Gen.
48:7: like, Exod. 25:31, 36: un-
changeable, as Jesus is unchangeable in
His Divine nature and His mediatorial
office, Heb. 13:8.
SAM'LAH, [h] (raiment, or left hand),
a king of ancient Edom, Gen. 36:36.
SA'MOS, [g] (sand, or full of gravel),
an island in the Egean sea, near the
coast of Asia Minor, about twenty-four
miles long and twelve broad: its ancient
city Samos lies in ruins, its present
capital is Cora: the whole population is
about 60,000, Acts 20:5. Samos is cele-
brated as the birth-place of Pythagoras,
and the burial-place of Lycurgus.
SAMOTHRA'CIA, [g], an island
of the Egean sea, about seventeen miles
in circuit, opposite Thrace, and so named
from having been peopled from the con-
tinent and from Samos, Acts 16:11: it
is now called Samotraki.
SAM'SON, [h] (his son, his service, or
ministry), the son of Manoah, a Nazarite
of extraordinary bodily strength, and
one of the judges of Israel. Samson's
birth, various exploits, and eventful
death, were all remarkable, and in some
respects mysterious, Some indications
of piety appear in the latter hours of
his life; but the sincerity of his personal
religion might have been questioned,
except for the inspired testimony of the
apostle, Heb. 11:32, 33. Dr. Clarke and
others have supposed that the exploits
of Samson occasioned the heathen mytho-
logy of Hercules, Judg. 13. 16.
SAM'UEL, [h] (asked of God, or heard
of God): the eminent prophet of God
was the last of the extraordinary judges
of Israel. The circumstances of Samuel's
birth, his early dedication to the service
of God, his awful mission to Eli respect-
ing his sons, his divine call to the pro-
phetic office, his public administration
as judge, his anointing of Saul and of
David to the office of king of Israel, in
connexion with his high integrity, his
official uprightness, and his uniform
devotion to the welfare of his country,
are all instructive, exhibiting him a
shining example of personal holiness
and generous patriotism. He died at
the age of ninety-eight, two years before
the death of Saul; and he has deservedly
been called the [RESPECT]ABLE SAMUEL.
The regulation of service for the Levites,
1 Chron. 9:22, and the dedication of
treasures to the tabernacle, 26:28,
must have been during the life of
SAMUEL I., THE BOOK OF: this book
contains the national records of Israel
during a period of about one hundred
years from the birth of Samuel, A.M.
2849, to the death of Saul, A.M. 2949.
The first twenty-four chapters are be-
lieved to have been written by the pro-
phet Samuel, on which account the book
bears his name, and the remainder was
completed by the prophets Nathan and
Gad, 1 Chron. 29:29.
SAMUEL II., THE BOOK OF: this book
continues the national history of Israel
during the reign of David, and includes
a period of forty years from the death of
Saul, from A.M. 2949 to A.M. 2989.
SANBAL'LAT, [h] (bush in secret, or
enemy in secret), the chief governor of the
Cuthites or Samaritans, and a great
enemy of the Jews in the time of Nehe-
miah, Neh. 2:10-19; 4:1; 6:2-12: he
is called the Horonite, as he was a native
of Horon or Horonaim, beyond the Jor-
dan, in Moab.
SANCTIFICATION, holiness, 1 Cor. 1:30;
1 Thess. 4:3, 4: the act of making holy,
2 Thess. 2:13; 1 Pet. 1:2: it is the work
and fruit of the Holy Spirit in all his
excellent graces, Gal. 5:22, 23. Sancti-
fication is to be sought as our duty, by
means of the truth and ordinances of
God, 1 Pet. 1:22; and all needful grace
for it may be obtained from the fulness
of Christ, John 1:16; Col. 1:19; 2 Tim. 2:
1; it is also to be solicited as a privilege,
a special blessing of the new covenant,
Heb. 8:10-12; 2 Pet. 1:4.
SANCTIFIED, made holy; as God
blessed the seventh day for a sabbath,
Gen. 2:3; as Moses ceremonially sancti-
fied Aaron and his sons, by washing,
sacrifice, anointing, and robing them,
for the office of the priesthood, Lev. 8:
6, 7, 12, 15, 24; as God really sanctifies
His people, by "the washing of regene-
ration, and the renewing of the Holy
Ghost[,]" Tit. 3:5; 1 Cor. :11; as the
saints are made perfectly holy in Heaven,
Acts 20:32; Heb. 12:23. Sanctified
denotes also, separated to a holy service
or use, as the Levites were to the service
of God in the instruction of Israel, Num.
6:17, 18, 22; as the tabernacle, instru-
ments, and vessels thereof, were to
Divine service, 7:1; as the temple of
Solomon was, 2 Chron. 7:16; as the
temple, vessels, and priests, were sepa-
rated from idolatry to Divine service,
after Hezekiah had succeeded to the
throne of his father Ahaz, 28:23, 27;
29:15, 17, 19, 34; as God's people are
separated to be saved, Heb. 10:14; as
Christ was separated to fulfil the work
of redemption, John 10:36. God is sanc-
tified by men when they render due
honour to Him in his ordinances of wor-
ship, Lev. 10:3.
SANCTIFY, to make holy, as Christ
sanctifies His church by the holy influ-
ence of His gospel, and the grace of his
Spirit, Eph. 5:26; as God sanctifies
believers by His truth, John 17:17,
making them meet to be partakers of the
inheritance of the saints in light, Col. 1:
12; to separate to a holy use or special ser-
vice for God, Exod. 30:29; Ezek. 37:
28; John 17:19. Moses was commanded
to institute all the various ceremonies
of the Levitical law, to teach the neces-
sity of personal holiness, and to be the
means of sanctifying the people. God
sanctifying His great and glorious name,
is making worthy displays of His provi-
dence, character, and grace, especially
by the gospel of Jesus Christ, Ezek.
SANCTUARY, a holy place, as the taber-
nacle, Exod. 25:8; Heb. 9:2, especi-
ally that part of it within the vail, called
"the most holy place," Exod. 26:33;
Lev. 4:6, where the mercy-seat or
propitiatory was placed, 16:13-17, to
which none might enter but the high-
priest, and he only once a year. Solo-
mon's temple, as the house of God, was
called the sanctuary, 1 Chron. 22:19;
and the part of it commonly used for
public worship, Psal. 73:17. Sacred
places, or sanctuaries, being regarded as
inviolable, criminals sought protection
in them, the land of Canaan, was there-
fore regarded as an asylum to Israel,
and called the sanctuary, Exod. 15:17.
God Himself is the sanctuary of His
saints, Isa. 8:14; and Heaven is their
final and eternal sanctuary, Heb. 8:2;
Psal. 20:2; 102:19; John 14:1, 2.
SAND, small particles of stone which
are innumerable: "the sand on the sea-
shore," is frequently referred to as a fit
emblem to denote anything numerous,
as the increased posterity of Abraham,
SANDALS, loose shoes or soles, bound
to the feet of travellers, Mark 6:9; Acts
12:8. These were variously formed and
ornamented in Palestine, Egypt, and
SAP, the vital juice of plants, Psal. 104:
SAPH, [h] (rushes, sea-moss, or consumma-
tion, or Sippai), 1 Chron. 20:4; one of
the Philistine giants slain by David and
his men, 2 Sam. 21:18.
SAPPHI'RA, [g] (that relates or tells,
or that writes books, or handsome), the wife
of Ananias, and partner in his prevarica-
tion and falsehood as to the price of an
estate, sold professedly for the Christian
treasury: she shared also with her hus-
band in the punishment for their crime,
they being struck dead by the immediate
visitation of God, Acts 5:1-11.
SAPPHIRE, a very bright gem, whose
proper colour is pure blue, but varying
from nearly white as crystal to a deep
azure: it is second in value only to the
diamond, Exod. 28:18. To this
brightness is likened the throne of God,
24:10; Ezek. 1:26.
SA'RAH, [h] (the lady or the princess),
the wife of Abraham, and mother of
Isaac, Gen. 21:1-8. Abraham calls her
his sister by his father, but not by his
mother, 20:12, which the Jews, and
many of our greatest commentators, ex-
plain thus :--Sarah was the same as
Iscah, the daughter of Haran, the brother
of Abraham, but sixty years older than
he; and therefore, she was granddaughter
of his father Terah, but not by his own
mother, 11:29-32; 12:4.
SA'RAI, [h] (my lady or my princess), the
original name of the wife of Abraham,
but changed to Sarah (the lady), on his
being divinely assured that she should
become a mother, Gen. 17:15.
SA'RAPH, [h], a chief or king of Moab,
1 Chron. 4:22.
SARDINE, a precious stone of Sardis,
Rev. 4:3. See SARDIUS.
SAR'DIS, [g] (prince of joy, or song
of joy, or that which remains), the capital of
Lydia in Asia Minor, famous for its rich
pagan king Croesus, but more for its
having a congregation of Christians, to
whom John addressed one of the admo-
nitory letters dictated by Christ, Rev.
3:1-6. Sardis was, in 1826, only a
wretched village called Sart, consisting
of a few mud huts; and two Greek
servants of a Turkish miller were its
only professing Christians!
SARDIUS, the ruby, a precious stone
of a deep red colour, the best of which
were found in Sardis, from which it
received its name, Rev. 21:20.
SARDONYX, a precious stone resem-
bling a sardius united with an onyx,
probably a wavy or striped red corne-
lian, Rev. 21:20.
SAREP'TA, [g] (a goldsmith's shop),
the Greek name of Zarephath, a city of
Sidon, Luke 4:26. See ZAREPHATH.
SA'RON, [g], Saronan (protection,
his plain, or his song), a city near to Joppa
in the plain of Sharon, Acts 9:35. See
SA'TAN, שטן Σατανας, Satanas (an ad-
versary), so the word is translated, Num.
22:22; 1 Sam. 24:4; 1 Kings 11:14,
23, 25. Christ calling Peter Satan seems
to have this signification, Matt. 16:23:
as if he had said, "Away from me, O
mine adversary, thou regardest not the
object of my mission, the redemption of
mankind, but the repose of this world,
a policy fit only for the devil."
SATAN, THE DEVIL, the adversary of; and over
God and man, 1 Chron. 21:1; Job 1:6-12;
Matt. 4:1-10; Rev. 20:2. By collating
the several texts in which the title Satan
or Devil occurs, it will be evident that
he is the chief of the fallen "angels who
kept not their first estate" in heaven,
but rebelled against God, and were cast
down into hell, Jude 6; that by the per-
mission of God, he exercises a sort of
government over his fellow-apostates;
that his envy and malice led him to
seduce our first parents, through which
they brought guilt, misery, and death,
into our world; that God still makes
use of his agency to try and prove good
men, and to tempt and chastise the
wicked; that he prevailed over David
to indulge his vain glory in numbering
the people; over Judas to gratify his
cupidity in betraying Christ
Ananias and Sapphira to practise decep-
tion with their fellow-Christians, in with-
holding part of the price of their estate,
professedly sold to aid the treasury of
the church's poor. Satan continues the
enemy of both God and man, ruling in
the hearts of the ungodly, and seeking
to allure or to drive men to sin, present-
ing temptations to the mind in every
form of profit or terror, Matt. 4:15;
Luke 22:3-31; Acts 5:3; 2 Cor. 2:11;
11:14; 1 Pet. 5:8.
Depths of Satan means unscriptural
mysteries or speculations, by which the
mind may be corrupted from the truth,
or abominable practices, Rev. 2:24.
Kingdom of Satan, the power of error
and sin, caused principally by Satan, and
of which his angels and ungodly men
are subjects, Matt. 12:26; Acts 26:18;
2 Cor. 4:4; Eph. 2:2; Col. 1:13.
Synagogue of Satan, the company of
united zealots, enemies of the gospel,
Rev. 2:9; as synagogue is an assembly
- Satan. He is an evil person.
He is a liar, a murderer, proud, a deceiver,
a thief, & loves to destroy.--DWC, p. 387.
SATIATE, to satisfy with a fulness,
Jer. 31:14, 25. The sword is said to
be satiated with slaughter, 46:10.
SATISFACTION, amends for injury com-
mitted, Num. 35:31, 32.
SATISFIED, contented, as with abun-
dance, Deut. 14:29; 33:23; Eccles. 1:
8; 4:8; 5:10.
SATISFY, to give content, Psal. 91:16; Isa. 58:10. SATISFYING, giving content, Prov. 13:
25; Col. 2:23.
SA'TYR, [h], seir (a shaggy goat), Isa.
SA'TYRS, [h] seirim (shaggy goats),
Isa. 13:21: this word is rendered devils,
Lev. 17:7; Deut. 32:17; 2 Chron.
11:15, because, while the idols were
fashioned in hideous figures, as of hairy
goats, their religious rites were diabolical,
and altogether delusions of the devil.
Without remarking on the fabled satyrs,
as "half men and half goats," we may
add, that some suppose a species of ape
is meant, and hence our old English
versions, between 1550 and 1570, read
"and apes shall daunce there," Isa. 13:
SAUL, [h] Σαυλος (demanded, lent, ditch,
sepulchre, death, or hell), the son of Kish,
and anointed by Samuel to be the first
king of the Israelites, 1 Sam. 9:1, 2;
10:1. God endowed him with eminent
talents for government by the gifts of
his Spirit, 10:6, 9, 10; 11:6: but his self-
will and passion led him to the commis-
sion of atrocious crimes, 22:18, 19;
28:7, 18; 2 Sam. 21:1-5; and, after
a reign of forty years, he fell upon his
own sword, being defeated in battle with
the Philistines, Acts 13:21; 1 Sam.
SAUL, called also Shaul, 1 Chron. 1:48,
a chief or king of Edom, Gen. 36:37.
SAUL of Tarsus, the Jewish name of
the apostle Paul, Acts 7:58; 8:1;
13:9. See PAUL.
SAVE, to preserve from evil, Gen. 45:
7; Deut. 20:4; 1 Kings 1:12, 25, 34: to
deliver, as from danger or distress, 2
Kings 16:7; Matt. 14:30; 27:49:
from the guilt and power of sin, Matt. 1:
21: to secure to eternal life and glory,
1 Tim. 1:15; Heb. 7:25.
SAVE, except, or besides, Judg. 7:14;
Mark 5:57; Gal 1:19.
SAVED, preserved, Gen. 47:25; Exod.
1:17: sanctified and preserved to life
eternal, John 5:34; Acts 2:47; Rom. 5:
- Saved. See What Must I Do to Be SAVED?
SAVING, preserving, Gen. 19:19; Heb.
11:7: enlightening and sanctifying, as
the influence of the gospel, Psal. 67:2.
SAVIOUR, a preserver, defender, or de-
liverer, 2 Kings 13:5; Neh. 9:27; Isa.
19:20. God is pre-eminently the Saviour
of His people, as their Creator, Preserver,
and Deliverer, Psal. 106:21; Isa. 45:15-
21. God is "the Saviour of all men,
specially of those that believe[,]" 1 Tim.
SAVIOUR, the descriptive title of Jesus
Christ, who is in a peculiar sense the
Saviour of the world, John 4:42; 1 John
4:14. Being the Son of God, He became
incarnate, that He might by His obedience
to the law of God, and His enduring of
its penalty or the curse, make atonement
for the sin of the world, and so "became
the [A]uthor of eternal salvation unto all
them that obey him[,]" Heb. 5:9. Jesus
Christ saves the soul from condemnation
to holiness, and the body from the ruin
of the grave, and constitutes every be-
liever an inheritor of immortality and
SAVOUR, a strong scent, Lev. 26:3;
Eccles. 10:1: sharp taste, Matt. 5:13:
reputation, Exod. 5:21: gratefulness or
acceptableness, as Noah's sacrifice to
God, Gen. 8:21; as Christ's offering
of Himself, Eph. 5:2; as the faithful
labours of the apostles, 2 Cor. 2:15.
SAVOUR, to regard with delight, Matt.
SAVOURY, seasoned or relishing, Gen.
SAW, a carpenter's instrument to cut
wood, Isa. 10:15.
SAW, did see or perceive, Gen. 3:6;
6:2; Acts 4:13; 6:15.
SAWED, cut to size and form, as stones
were shaped for any building, 1 Kings
SAWN, cut with a saw, as an ancient
mode of punishing with death, Heb. 11:
37. The apostle is supposed to refer to
Isaiah, who is believed to have been
murdered thus by order of king Manas-
seh, 2 Kings 21:16.
SAWS, instruments of cutting for wood
or stones, 1 Kings 7:9: implements of
torture, as some suppose, under which
the counsellors of Hanun, who had ad-
vised him to insult and abuse the ambas-
sadors of David, were put to death, 2
Sam. 12:31. Dr. Gill and others think,
that while the cruel Ammonites merited
severity (see 1 Sam. 11:2; 15:33, Amos
1:13), yet David only put them to hard
labour, giving the following translation,
as conveying the sense of the text, from
a learned German: "And he obliged the
people that were in it to go out, and put
them to the saw," to cut stones; "and
to the iron mines," to dig there; "and
to axes of iron," to cut wood with; "after
he had made them to pass with their
king" out of the city. "So David and
all the people returned unto Jerusalem,"
in triumph, and with great spoil. Mr.
Horne accords with this view, adding
"This form of expression is an Anglicism
as well as a Hebraism; and we still say,
To put a person to the plough, to the
SAY, to speak or tell, Gen. 37:20:
to pronounce, Judg. 12:6: to answer,
Exod. 3:14: to promise, Luke 23:43:
to affirm and teach, Matt. 18:10: to
testify as a witness, Acts 24:20: to
argue, Jam. 2:18: to muse or meditate,
Deut. 7:17; Matt. 3:9.
SAYING, a declaration, Gen. 37:11:
a reply, Matt. 7:29: a salutation, Luke
1:28, 29: a proposal, Deut. 1:22, 23; 2
Sam. 17:1-4: a prophecy, John 12:38:
counsel, 2 Sam. 24:19: doctrine, John
6:6; 1 Tim. 1:15.
SCAB, an incrustation over a sore,
Lev. 13:26: a disease, particularly the
leprosy, Deut. 28:28; Isa. 3:17.
SCABBARD, the sheath of a sword, Jer.
SCABBED, diseased or leprous, Lev. 21:
SCAFFOLD, a temporary stage, 2 Chron.
SCALES, the small shelly coverings ofare impenetrable by the
fishes and reptiles, Lev. 11:9, 10: those
on the crocodile[?]
sword, Job 41:15.
SCALES, skins or films over the eyes,
SCALES, balances for weighing things,
SCALL, a disease, a scab, a kind of
leprosy in the head or beard, Lev. 13:
30, 37; 14:51.
SCALP, the skull, the hairy part of the
head, Psal. 68:21.
SCANT, too little, deficient, as in mea-
sure, Mic. 6:10.
SCAPE, escaping, Lev. 16:8, 10, 22. SCAPE-GOAT: this was one part of the
sin-offering on the annual day of atone-
ment: one goat was killed in sacrifice,
prefiguring the death of Christ, and the
scape-goat, being liberated, denoted, as
is regarded, His resurrection, Lev. 16:
SCARCE, scarcely, hardly, Gen. 27:
30: with difficulty, Acts 14:18.
SCARCELY, difficultly, 1 Pet. 4:18. SCARCENESS, want, deficient in quan-
tity, Deut. 8:9.
SCARE, to alarm or frighten, Job 7:
SCARLET, a bright light- red colour,
highly esteemed by the ancients, Exod.
25:4; 2 Sam. 1:24; Isa. 1:18; Dan. 5:7:
it was a tincture or dye discovered by the
Phenicians, and prepared from the cases
of a worm or insect which grew in a
coccus or excresence of a shrubby tree
producing acorns, it being a species of
oak, called kermes-oak, and is common
in Syria, Persia, and Palestine.
SCATTER, to disperse, as the families
were from Babel, to people the earth,
Gen. 10:9; as the Israelites have been
among the nations, Deut. 4:27; Ezek.
20:23; as seed is on the prepared land,
Isa. 28:25; as stubble is with the
wind, Jer. 13:24.
SCATTERED, dispersed, as the soldiers
of a routed army, 1 Sam. 11:11; as the
Christians were by persecution, Acts 8:
1-4; as the Jews are throughout the
world, Jer. 30:11; 31:10; Ezek. 11:
SCENT, a strong smell, Job 14:9; Hos.
SCEPTRE, [h], shebet, ρ'αβδος (rabdos),
a royal rod or staff, indicating govern-
ment or royalty, Gen. 49:10; Est. 4:
11; 5:2; Heb. 1:8. The royal sceptre
was originally a tall staff, surmounted
with an emblematical ornament, and was
used as a sign of the pastoral character
of the sovereign. Jacob declaring, "The
sceptre shall not depart from Judah...until
Shiloh come[,]" assured his son Judah that
his tribal distinction and government
should continue until the advent of Mes-
siah, Gen. 49:10.
SCE'VA, [g] (disposed or prepared), the
chief of the Jewish priests at Ephesus,
whose seven sons opposed Christianity,
SCHISM, σχισμα (dislocation), 1 Cor. 12:
25: the word occurs only once in the
English Scriptures, and relates to the
beautiful organisation of the human
body; but the Greek word is used five
other times: in Matt. 9:16, and Mark
2:21, it is translated rent, as of a gar-
ment: in John 7:43; 9:6, and 10:19,
it is rendered division, as of opinion
among the Jews, respecting the character
of Christ: the word, in its plural form,
occurs twice, 1 Cor. 1:10, and 11:18,
σχισματα, translated divisions, relating
to the differences of opinion, and conse-
quent debates, in the Christian congre-
gation at Corinth.
SCHOLAR, a disciple or pupil of a
teacher in letters or science, 1 Chron.
25:8; Mal. 2:12.
SCHOOL, a place of instruction, as the
school of Tyrannus, Acts 19:9: this
appears to have been the lecture-room
of the teacher, probably a pagan philo-
sopher converted to Christianity by the
ministry of Paul. Schools for the educa-
tion of youth, especially for those destined
to the service of God, must have existed
at an early period, as one of great note
seems to have flourished under the direc-
tion of Samuel, at Naioth in Ramah, 1
Sam. 19:18-24; and one at Bethel, under
Elijah, 2 Kings 2:3-5. It is thought
that many besides the youth attended
the school of the prophets, on festival
days, to receive instruction, and that this
custom originated the founding of syna-
gogues, especially after the return from
Babylon. At the time of Christ, doctors
or teachers of great eminence were nume-
rous at Jerusalem. Paul's teacher, Gama-
liel, was the most famous in his time,
Acts 5:34; 22:3. Many of the doctors
entertained some peculiar sentiments,
and hence they were called by their
disciples fathers and masters, Matt. 23:
SCHOOL-MASTER, the teacher or presi-
dent in a school, Gal. 3:25. Paul says,
"the law was our schoolmaster to bring
us unto Christ," denoting the disciplinary
character of the moral and ceremonial
law, by which sinners could not be justi-
fied without the atonement and right-
eousness of Christ.
SCIENCE, knowledge, especially that
which relates to human affairs, Dan. 1:
4. Science, falsely so called, was the
vain and corrupt speculations of the
heathen philosophers, 1 Tim. 6:20.
SCOFF, to mock or insult, Hab. 1:10. SCOFFERS, profane mockers, especially
of religion, 2 Pet. 3:3.
SCORCH, to burn externally, Rev. 16:
8, 9; Matt. 13:6.
SCORN, to despise or slight, Job 16:
20: to disregard, 39:7-18.
SCORN, contempt, Psal. 44:13; Hab.
1:10: meanness, Est. 3:6.
SCORNER, a scoffer, Prov. 9:7, 8; 14:
6; Hos. 7:5.
SCORNFUL, profane, Psal. 1:1; Isa.
SCORNING, impiety or profanity, Prov.
SCORPION, a venomous reptile, of which
there are several species, yellow, brown,
and black; it is commonly about two or
three inches long, and greatly resembles
a small lobster, which the Arabs there-
fore call the sea scorpion: its body when
coiled up is shaped somewhat like an
egg, Luke 11:12, and it has a very small
head with six or eight eyes: it has eight
feet or claws proceeding from the corslet,
and two larger ones from the sides of
the head, with a pair of pincers at the
end of each: the tail proceeds from the
belly in a series of seven rings, formed
like a string of seven beads: the poison of
this animal is very strong, consequently
its bite is dreadful, Deut. 8:15; Rev.
9:3, 5, 10. Rehoboam exhibited his
cruel folly in his reply to the elders of
Israel, in threatening to govern them
with severe, stinging exactions, as the
venom of scorpions, 1 Kings 12:11.
Christ taught His apostles their security,
by giving them power to tread on scor-
pions, Luke 10:19; malicious wicked men
are intended by scorpions, Ezek. 2:6.
These reptiles abounded in ruins, and
among the rocks of Egypt and Arabia.
SCOUR, to rub bright, as a brazen
vessel, Lev. 6:28.
SCOURGE, a large whip made of thongs,
ropes, or twigs, John 2:15: an instru-
ment of the Divine judgment, Isa. 10:26.
The scourge of the tongue is a slan-
derer's, Job 5:21.
SCOURGE, to whip or flog, as a punish-
ment by order of a magistrate, Lev. 19:
20; Deut. 25:2. This practice seems to
have been common in the synagogues of
the Jews in the time of our Saviour and
His apostles, Matt. 10:17; 20:19; 23:
34. Paul suffered scourging from the
Jews five times, forty stripes save one
each time, 2 Cor. 11:21; as the law did
not allow more than thirty-nine stripes,
Deut. 25:2, 3, which was usually done
by thirteen stripes of a scourge with
three lashes. This was also a mode of
punishment by the Romans, attended
with torture, against which Paul pro-
tested as a freeman of Rome, Acts 22:
SCRABBLE, to paw with the hands, 1
SCRAPE, to take away dust or filth, as
from a wall, Lev. 19:41; Ezek. 25:4.
SCREECH-OWL, a species of owl, Isa.
34:14. See OWL.
SCRIBE, a writer, as the Hebrew word
is translated, Judg. 5:14, where it is men-
tioned first by Deborah. As few persons
in the early ages learned the art of
writing, a scribe or writer was a person
of high acquirements, and several classes
of officers are described under this
title.--1. A scholar, or learned man, as
Jonathan, the uncle of David, 1 Chron.
27:32; Baruch, the amanuensis of
Jeremiah, Jer. 36:26, 27; Ezra, whose
learning was famous in the court of
Babylon, Ezra 7:6-16: he that is called
a lawyer or doctor of the law, Matt. 22:
34, is called a scribe, Mark 12:28-32.--2.
A secretary, a chief officer in a govern-
ment: as Seraiah was scribe or secretary
to king David, 2 Sam. 8:17, succeeded
by Sheva, 20:25: such were Elihoreph
and Ahiah to Solomon, 1 Kings 4:3.
Shebna, 2 Kings 19:2, and Shaphan,
22:8.--3. A muster-general or commis-
sary of an army, or secretary at war, 2
Kings 25:19; 2 Chron. 26:11.
SCRIBES, writers or secretaries, Jer.
8:8; 1 Kings 4:3; Est. 3:12: they
were the national historiographers, 2
Chron. 34:13; Est. 3:12.
SCRIBES, copiers and expounders, or
doctors of the law, Matt. 7:29; 15:1-9;
23:2, 13: these, having corrupted the
purity of the Scripture doctrines by their
pharisaic traditions, by which means they
derived great profits in their profession,
were the most determined enemies of
Christ, on account of His zeal for the
exclusive and divine authority of the
sacred books, Matt. 23:2, 13, 15, 23,
24, 25, 27, 29.
SCRIP, a small bag, as the wallet of a
labourer or traveller, to contain food and
necessaries, 1 Sam. 17:40; Matt. 10:10;
Luke 22:35, 36.
SCRIPTURE, a writing, pre- eminently
the volume of Divine Revelation, Dan. 10:
21; John 2:22; 7:38-42; 2 Tim. 3:16:
a particular sentence of the sacred ora-
cles, Mark 12:10; 15:28; Luke 4:21:
the Holy Spirit speaking in the divine
word, Gal. 3:8.
SCRIPTURES, the writings of the in-
spired servants of God, Matt. 21:42;
Luke 24:45; Rom. 1:2; 2 Tim. 3:15.
These form an invaluable collection of
sacred books, containing the whole of the
revealed will of God to men,--the history
of the creation of our world--of the origin
of nations, and of the diversity of lan-
guages--of human sin, misery, and mor-
tality--of the dispensations of the Divine
mercy for the recovery and salvation of
transgressors by the mediation and re-
demption of Jesus Christ, and of the
establishment of Christianity in the world
by the ministry of the apostles. Genesis,
the first book, was written about A.M.
2369, and Revelation about A.M. 4100, or
A.D. 96. See BIBLE, and the titles of the
SCROLL, a writing as on parchment,
rolled up, Isa. 34:4; Rev. 6:14.
SCUM, impure froth on the top of liquor
boiling in a pot. To this the prophet
likens the moral impurity of the Jews in
Jerusalem, Ezek. 24:6, 12.
SCURVY, a scabbed disease, Lev. 21:
SCYTHIAN, Σκυθης (a tanner or currier),
a native of Scythia, which was the gene-
ral name to the vast regions of northern
Asia and north-eastern Europe, including
much of the modern Russian empire, and
of Germany, and the countries around
the Black sea, and the Caspian sea, Col.
SEA, [h] ([y]am θαλασσα thalassa), a large
collection of waters, or the ocean, Gen. 1:
10-22. The Hebrews called all large
bodies of water, seas, as lakes and rivers,
thus the Red sea, Exod. 14:2: the lake
of Gennesareth, Luke 5:1; John 6:1, 18.
The river Euphrates, Isa. 21:1; Jer. 51:
36: the immense brazen bason, a laver
capable of containing 2000 baths, or the
whole apparatus 3000 baths, made by
Solomon, for the convenience of the
priests washing while performing their
services in the temple, 1 Kings 7:23,
2 Chron. 4:5. See LAVER. Sea is used
for the inhabitants of the islands, or
mariners, Isa. 60:5.
SEAS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE.
1. Mediterranean or Great sea, Num.
34:6; Jon. 1:4.
2. Arabian Gulf or Red sea, Exod. 10:
19; 15:4, 22.
3. Dead sea or Salt sea, Gen. 14:3;
Josh. 3:15; 12:3.
4. Lake of Tiberias, or Sea of Galilee,
Luke 5:1; John 6:1.
5. Sea of Jazer, probably a lake east of
Jordan, Jer. 48:32.
SEAL, a stamp with an engraving to
make an impression on wax for the fasten-
ing and marking of letters, 1 Kings 21:
8, or written documents of great import-
ance, Rev. 5:1; 6:1: a mark, 20:3: a
visible evidence, as the holiness of rege-
nerated men is of the divinity of the
gospel ministry, 1 Cor. 9:2. Seals were
commonly worn as rings on the fingers
or wrists, Esth. 3:12; Luke 15:22: but
the Babylonian seal was an engraved
cylinder, fixed on an axle, with a handle
in the manner of a garden roller, and
produced the impression by being rolled
on the softened wax.
SEAL, to mark with the impression of
a seal, for security, Deut. 32:34; for
legal authority or validity, Jer. 32:44;
Deut. 6:17; as one's own property, 2
SEALED, marked for security, Jer. 32:
10, 11; Dan. 12:9: impressed, as with
shining holiness in heart and life by the
grace of the Holy Spirit, 1 Cor. 1:22;
Eph. 1:13; 4:30.
SEARCH, an examination, Ezra 4:15,
19; Jer. 2:34.
SEARCH, to explore, as a country, Num.
10:33; Deut. 1:22, 33: to investigate, Prov.
25:2: to examine, John 5:39.
SEARCHING, surveying or investigating,
Job 11:7: seriously considering, 1 Pet. 1:
11. God searching indicates His perfect
knowledge of everything, Zeph. 1:12,
even the thoughts of the heart, 1 Chron.
28:9; Rev. 2:23.
SEARCHINGS, investigations, Judg. 5:16. SEARED, hardened by burning, as flesh
may be with a hot iron: men are said to
have their consciences seared, when they
fail to receive moral impressions so as to
be restrained from abominable courses, 1
SEASON, a period of time, Gen. 40:4:
a proper time, Deut. 28:12: a year,
Acts 13:11. Days and nights, spring
and harvest, and seasons regulated by
the sun and moon, according to the
merciful appointment of our bountiful
Creator, Gen. 1:14; and the various dis-
pensations of His providence, Acts 1:7; 1
SEASON, to give a relish to a thing, as
by salt, Lev. 2:13.
SEASONED, imbued, as salt with its
proper flavour, Luke 14:34: as our
speech with convincing wisdom, Col. 4:6.
SEAT, a place on which to sit, Judg.
3:30: a chair of honour, Esth. 3:1; or
of authority, Matt. 23:2: a noble resi-
dence, habitation, or state, Ezek. 28:
2. Oriental nations use for seats, mats,
or carpets, or these on very low sofas
called divans, sitting with their legs bent
under them in a half-kneeling posture.
After the captivity of the Jews in Baby-
lon, the rich and noble adopted the
Persian mode of reclining on beds and
couches at table, Amos 6:4; and this
method became common with the Greeks
and Romans, Luke 7:38; John 13:23.
Pergamos being called "Satan's seat,"
Rev. 2:13, indicates its being, as a city,
notorious for the wickedness of its in-
SEBA, [h] (drunkard, or that turns, or
old man), a son of Cush, Gen. 10:7. See
SEBA, a province or district of Arabia,
Psal. 72:10; Isa. 43:3.
SEBAT, [h] (twig, sceptre, or tribe), the
fifth month of the civil, and eleventh of
the sacred year of the Jews, Zech. 1:7.
SECOND, next to the first, Gen. 22:15. SECONDARILY, in the second degree,
1 Cor. 12:28.
SECRET, a thing held private, Dan. 2:
18, 30, 47: a private habitation, Gen.
49:6: retirement, Matt. 6:6, 18. God's
secret, means His blessing giving peace
and prosperity, Job 29:41; the graci-
ous purposes of His mercy and the saving
influences of His Spirit, which by His
word lead to salvation, Psal. 25:14;
SECRET, private, Deut. 27:15.
"Secret things belong unto God," means,
His eternal purposes regarding the future,
having no relation to our duty, rest with
God, Deut. 29:29.
SECRETLY, privately or privily, Gen.
31:27; John 19:38.
SECT (αι'ρεσις, heresis), a heresy, properly
a choice or option; hence a class or party
holding certain opinions in religion, Acts
5:17; 15:5; 24:5, 14; 26:5; 28:22.
The Jews were divided into two chief
sects or heresies, Pharisees and Saddu-
cees: see these articles: the Herodians
are, by some, regarded as a religious sect;
but they were rather a political faction.
Josephus mentions also the Essenes, but
they are not referred to in the New
Testament, unless included among the
Pharisees, of whom they were a branch:
they were extremely rigid in their moral
habits, and scrupulous in their religious
observances: they did not frequent the
temple lest they should be contaminated
with immoral professors: they venerated
the sacred books, particularly the law of
Moses, holding the chief articles of the
Jewish faith; but with various errors
and superstitions, living in rural districts
in Palestine, Syria, and Egypt, many of
them in a manner resembling the Rechab-
ites. John the Baptist is [mistakenly] thought from
his manners to have spent his early years
among the Essenes, Luke 1:80. Christian-
ity was regarded by many as a sect of
Judaism, Acts 28:22.
- Sect(s). See Cults & Religion(s).
SECURE, safe, Job 11:18: careless,
Judg. 8:11; 18:7-10.
SECURE, to preserve safely, Matt.
SECURELY, safely, Prov. 3:29; Mic.
SECURITY, a bond or bail, Acts 18:9. SEDITION, a rebellious tumult in a
city, Ezra 4:15; Luke 23:9.
SEDUCE, to decoy or mislead by false
representations, Mark 13:22; 1 John 2:
26; Rev. 2:20.
SEDUCED, deceived and perverted, as
to idolatry, 2 Kings 21:9.
SEDUCERS, deceivers, false teachers,
2 Tim. 3:13.
SEE, to look upon, Gen. 45:12: to
observe, Exod. 23:5: to survey, Matt.
22:11: to ascertain, Gen. 37:14:
to visit, 1 Sam. 15:35: to yield to, Ezra
4:14; Eph. 3:9: to discover feelingly,
Rom. 7:23: to beware, Rev. 19:10:
to enjoy the vision of heaven, Job 19:
26; Matt. 5:8. This word, as in common
language, is variously used in Scripture,
especially in relation to the mental per-
ceptions: as of unbelievers it is said,
"Seeing they see not," when rejecting
the doctrines of salvation by Christ, Matt.
SEED, the organised particle produced
by plants, from which the several species
are propagated, Gen. 1:11; 47:19, 24:
progeny, an individual, 4:25; Dan. 9:1:
or as many, Gen. 17:7, 8: principles of
holiness from the Holy Spirit, 1 Pet. 1:
23; 1 John 3:9.
SEED OF THE WOMAN: this announce-
ment to our first parents denoted the
Messiah, Gen. 3:15, as further promised
to Abraham, 12:3-7; 17:7; Gal. 3:16.
SEED-TIME, the time for sowing corn
and other seeds, secured to mankind by
God's covenant of safety with Noah, Gen.
SEEING, the act of vision, Exod. 23:
10: the act of perceiving or understand-
ing, Acts 2:31.
SEEING, since or because, Gen. 15:2;
SEEK, to look for, Gen. 27:17: to
inquire after, 1 Kings 18:10: to take
care of, Neh. 2:10. To seek God, is to
study His will and pray for His salvation,
Psal. 63:1; Heb. 11:6. God seeks men
by His merciful providence, by sending
His gospel to them, and by blessing the
instructions of His ministers, Ezek. 34:
SEEM, to appear, Gen. 27:12; Gal.
2:6, 9; Jam. 1:26.
SEEMLY, suitable or fit, Prov. 19:10;
SEER, a prophet, who was anciently so
called from his foreseeing future events,
1 Sam. 9:9; 2 Kings 17:13; Isa. 30:
10; Amos 7:12.
SEETHE, to boil or dress food by boil-
ing, Exod. 16:23; 2 Kings 4:38.
SE'GUB, [h] (fortified or raised), the
youngest son of Hiel, a Bethelite, who
died when his father was finishing the
rebuilding of Jericho, as his eldest son
Abiram had died when he commenced
it, having undertaken the work, as some
suppose, in defiance of the curse of God,
by Joshua, Josh. 6:26; 1 Kings 16:34.
SE'IR, [h] (hairy, goat, demon, tempest, or
barley), the father of the Horites, who
were a people in the time of Abraham,
Gen. 14:6; 36:20-30.
SEIR, the country of Edom, of which
the mount Seir is famous in the history
of the patriarchs and the Israelites, Gen.
14:6; 32:3; Deut. 2:1-5. See EDOM.
SEIZE, to take possession of by force,
Josh. 8:7; Matt. 21:38.
SE'LA or SELAH, [h] (a rock), the capi-
tal of Edom, Isa. 16:1; 2 Kings 14:7,
taken by Amaziah, and called Joktheel:
it is thought to have been the famous
city Bozrah, whose ruins in a rocky
valley correspond with the representa-
tions of Jeremiah, Jer. 49:13-16. Re-
cent travellers have discovered these
terrible ruins, which they suppose to
have been the capital of Arabia Petrea,
and they call the city Petra.
SE'LAH, [h] (the end or pause); it occurs
seventy-four times in the book of Psalms,
and thrice in the book of Habakkuk: it
is translated [g] (Diapalma), a
musical rest or pause, in the Sept.,
Psal. 3:2, 4, 8; Hab. 3:3, 9, 13.
SELEUCIA, [g] (shaken or beaten by
the waves, or that runs as a river), the sea-
port of Antioch, whence Paul sailed to
Cyprus, Acts 13:4: it was built and so
named by Seleucus Nicanor, the first
Syro-Grecian monarch, at the mouth of
the river Orontes, on the coast of the
SELF, one's own person, Exod. 32:
13; 1 Cor. 4:3: it is commonly united
with a pronoun, as myself, Judg. 5:29;
1 Kings 14:5.
SELF-WILLED, rash, headstrong, obsti-
nate, Tit. 1:7; 2 Pet. 2:10; Gen. 49:6.
SELL, to give a thing for a price, Exod.
21:35; Deut. 2:28. Domestic slavery
prevailing in the ancient nations, it was
common to sell men for servitude: hence
Joseph's brethren agreed to sell him,
Gen. 37:27, 28. It was common for
creditors to sell their debtors, 2 Kings
4:1; Matt. 18:25; and even for parents
to sell their children for service, Exod.
21:7, 8; or themselves, Lev. 25:30, 47.
King Ahab did sell himself to work
wickedness, taking the inheritance of the
murdered patriot Naboth, and yielding
himself, as a slave, to the atrocious
counsels of his wicked wife Jezebel, 1
SELLER, the person who sells, a dealer,
Acts 16:14; Neh. 13:20; Ezek. 7:12, 13.
SELVEDGE, the edge of cloth as left by
the weaver, Exod. 26:4.
SELVES, the plural of self: as our-
selves, Gen. 37:10. See SELF.
SENATE, the chief council or sanhedrim
of Israel, Acts 5:21: it originally con-
sisted of seventy elders or chief judges
of the several tribes, Num. 11:16, 24, 25.
The power of this court was but limited
in the time of the apostles. See COUNCIL.
SENATORS, chief counsellors or judges,
members of the senate, Psal. 105:22.
SEND, to commission or despatch from
a place, Gen. 24:17; 45:5; Acts 10:5.
SENDING, despatching, 2 Chron. 36:
15: driving, 2 Sam. 13:16: commission-
ing, Rom. 8:3.
SENNACH'ERIB, [h] (bush of the de-
struction, of the sword, or of drought), a king
of Assyria, the successor of Shalmanezer
in the time of Hezekiah, whose kingdom
he invaded after the tribute had been
paid: but Rabshakeh, his general, blas-
pheming Jehovah, God interposed by the
destruction of his mighty army in a single
night, and himself was slain by his two
sons, in his idol temple at Nineveh,
2 Kings 18:13, 28; 19:37.
SENSE, the meaning, Neh. 8:8: thus
the Hebrew Scriptures being read, the
meaning was explained in the language
of the people, as they had learned it in
SENSES, the faculties of the soul or
powers of reason, so called in allusion to
the bodily senses, seeing, hearing, feeling,
smelling, and tasting, Heb. 5:14.
SENSUAL, fleshly, animal [carnal], brutish, Jam.
3:15; Jude 19.
SENT, did send, Gen. 37:32: did
commission, John 20:21.
SENT, despatched, Acts 10:17: com-
missioned, Ezra 7:14; John 3:26:
communicated, Acts 28:28.
SENTENCE, a speech, as the determina-
tion of a judge, Luke 23:24: a deci-
sion on a controverted point, Acts 15:
19. "A divine sentence" is a gracious
declaration, Prov. 16:10. "The sen-
tence of death" is the expectation of
suffering, 2 Cor. 1:9. "Hard sentences"
are difficult to be explained, Dan. 5:12;
SEPARATE, to part or sever, Gen. 30:
4: to set apart, Acts 13:2: to with-
draw, as a Nazarite, from society, Num.
6:: to appoint, Deut. 19:2: to dis-
tinguish, 1 Kings 8:53: to excommu-
nicate, Luke 6:22: to apostatise from
religion, Jude 19.
SEPARATE, divided from, 2 Cor. 6:17;
Gen. 49:16: distinct from, Heb. 7:26.
SEPARATED, divided, Gen. 13:11:
appointed, Deut. 10:8.
SEPARATION, the state of being sepa-
rated, Num. 6:4: a division, Ezek. 42:
SE'PHAR, [h] (a book or writing), a
mountain of the East, supposed to be in
Armenia, or near the Euphrates, Gen. 10:
SEPHARVA'IM, [h] (books or writings,
or scribes), a country of Sephar in Arme-
nia, some of whose people were brought
into Samaria, 2 Kings 17:24.
SEPHARVITES, the people of Sephar-
vaim, 2 Kings 17:31.
SEPULCHRE, a grave or tomb, usually
in a cave or rock, Gen. 23:46: the
throat of a wicked man, as the channel
of impiety in ungodly speeches, Psal. 5:
9; Rom. 3:13.
SEPULCHRE OF MOSES, an unknown
place on mount Nebo, Deut. 34:6:
it was pretended to have been found in
1665, by some Maronite shepherds.
SEPULCHRE OF DAVID, a place at
Jerusalem, still held sacred, but without
the walls of the modern city, Acts 2:29.
SEPULCHRE OF CHRIST, a cave in a
rock on mount Calvary, near Jerusalem,
over which, as is supposed, a sumptuous
church has been erected, John 19:41.
SE'RAH, [h] (lady of scent, or morning-
star), the daughter of Asher, Gen. 46:17.
SERA'IAH, [h] (prince of the Lord, or
song of the Lord); several bore this name,
of whom the chief were,--a secretary to
king David, 2 Sam. 8:17.
SERAIAH, a son of Neriah, and brother
of Baruch, the companion and secretary
of the prophet Jeremiah, Jer. 32:12.
Being commissioned by king Zedekiah
to carry presents as a tribute to Nebu-
chadnezzar, he was appointed to bear
the denunciation against Babylon from
the prophet of God, 51:59-61.
SERAIAH, the high-priest of Israel
before the captivity in Babylon: being
taken by Nebuzaradan, he was carried
to Nebuchadnezzar, who put him to death
at Riblah, with seventy other chief men
of Jerusalem: his son Jehozadak was
carried captive to Babylon, 2 Kings 25:
18-21; 1 Chron. 6:14, 15; Jer. 52:24-27.
SERAIAH, a chief among the Jews who
returned from Babylon, Ezra 2:2; Neh.
SER'APHIMS, [h] (burning ones, or
full of fire), the highest order of angels,
as is supposed by some, superior to che-
rubim, Isa. 6:2. See CHERUBIM.
SERGEANTS, lictors, officers of Romans
police, attendant upon magistrates, Acts
SER'GIUS, Σεργιος, Sergius Paulus, the
Roman proconsul of the isle of Cyprus,
converted by the ministry of Paul, Acts
SERPENT, a general name for various
species of reptiles, Jam. 3:7. See
ADDER, ASP, COCKATRICE, DRAGON, and
VIPER. Serpents are distinguished for
subtlety and a venomous bite, Deut.
32:24; Psal. 58:4: hence the great
enemy of man is represented by a ser-
pent, Gen. 3:1-13; 2 Cor. 11:3.
SERPENT, the Devil and Satan, Rev.
12:9, by whose malignity and wiles man
was overcome, and all human misery
and mortality introduced into our world,
Gen. 3:1; 2 Cor. 11:3.
SERVANT, one in a state of subjection,
Gen. 9:25; 24:34: a slave, Exod. 21:
5; Deut. 5:15; 1 Sam. 30:13: a domestic
labourer, Exod. 20:10: an assistant in
office, as Joshua to Moses, Exod. 33:
11; or Elisha to Elijah, 1 Kings 19:16-
21; 2 Kings 2:3: an officer of a prince,
Gen. 40:20; 1 Sam. 19:1: a subject,
2 Sam. 8:6.
SERVANT OF GOD, a rational creature,
Psal. 119:91: a sincere worshipper of
God, Rom. 6:22: one commissioned for
a great service, as Moses to deliver
Israel, Josh. 1:2; as Cyrus to deliver the
Jews, Isa. 45:1; as Nebuchadnezzar to
punish wicked nations, Jer. 25:9; as
His own Son Jesus Christ, to redeem the
world, Isa. 52:13; Zech. 3:8.
SERVE, to be subject to, Gen. 15:13:
to labour for, Gen. 29:18; Exod. 1:13:
to worship, Exod. 3:12; Dan. 3:17.
SERVED, did serve, or labour for, Gen.
30:26: did worship, Josh. 24:2, 31.
SERVICE, labour, Gen. 29:27; Exod.
1:14: performance of religious cere-
monies, Num. 3:7; 4:19: worship and
obedience, Eph. 6:7. "Eye-service,"
the labour of an idler while in the sight
of his master, ver. 6.
SERVILE, ordinary or menial labour,
SERVING, labouring for, Exod. 14:5;
Deut. 15:18: religiously obeying, Rom.
12:11: yielding to, Tit. 3:3.
SERVITOR, a domestic servant, a butler,
2 Kings 4:43.
SERVITUDE, burdensome taxation, 2
Chron. 10:4: slavery, Lam. 1:3.
SE'RUG, [h] (branch, layer, or twining),
the great-grandfather of Abraham, and
supposed to have been the first wor-
shipper of images after the deluge, Gen.
11:20-22; Josh. 24:2.
SET, to place, Gen. 9:13: to fix,
Deut. 19:14: to appoint, Num. 27:
16: to direct, Col. 3:2.
SET, did set, Gen. 1:17: did place,
1 Sam. 5:2: did fix, Acts 13:9: did
SET, placed, Gen. 24:33: defined,
1 Chron. 9:22: commissioned, Phil. 1:
17: appointed, Acts 12:21: arranged,
SETH, שח (put, or who puts), a son of
Adam and Eve, born in the year of the
world 130; at the age of 105 years he
begat Enos, and died at the age of 912
years. Seth is regarded as the chief of
the race of the saints, as the Scripture
calls them "sons of God[,]" in contradis-
tinction from the wicked race of Cain,
Gen. 4:25, 26; 5:3-8; 7:2.
SETTER, one who sets, makes known,
or preaches, Acts 17:18.
SETTING, a rim, as of gold, to enclose
a precious stone, Exod. 28:17.
SETTING, fixing or erecting, Ezek.
43:8: appointing, Matt. 28:66.
SETTLE, a sort of base or projecting
lower border, as of the altar, Ezek. 43:
SETTLE, to establish, as in the posses-
sion of property, Ezek. 36:11: to
confirm in assurance of mind, 1 Pet. 5:
10: to resolve, Luke 21:14.
SETTLED, established, 1 Kings 8:13:
reposed, Jer. 48:11: constant, Col. 1:
SEVEN, a number, as of the days in a
week: this number is used throughout
the Scriptures with peculiar emphasis,
regarding both persons and things: the
seventh day is the Sabbath, Exod. 20:
10; the seventh year was the year of
release among the Israelites, Deut. 15:1;
and every seven time seventh was a
jubilee, Lev. 25:8. This number is
used to denote completeness or perfec-
tion; as "seven evil spirits" indicates
extreme wickedness, Matt. 12:45; "the
seven Spirits of God," the fulness of
knowledge of the Holy Spirit, Rev. 1:4;
3:1; 4:5; 5:6. "[S]even horns and seven
eyes" indicate the omnipotence and infi-
nite knowledge of Christ, Rev. 5:6.
SEVENTH, the ordinal number of seven,
Gen. 8:4; Exod. 21:2.
SEVENTEENTH, the seventh after the
tenth, Gen. 7:11; 8:4.
SEVENTY, seven times ten, Gen. 4:24;
Dan. 9:2, 24.
SEVER, to divide or separate, Exod. 9:
4; Matt. 13:44.
SEVERED, separated, Lev. 20:26: ap-
pointed or fixed upon, Deut. 4:41.
SEVERAL, distinct, Num. 28:13;
SEVERALLY, distinctly, 1 Cor. 12:11. SEVERITY, rigid strictness, Rom. 11:
SEW, to join together with thread
drawn by a needle, Eccles. 3:7; Ezek.
SEWED, did sew, Job 16:15; Gen.
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