Bible Dictionary: S.   1840

  1. SABACTHA'NI, Σαβαχθανι, Chal. [h]
    (thou hast forsaken me), uttered by our
    Lord, when on the cross his human soul
    was pierced with grief for our iniquities
    Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34; Isa. 53:10.
  2. SAB'AOTH, [g], [h] tzabaoth (host
    or armies), Rom. 9:29; Jam. 5:4.
  3. SAB'BATH, שבת, σαββατον sabbaton
    (rest from labour), the seventh day of
    creation, on which
    God rested from His
    work, and therefore sanctified it as a day
    of rest for man, appointing it to be spent
    in his worship: so it was observed by
    the pious patriarchs to the time of Moses,
    Gen. 2:2, 3; 4:3; Exod. 16:23-39.
    God specially appointed it in the law at
    Sinai, ordaining a double sacrifice on that
    day, 20:10; Num. 28:9, 10: but in
    Christianity, the sabbath is the first day
    of the week, in commemorating of Christ
    ceasing from suffering, by His resurrec-
    , and it is therefore called the Lord's
    , Rev. 1:10.   Christ distinguished this
    day by many special appearances
    , Matt.
    28:1-9; John 20:19-26; and it has
    ever since been observed by Christians
    as the sabbath
    , Acts 1:12; 2:2; 20:7; 1
    Cor. 16:2.
  4. SABBATH, a sacred festival, as a day of
    rest, Lev. 16:29-31: hence the festivals
    of Israel were called Sabbaths, Exod.
    31:13; Col. 2:16.
  5. SABBATH, the sabbatical or seventh
    year, in which the land of Canaan was to
    rest and lie uncultivated, to ensure the
    blessing of God, Lev. 25:2, 20.   The
    second sabbath after the first was the
    second of the sabbaths between the pass-
    over and pentecost, Luke 6:1.   Sabbath
    day's journey was nearly about a mile,
    Acts 1:12.
  6. SABE'ANS, [h] sebayim (captivity), a
    daring tribe of Arabs, descended from
    Sheba or Seba, Job 1:15; Isa. 45:14;
    Gen. 10:7.
  7. SAB'TAH, [h] (windings), the third son
    of Cush, who peopled part of Arabia
    Felix, Gen. 10:7.
  8. SAB'TECHA, [h] (that surrounds, or
    causes wounding), the fifth son of Cush,
    supposed to have peopled part of Arabia,
    Gen. 10:7.
  9. SACKBUT, a musical instrument of the
    Chaldeans, supposed to have had four
    strings, though some think it was a kind
    of pipe, but nothing certain is known of
    its form, Dan. 3:5-15.
  10. SACK, a large bag, as for corn, Gen.
    42:26; Josh. 9:4.
  11. SACKCLOTH, coarse cloth made of the
    hair of horses, goats, or camels, used for
    sacks, 1 Kings 20:31, 32; 21:27; or for
    mourning garments, Gen. 37:34;
    Est. 4:1, 2; Jon. 3:5-8.   Sackcloth was
    worn by some
    Nazarites and prophets, as
    Elijah and John, 2 Kings 1:8; Matt. 3:
    4: false prophets wore such garments as
    the means of imposing on the people,
    Zech. 13:4.
  12. SACRIFICE, an act of religious worship,
    in which death was inflicted on a living
    creature thus offered to God as an atone-
    ment for sin, thus acknowledging the
    claims of Divine justice to the forfeited
    life of the transgressor.   Animal sacri-
    fices of atonement were the appointment
    of God, to prefigure and teach the vicari-
    ous sacrifice of
    Christ, as an all- sufficient
    atonement for a guilty world
    : as such
    sacrifices were offered in faith by Abel
    and the pious patriarchs and Israelites,
    until Jesus appeared once in the end of
    the world, to put away sin by the sacri-
    fice of Himself
    , Gen. 4:3, 4; Heb. 9:24,
    26; 10:1, 12; 11:4.   See OFFERING.
  13. SACRIFICE, an offering to God accord-
    ing to his will, as works of love and
    praise are called spiritual sacrifices, Heb.
    13:15, 16; 1 Pet. 2:5.
  14. SACRIFICE, to perform the act of sacri-
    ficing, Exod. 3:18; 20:24; 1 Kings 3:4.
  15. SACRILEGE, profanation of holy things,
    or the crime of taking for private use or
    profit, things devoted to religion, Rom.
  16. SAD, sorrowful, Gen. 40:6; Neh. 2:1-3;
    Mark 10:22.
  17. SADDLE, the seat placed upon a horse
    or [donkey] for the rider, Lev. 15:9.
  18. SADDLE, to equip a horse or [donkey] for the
    rider, Gen. 22:3; 1 Kings 13:13.
  19. SADDUCEES, Σαδδουκοι, one of the two
    religious sects into which the Jews were
    divided, so called from Sadoc or Zadoc,
    a famous rabbi, who flourished nearly
    three centuries before the advent of
    Christ.   The professed regard to the
    five books of Moses, but disregarded the
    other sacred books; and as their first
    professors taught that all obedience to
    God should be rendered without respect
    to future rewards or punishments, those
    in the apostolic age denied all idea of a
    state after death, and even the existence
    angel or spirit.   Sadducees, we find,
    filled the most honourable offices in the
    Jewish church, in its corrupt state, being
    generally of the higher class of society;
    they were fewer in number than the Pha-
    risees, but equally with them the bitter
    enemies of Christ and His apostles, Matt.
    3:7; 16:1, 6-12; 22:23-24; Acts 4:1; 5:
    17; 23:6-8.
  20. SADLY, sorrowfully, Gen. 40:7.
  21. SADNESS, sorrowfulness, Eccles. 7:3.
  22. SA'DOC, Σαδωκ (just or justified), a Jew
    noted in the genealogy of Christ, Matt. 1:
  23. SAFE, free from harm, 2 Sam. 18:
    29: in security, Isa. 5:29: beneficial,
    Phil. 3:1.
  24. SAFEGUARD, security, 1 Sam. 22:23.
  25. SAFELY, securely, Prov. 1:33; 3:23.
  26. SAFETY, freedom from danger, Psal.
    12:5: security, 1 Thess. 5:3: wisdom to
    effect security or defence, Prov. 11:14.
  27. SAFFRON, an odoriferous plant, with a
    bulbous root, producing a stalk bearing
    a blue flower, enclosing three little yellow
    threads, which druggists call saffron, Sol.
    Song 4:14.
  28. SAID, did say, Gen. 2:23: reported, 10:
    9; 22:14.
  29. SAIL, a large sheet of a ship at sea,
    expanded to catch the wind, Ezek. 27:
    7; Acts 27:17-40.
  30. SAIL, to travel by ship at sea, Acts 20:
    3, 16.
  31. SAILORS, mariners, seamen, labourers
    in a ship, Rev. 18:17.
  32. SAINT, a holy person, one [important] for
    piety, Psal. 106:16; Phil. 4:21: an angel
    of God, Dan. 8:13.
  33. SAINTS, signifying holy persons, is
    applied to holy angels who minister before
    God, Deut. 33:2; Jude 14: to the
    spirits of just men with God, Rev. 18:
    24: and commonly as the descriptive
    title of true
    believers, they having been
    regenerated and sanctified by the Holy
    , Phil. 1:1; Eph. 1:1-15; 1 Cor. 6:
  34. SAKE, on account of, Gen. 8:21; 18:
    29-31: out of regard to, John 12:9; Rom.
  35. SA'LAH, [h] or SALA (mission or sending),
    a son of Arphaxad, or of Cainan, Gen. 10:
    24; 11:12-15; Luke 3:35.
  36. SAL'AMIS, [g] (shaken, tossed, or
    beaten), the chief city of the isle of Cyprus,
    famous for the
    conversion of the Roman
    governor by Paul's ministry, Acts 13:
  37. SALA'THIEL, [h] (I have asked of
    , or loan of God), a prince of Judah,
    1 Chron. 3:17; it is spelled Shealtiel,
    Ezra 3:2; 5:2.   Some difficulty arises
    in comparing Matt. 1:12 with Luke 3:
    27, which would be removed by a fuller
    acquaintance with the Jewish registers.
  38. SALE, the act of selling property, Lev.
    25:27-50; Deut. 18:8.
  39. SA'LEM, שלם or SHALEM, (complete, or
    peace), the city of which Melchisedec was
    king, Gen. 14:18: a contraction of the
    name of Jerusalem, Psal. 76:2.
  40. SA'LIM, Σαλειμ, or SHALIM (fox, or path),
    a city on the north-east of Samaria, near
    the Jordan, John 3:18; 1 Sam. 9:4:
    probably the city of Melchisedec.
  41. SAL'MON, [h] (peaceable, perfect, or that
    ), called Salma, 1 Chron. 2:11, a
    prince of Judah, Ruth 4:20; Matt. 1:4.
  42. SALMON, a mountain, Psal. 68:14.
    See ZALMON.
  43. SALMO'NE, [g] (peaceable), a city
    and sea-port of Crete, Acts 27:7.
  44. SALO'ME, [g] (peaceable), the wife
    Zebedee, and mother of the apostles
    James and John, Mark 15:40; Matt. 4:
    21; 20:20, 21; 27:56; Mark 10:35.
  45. SALT, a well-known substance, found
    as a fossil, and produced from brine or
    sea-water, Gen. 19:26; Deut. 29:23.
    Salt in the vast ocean preserves the water
    from putrefaction; and it was required
    to be used in all the offerings of Israel,
    Lev. 2:13: on which Dr. A. Clarke
    remarks, "salt was the opposite of leaven,
    for it preserved from putrefaction and
    corruption, and signified the purity and
    persevering fidelity that are necessary in
    the worship of God."
      Salt is an emblem
    of wisdom, and hence the exhortation of
    Christ, Mark 9:50, and of Paul, Col. 4:
    6: it denotes perpetuity, Num. 18:19,
    and desolation, Judg. 9:45.
  46. SALTED, seasoned with salt, Matt. 5:
    13: anointed for cleansing and health,
    Ezek. 16:4.   "[S]alted with fire," means
    brought to judgment, Matt. 9:[49].   "Salted
    with the salt of the palace,"
    as the mar-
    gin reads from the Chaldee, Ezra 4:4,
    means supported by the king.   In like
    manner, "I eat his salt," meaning, I am
    supported by him, is a common expression
    at the present time in the East Indies.
  47. SALTNESS, the natural strength and
    properties of salt, Mark 9:50.
  48. SALT SEA, the lake of the sea of Sodom,
    miraculously formed or enlarged by the
    overthrow of the four guilty cities, Gen.
    14:10; 19:24, 25; Deut. 29:23; and
    into which the river Jordan flows, 3:16;
    12:13.   On the eastern shore salt is
    found in lumps often more than a foot in
    thickness, in places which the lake had
    overflowed: the stones on the shores are
    covered with an incrustation of lime or
    gypsum.   Branches which fall from the
    bushes into the water soon become encased
    in salt: pieces of wood thrown in are
    quickly covered with a rind of salt; and
    thus some suppose Lot's wife was incased
    by the nitro-sulphureous matter which
    descended; and being as it were em-
    balmed, she became a salso-bituminous
    mass or pillar; a monument of the holy
    visitations of the Divine power.   See
  49. SALT, VALLEY OF, a desert covered
    with salt in Idumea, 2 Sam. 8:13; 1
    Chron. 18:12; Psal. 60. title, 2 Kings
    14:7; 2 Chron. 25:11.   Dr. Halifax
    mentions, in his account of Palmyra, the
    Tadmor of Solomon, 2 Chron. 8:4, such
    a valley or desert near to that city in
    Idumea, probably this same Valley of
  50. SA'LU, [h] (basket, treading of fear, or
    elevation), a prince of Simeon, slain in the
    abomination of Baal-peor, Num. 25:6,
  51. SALVATION, deliverance from threaten-
    ing danger or from a powerful enemy, as
    the Israelites from the rage of Pharaoh,
    Exod. 14:13; or Jonah from the horrors
    of the deep, Jon. 2:9.   God, being the
    preserver of the life and the deliverer of
    the souls of the saints, is called their sal-
    , Exod. 15:2; Psal. 27:1.
  52. SALVATION, deliverance from guilt and
    condemnation, with an interest in im-
    mortal happiness through the mediation
    of Christ
    , Luke 1:77; Acts 4:12; Heb. 5:
    9.   Salvation is, therefore, applied to
    Christ Himself, as the Author of that
    glorious deliverance
    , Isa. 49:6; Luke 2:
    30; and to the present state of believers
    as made meet for the kingdom of Heaven,
    2 Cor. 7:10; 1 Pet. 1:9.
  53. SALUTATION, an affectionate address,
    Luke 1:29; Col. 4:18.
  54. SALUTE, to address with friendship or
    affection, 1 Sam. 10:4; Matt. 5:47; Tit. 3:
  55. SAMA'RIA, [h], Σωμερων (his lees, his
    , his throne, or his diamond), one of
    the five provinces of Canaan, situated in
    the centre of that division west of the
    Jordan, John 4:3-5; Acts 9:31.
  56. SAMARIA, the capital city of the king-
    dom of
    Israel, after its division from
    Judah.   King Omri bought the hill from
    Shemer or Shomeron, and built the city:
    it was a strong place, and beautifully
    situated in the centre of the province,
    1 Kings 16:24; 20:1.   Samaria was
    reduced to ruins by Shalmanezer, king
    of Assyria, 2 Kings 17:4-6, as predicted
    by the prophet Micah, on account of the
    wickedness of the people, Mic. 1:6.
    Alexander the Great planted a colony of
    Macedonians here, and it was partially
    rebuilt by Gabinius, a Roman governor.
    Herod the Great restored it to a con-
    siderable degree of its former glory,
    calling it Sebaste, in Latin Augusta, in
    honour of his patron the emperor Augus-
    tus[.]   Philip, who preached the gospel in
    Samaria, Acts 8:1, 3, 9; and churches
    were gathered through the province, 9:
    31.   Christianity continued here, at least
    in name, for several centuries; but it is
    now reduced to the condition of a poor
    village called SEBASTE.
  57. SAMARITANS, inhabitants of the city
    or province of Samaria, Matt. 10:5.
  58. SAMARITANS, a Jewish sect, composed
    of the descendants of those whom Shal-
    manezer left in the country, and those
    whom he sent as colonists, who by inter-
    marriage became one people.   They re-
    tained various forms of idolatry, with
    which some of the inhabitants of Moses
    were united, 2 Kings 17:25, 32.   Al-
    though they admitted the five books of
    Moses to be divine, and became partially
    reformed, they were not permitted to
    unite with the Jews in rebuilding their
    temple at Jerusalem, hence their original
    enmity was strengthened, especially as
    they built a rival temple on mount Geri-
    , Ezra 4:1-4; Neh. 2:10-20.   Cor-
    rupted, as the Jews had the simplicity
    of the religion of the Scriptures, the
    Samaritans were, in general, much farther
    from the truth; still it is evident that
    some entertained sound views relating
    to the expected Messiah, John 4:49;
    Acts 8:1-14.
  59. SAME, the identical person, Gen. 5:29;
    24:14; Acts 1:11; or thing, Gen.
    48:7: like, Exod. 25:31, 36: un-
    changeable, as Jesus is unchangeable in
    His Divine nature and His mediatorial
    , Heb. 13:8.
  60. SAM'LAH, [h] (raiment, or left hand),
    a king of ancient Edom, Gen. 36:36.
  61. SA'MOS, [g] (sand, or full of gravel),
    an island in the Egean sea, near the
    coast of Asia Minor, about twenty-four
    miles long and twelve broad: its ancient
    city Samos lies in ruins, its present
    capital is Cora: the whole population is
    about 60,000, Acts 20:5.   Samos is cele-
    brated as the birth-place of Pythagoras,
    and the burial-place of Lycurgus.
  62. SAMOTHRA'CIA, [g], an island
    of the Egean sea, about seventeen miles
    in circuit, opposite Thrace, and so named
    from having been peopled from the con-
    tinent and from Samos, Acts 16:11: it
    is now called Samotraki.
  63. SAM'SON, [h] (his son, his service, or
    ministry), the son of Manoah, a
    of extraordinary bodily strength, and
    one of the judges of Israel.   Samson's
    birth, various exploits, and eventful
    death, were all remarkable, and in some
    respects mysterious,   Some indications
    of piety appear in the latter hours of
    his life; but the sincerity of his personal
    religion might have been questioned,
    except for the inspired testimony of the
    apostle, Heb. 11:32, 33.   Dr. Clarke and
    others have supposed that the exploits
    of Samson occasioned the heathen mytho-
    logy of Hercules
    , Judg. 13. 16.
  64. SAM'UEL, [h] (asked of God, or heard
    of God
    ): the eminent prophet of
    was the last of the extraordinary judges
    of Israel.   The circumstances of Samuel's
    birth, his early dedication to the service
    of God, his awful mission to Eli respect-
    ing his sons, his divine call to the pro-
    office, his public administration
    as judge, his anointing of Saul and of
    David to the office of king of Israel, in
    connexion with his high integrity, his
    official uprightness, and his uniform
    devotion to the welfare of his country,
    are all instructive, exhibiting him a
    shining example of personal holiness
    and generous patriotism.   He died at
    the age of ninety-eight, two years before
    the death of Saul; and he has deservedly
    been called the [RESPECT]ABLE SAMUEL.
    The regulation of service for the Levites,
    1 Chron. 9:22, and the dedication of
    treasures to the tabernacle, 26:28,
    must have been during the life of
  65. SAMUEL I., THE BOOK OF: this book
    contains the national records of
    during a period of about one hundred
    years from the birth of Samuel, A.M.
    2849, to the death of Saul, A.M. 2949.
    The first twenty-four chapters are be-
    lieved to have been written by the pro-
    Samuel, on which account the book
    bears his name, and the remainder was
    completed by the prophets Nathan and
    Gad, 1 Chron. 29:29.
    See Commentary.
  66. SAMUEL II., THE BOOK OF: this book
    continues the national history of Israel
    during the reign of
    David, and includes
    a period of forty years from the death of
    Saul, from A.M. 2949 to A.M. 2989.
    See Commentary.
  67. SANBAL'LAT, [h] (bush in secret, or
    enemy in secret), the chief governor of the
    Cuthites or Samaritans, and a great
    enemy of the Jews in the time of Nehe-
    , Neh. 2:10-19; 4:1; 6:2-12: he
    is called the Horonite, as he was a native
    of Horon or Horonaim, beyond the Jor-
    dan, in Moab.
  68. SANCTIFICATION, holiness, 1 Cor. 1:30;
    1 Thess. 4:3, 4: the act of making holy,
    2 Thess. 2:13; 1 Pet. 1:2: it is the work
    and fruit of the Holy Spirit in all his
    excellent graces
    , Gal. 5:22, 23.   Sancti-
    fication is to be sought as our duty, by
    means of the truth and ordinances of
    God, 1 Pet. 1:22; and all needful grace
    for it may be obtained from the fulness
    of Christ, John 1:16; Col. 1:19; 2 Tim. 2:
    1; it is also to be solicited as a privilege,
    a special blessing of the new covenant,
    Heb. 8:10-12; 2 Pet. 1:4.
  69. SANCTIFIED, made holy; as God
    blessed the seventh day for a sabbath,
    Gen. 2:3; as Moses ceremonially sancti-
    fied Aaron and his sons, by washing,
    sacrifice, anointing, and robing them,
    for the office of the priesthood, Lev. 8:
    6, 7, 12, 15, 24; as God really sanctifies
    His people, by
    "the washing of regene-
    ration, and the renewing of the Holy
    [,]" Tit. 3:5; 1 Cor. [6]:11; as the
    saints are made perfectly holy in
    Acts 20:32; Heb. 12:23.   Sanctified
    denotes also, separated to a holy service
    or use, as the Levites were to the service
    of God in the instruction of Israel, Num.
    6:17, 18, 22; as the tabernacle, instru-
    ments, and vessels thereof, were to
    Divine service, 7:1; as the temple of
    Solomon was, 2 Chron. 7:16; as the
    temple, vessels, and priests, were sepa-
    rated from idolatry to Divine service,
    after Hezekiah had succeeded to the
    throne of his father Ahaz, 28:23, 27;
    29:15, 17, 19, 34; as God's people are
    separated to be saved, Heb. 10:14; as
    Christ was separated to fulfil the work
    of redemption
    , John 10:36.   God is sanc-
    tified by men when they render due
    honour to Him in his ordinances of wor-
    , Lev. 10:3.
  70. SANCTIFY, to make holy, as Christ
    sanctifies His church by the holy influ-
    ence of His gospel
    , and the grace of his
    Spirit, Eph. 5:26; as God sanctifies
    believers by His truth, John 17:17,
    making them meet to be partakers of the
    inheritance of the saints in light, Col. 1:
    12; to separate to a holy use or special ser-
    vice for God, Exod. 30:29; Ezek. 37:
    28; John 17:19.   Moses was commanded
    to institute all the various ceremonies
    of the Levitical law, to teach the neces-
    sity of personal holiness, and to be the
    means of sanctifying the people.   God
    sanctifying His great and glorious name,
    is making worthy displays of His provi-
    dence, character, and grace
    , especially
    by the gospel of Jesus Christ, Ezek.
    36:23; 38:38.
  71. SANCTUARY, a holy place, as the taber-
    nacle, Exod. 25:8; Heb. 9:2, especi-
    ally that part of it within the vail, called
    "the most holy place," Exod. 26:33;
    Lev. 4:6, where the mercy-seat or
    propitiatory was placed, 16:13-17, to
    which none might enter but the high-
    priest, and he only once a year.   Solo-
    mon's temple, as the house of God, was
    called the sanctuary, 1 Chron. 22:19;
    and the part of it commonly used for
    public worship, Psal. 73:17.   Sacred
    places, or sanctuaries, being regarded as
    inviolable, criminals sought protection
    in them, the land of Canaan, was there-
    fore regarded as an asylum to Israel,
    and called the sanctuary, Exod. 15:17.
    God Himself is the sanctuary of His
    , Isa. 8:14; and Heaven is their
    final and eternal sanctuary
    , Heb. 8:2;
    Psal. 20:2; 102:19; John 14:1, 2.
  72. SAND, small particles of stone which
    are innumerable: "the sand on the sea-
    is frequently referred to as a fit
    emblem to denote anything numerous,
    as the increased posterity of Abraham,
    Gen. 22:17.
  73. SANDALS, loose shoes or soles, bound
    to the feet of travellers, Mark 6:9; Acts
    12:8.   These were variously formed and
    ornamented in Palestine, Egypt, and
    other countries.
  74. SAP, the vital juice of plants, Psal. 104:
  75. SAPH, [h] (rushes, sea-moss, or consumma-
    , or Sippai), 1 Chron. 20:4; one of
    the Philistine giants slain by David and
    his men, 2 Sam. 21:18.
  76. SAPPHI'RA, [g] (that relates or tells,
    or that writes books, or handsome), the wife
    Ananias, and partner in his prevarica-
    tion and falsehood as to the price of an
    estate, sold professedly for the Christian
    treasury: she shared also with her hus-
    band in the punishment for their crime,
    they being struck dead by the immediate
    visitation of God, Acts 5:1-11.
  77. SAPPHIRE, a very bright gem, whose
    proper colour is pure blue, but varying
    from nearly white as crystal to a deep
    azure: it is second in value only to the
    diamond, Exod. 28:18.   To this
    brightness is likened the throne of God,
    24:10; Ezek. 1:26.
  78. SA'RAH, [h] (the lady or the princess),
    the wife of
    Abraham, and mother of
    Isaac, Gen. 21:1-8.   Abraham calls her
    his sister by his father, but not by his
    mother, 20:12, which the Jews, and
    many of our greatest commentators, ex-
    plain thus :--Sarah was the same as
    Iscah, the daughter of Haran, the brother
    of Abraham, but sixty years older than
    he; and therefore, she was granddaughter
    of his father Terah, but not by his own
    mother, 11:29-32; 12:4.
  79. SA'RAI, [h] (my lady or my princess), the
    original name of the wife of Abraham,
    but changed to Sarah (the lady), on his
    being divinely assured that she should
    become a mother, Gen. 17:15.
  80. SA'RAPH, [h], a chief or king of Moab,
    1 Chron. 4:22.
  81. SARDINE, a precious stone of Sardis,
    Rev. 4:3.   See SARDIUS.
  82. SAR'DIS, [g] (prince of joy, or song
    of joy
    , or that which remains), the capital of
    Lydia in Asia Minor, famous for its rich
    pagan king Croesus, but more for its
    having a
    congregation of Christians, to
    whom John addressed one of the admo-
    nitory letters dictated by Christ, Rev.
    3:1-6.   Sardis was, in 1826, only a
    wretched village called Sart, consisting
    of a few mud huts; and two Greek
    servants of a Turkish miller were its
    only professing Christians!
  83. SARDIUS, the ruby, a precious stone
    of a deep red colour, the best of which
    were found in Sardis, from which it
    received its name, Rev. 21:20.
  84. SARDONYX, a precious stone resem-
    bling a sardius united with an onyx,
    probably a wavy or striped red corne-
    lian, Rev. 21:20.
  85. SAREP'TA, [g] (a goldsmith's shop),
    the Greek name of Zarephath, a city of
    Sidon, Luke 4:26.   See ZAREPHATH.
  86. SA'RON, [g], Saronan (protection,
    his plain, or his song), a city near to Joppa
    in the plain of Sharon, Acts 9:35.   See
  87. SA'TAN, שטן Σατανας, Satanas (an ad-
    ), so the word is translated, Num.
    22:22; 1 Sam. 24:4; 1 Kings 11:14,
    23, 25.   Christ calling Peter Satan seems
    to have this signification, Matt. 16:23:
    as if he had said, "Away from me, O
    mine adversary, thou regardest not the
    object of my mission, the redemption of
    mankind, but the repose of this world,
    a policy fit only for the devil."
  88. SATAN, THE DEVIL, the adversary of
    God and man, 1 Chron. 21:1; Job 1:6-12;
    Matt. 4:1-10; Rev. 20:2.   By collating
    the several texts in which the title Satan
    or Devil occurs, it will be evident that
    he is the chief of the fallen "angels who
    kept not their first estate"
    in heaven,
    but rebelled against God, and were cast
    down into hell, Jude 6; that by the per-
    mission of God, he exercises a sort of
    government over his fellow-apostates;
    that his envy and malice led him to
    seduce our first parents, through which
    they brought guilt, misery, and death,
    into our world; that God still makes
    use of his agency to try and prove good
    men, and to tempt and chastise the
    wicked; that he prevailed over David
    to indulge his vain glory in numbering
    the people; over Judas to gratify his
    cupidity in betraying Christ; and over
    Ananias and Sapphira to practise decep-
    tion with their fellow-Christians, in with-
    holding part of the price of their estate,
    professedly sold to aid the treasury of
    the church's poor.   Satan continues the
    of both God and man, ruling in
    the hearts of the ungodly, and seeking
    to allure or to drive men to sin, present-
    ing temptations to the mind in every
    form of profit or terror
    , Matt. 4:15;
    Luke 22:3-31; Acts 5:3; 2 Cor. 2:11;
    11:14; 1 Pet. 5:8.
       Depths of Satan means unscriptural
    mysteries or speculations, by which the
    mind may be corrupted from the truth,
    or abominable practices, Rev. 2:24.
       Kingdom of Satan, the power of error
    and sin, caused principally by Satan, and
    of which his angels and ungodly men
    are subjects, Matt. 12:26; Acts 26:18;
    2 Cor. 4:4; Eph. 2:2; Col. 1:13.
       Synagogue of Satan, the company of
    united zealots, enemies of the gospel,
    Rev. 2:9; as synagogue is an assembly
    or congregation.
    • Satan.   He is an evil person.
      He is a liar, a murderer, proud, a deceiver,
      a thief, & loves to destroy.--DWC, p. 387.
  89. SATIATE, to satisfy with a fulness,
    Jer. 31:14, 25.   The sword is said to
    be satiated with slaughter, 46:10.
  90. SATISFACTION, amends for injury com-
    mitted, Num. 35:31, 32.
  91. SATISFIED, contented, as with abun-
    dance, Deut. 14:29; 33:23; Eccles. 1:
    8; 4:8; 5:10.
  92. SATISFY, to give content, Psal. 91:16; Isa. 58:10.
  93. SATISFYING, giving content, Prov. 13:
    25; Col. 2:23.
  94. SA'TYR, [h], seir (a shaggy goat), Isa.
  95. SA'TYRS, [h] seirim (shaggy goats),
    Isa. 13:21: this word is rendered devils,
    Lev. 17:7; Deut. 32:17; 2 Chron.
    11:15, because, while the idols were
    fashioned in hideous figures, as of hairy
    goats, their religious rites were diabolical,
    and altogether delusions of the devil.
    Without remarking on the fabled satyrs,
    as "half men and half goats," we may
    add, that some suppose a species of ape
    is meant, and hence our old English
    versions, between 1550 and 1570, read
    "and apes shall daunce there,"
    Isa. 13:
  96. SAUL, [h] Σαυλος (demanded, lent, ditch,
    sepulchre, death, or hell), the son of Kish,
    and anointed by
    Samuel to be the first
    king of the Israelites, 1 Sam. 9:1, 2;
    10:1.   God endowed him with eminent
    talents for government by the gifts of
    his Spirit, 10:6, 9, 10; 11:6: but his self-
    will and passion led him to the commis-
    sion of atrocious crimes, 22:18, 19;
    28:7, 18; 2 Sam. 21:1-5; and, after
    a reign of forty years, he fell upon his
    own sword, being defeated in battle with
    the Philistines, Acts 13:21; 1 Sam.
  97. SAUL, called also Shaul, 1 Chron. 1:48,
    a chief or king of Edom, Gen. 36:37.
  98. SAUL of Tarsus, the Jewish name of
    apostle Paul, Acts 7:58; 8:1;
    13:9.   See PAUL.
  99. SAVE, to preserve from evil, Gen. 45:
    7; Deut. 20:4; 1 Kings 1:12, 25, 34: to
    as from danger or distress, 2
    Kings 16:7; Matt. 14:30; 27:49:
    from the
    guilt and power of sin, Matt. 1:
    21: to secure to eternal life and glory,
    1 Tim. 1:15; Heb. 7:25.
  100. SAVE, except, or besides, Judg. 7:14;
    Mark 5:57; Gal 1:19.
  101. SAVED, preserved, Gen. 47:25; Exod.
    1:17: sanctified and preserved to
    , John 5:34; Acts 2:47; Rom. 5:
    9, 10.
  102. SAVING, preserving, Gen. 19:19; Heb.
    11:7: enlightening and sanctifying, as
    the influence of the gospel, Psal. 67:2.
  103. SAVIOUR, a preserver, defender, or de-
    liverer, 2 Kings 13:5; Neh. 9:27; Isa.
    19:20.   God is pre-eminently the Saviour
    of His people, as their
    Creator, Preserver,
    and Deliverer
    , Psal. 106:21; Isa. 45:15-
    21.   God is "the Saviour of all men,
    specially of those that believe
    [,]" 1 Tim.
  104. SAVIOUR, the descriptive title of Jesus
    , who is in a peculiar sense the
    Saviour of the world, John 4:42; 1 John
    4:14.   Being the Son of God, He became
    incarnate, that He might by His obedience
    to the law of God, and His enduring of
    its penalty or the curse, make atonement
    for the sin of the world, and so
    the [A]uthor of eternal salvation unto all
    them that obey him[,]"
    Heb. 5:9.   Jesus
    Christ saves the soul from condemnation

    to holiness, and the body from the ruin
    of the grave, and constitutes every be-
    an inheritor of immortality and
    eternal glory.
  105. SAVOUR, a strong scent, Lev. 26:3;
    Eccles. 10:1: sharp taste, Matt. 5:13:
    reputation, Exod. 5:21: gratefulness or
    acceptableness, as Noah's sacrifice to
    God, Gen. 8:21; as Christ's offering
    of Himself
    , Eph. 5:2; as the faithful
    labours of the apostles, 2 Cor. 2:15.
  106. SAVOUR, to regard with delight, Matt.
  107. SAVOURY, seasoned or relishing, Gen.
    27:4, 31.
  108. SAW, a carpenter's instrument to cut
    wood, Isa. 10:15.
  109. SAW, did see or perceive, Gen. 3:6;
    6:2; Acts 4:13; 6:15.
  110. SAWED, cut to size and form, as stones
    were shaped for any building, 1 Kings
  111. SAWN, cut with a saw, as an ancient
    mode of punishing with death, Heb. 11:
    37.   The apostle is supposed to refer to
    Isaiah, who is believed to have been
    murdered thus by order of king Manas-
    , 2 Kings 21:16.
  112. SAWS, instruments of cutting for wood
    or stones, 1 Kings 7:9: implements of
    torture, as some suppose, under which
    the counsellors of Hanun, who had ad-
    vised him to insult and abuse the ambas-
    sadors of David, were put to death, 2
    Sam. 12:31.   Dr. Gill and others think,
    that while the cruel Ammonites merited
    severity (see 1 Sam. 11:2; 15:33, Amos
    1:13), yet David only put them to hard
    labour, giving the following translation,
    as conveying the sense of the text, from
    a learned German: "And he obliged the
    people that were in it to go out, and put
    them to the saw,"
    to cut stones; "and
    to the iron mines,"
    to dig there; "and
    to axes of iron,"
    to cut wood with; "after
    he had made them to pass with their
    out of the city.   "So David and
    all the people returned unto Jerusalem,"

    in triumph, and with great spoil.   Mr.
    Horne accords with this view, adding
    "This form of expression is an Anglicism
    as well as a Hebraism; and we still say,
    To put a person to the plough, to the
    anvil, &c."
  113. SAY, to speak or tell, Gen. 37:20:
    to pronounce, Judg. 12:6: to answer,
    Exod. 3:14: to promise, Luke 23:43:
    to affirm and teach, Matt. 18:10: to
    testify as a witness, Acts 24:20: to
    argue, Jam. 2:18: to muse or meditate,
    Deut. 7:17; Matt. 3:9.
  114. SAYING, a declaration, Gen. 37:11:
    a reply, Matt. 7:29: a salutation, Luke
    1:28, 29: a proposal, Deut. 1:22, 23; 2
    Sam. 17:1-4: a prophecy, John 12:38:
    counsel, 2 Sam. 24:19: doctrine, John
    6:6; 1 Tim. 1:15.
  115. SCAB, an incrustation over a sore,
    Lev. 13:26: a disease, particularly the
    leprosy, Deut. 28:28; Isa. 3:17.
  116. SCABBARD, the sheath of a sword, Jer.
  117. SCABBED, diseased or leprous, Lev. 21:
    20; 22:22.
  118. SCAFFOLD, a temporary stage, 2 Chron.
  119. SCALES, the small shelly coverings of
    fishes and reptiles, Lev. 11:9, 10: those
    on the crocodile[?] are impenetrable by the
    sword, Job 41:15.
  120. SCALES, skins or films over the eyes,
    Acts 9:18.
  121. SCALES, balances for weighing things,
    Isa. 40:12.
  122. SCALL, a disease, a scab, a kind of
    leprosy in the head or beard, Lev. 13:
    30, 37; 14:51.
  123. SCALP, the skull, the hairy part of the
    head, Psal. 68:21.
  124. SCANT, too little, deficient, as in mea-
    sure, Mic. 6:10.
  125. SCAPE, escaping, Lev. 16:8, 10, 22.
  126. SCAPE-GOAT: this was one part of the
    sin-offering on the annual day of atone-
    ment: one goat was killed in sacrifice,
    prefiguring the death of Christ, and the
    scape-goat, being liberated, denoted, as
    is regarded, His resurrection, Lev. 16:
  127. SCARCE, scarcely, hardly, Gen. 27:
    30: with difficulty, Acts 14:18.
  128. SCARCELY, difficultly, 1 Pet. 4:18.
  129. SCARCENESS, want, deficient in quan-
    tity, Deut. 8:9.
  130. SCARE, to alarm or frighten, Job 7:
  131. SCARLET, a bright light- red colour,
    highly esteemed by the ancients, Exod.
    25:4; 2 Sam. 1:24; Isa. 1:18; Dan. 5:7:
    it was a tincture or dye discovered by the
    Phenicians, and prepared from the cases
    of a worm or insect which grew in a
    coccus or excresence of a shrubby tree
    producing acorns, it being a species of
    oak, called kermes-oak, and is common
    in Syria, Persia, and Palestine.
  132. SCATTER, to disperse, as the families
    were from Babel, to people the earth,
    Gen. 10:9; as the Israelites have been
    among the nations, Deut. 4:27; Ezek.
    20:23; as seed is on the prepared land,
    Isa. 28:25; as stubble is with the
    wind, Jer. 13:24.
  133. SCATTERED, dispersed, as the soldiers
    of a routed army, 1 Sam. 11:11; as the
    Christians were by persecution, Acts 8:
    1-4; as the Jews are throughout the
    world, Jer. 30:11; 31:10; Ezek. 11:
    16, 17.
  134. SCENT, a strong smell, Job 14:9; Hos.
  135. SCEPTRE, [h], shebet, ρ'αβδος (rabdos),
    a royal rod or staff, indicating govern-
    ment or royalty, Gen. 49:10; Est. 4:
    11; 5:2; Heb. 1:8.   The royal sceptre
    was originally a tall staff, surmounted
    with an emblematical ornament, and was
    used as a sign of the pastoral character
    of the sovereign.  
    Jacob declaring, "The
    sceptre shall not depart from Judah...until
    Shiloh come[,]"
    assured his son Judah that
    his tribal distinction and government
    should continue until the advent of Mes-
    , Gen. 49:10.
  136. SCE'VA, [g] (disposed or prepared), the
    chief of the Jewish priests at Ephesus,
    whose seven sons opposed Christianity,
    Acts 19:14.
  137. SCHISM, σχισμα (dislocation), 1 Cor. 12:
    25: the word occurs only once in the
    English Scriptures, and relates to the
    beautiful organisation of the human
    body; but the Greek word is used five
    other times: in Matt. 9:16, and Mark
    2:21, it is translated rent, as of a gar-
    ment: in John 7:43; 9:6, and 10:19,
    it is rendered division, as of opinion
    among the Jews, respecting the character
    of Christ: the word, in its plural form,
    occurs twice, 1 Cor. 1:10, and 11:18,
    σχισματα, translated divisions, relating
    to the differences of opinion, and conse-
    quent debates, in the Christian congre-
    gation at
  138. SCHOLAR, a disciple or pupil of a
    teacher in letters or science, 1 Chron.
    25:8; Mal. 2:12.
  139. SCHOOL, a place of instruction, as the
    school of Tyrannus, Acts 19:9: this
    appears to have been the lecture-room
    of the teacher, probably a pagan philo-
    converted to Christianity by the
    ministry of Paul.   Schools for the educa-
    tion of youth, especially for those destined
    to the service of God, must have existed
    at an early period, as one of great note
    seems to have flourished under the direc-
    tion of Samuel, at Naioth in Ramah, 1
    Sam. 19:18-24; and one at Bethel, under
    Elijah, 2 Kings 2:3-5.   It is thought
    that many besides the youth attended
    the school of the prophets, on festival
    days, to receive instruction, and that this
    custom originated the founding of syna-
    , especially after the return from
    Babylon.   At the time of Christ, doctors
    or teachers of great eminence were nume-
    rous at Jerusalem.   Paul's teacher, Gama-
    , was the most famous in his time,
    Acts 5:34; 22:3.   Many of the doctors
    entertained some peculiar sentiments,
    and hence they were called by their
    disciples fathers and masters, Matt. 23:
  140. SCHOOL-MASTER, the teacher or presi-
    dent in a school, Gal. 3:25.   Paul says,
    "the law was our schoolmaster to bring
    us unto Christ,"
    denoting the disciplinary
    character of the moral and ceremonial
    law, by which sinners could not be justi-
    fied without the atonement and right-
    eousness of Christ.
  141. SCIENCE, knowledge, especially that
    which relates to human affairs, Dan. 1:
    4.   Science, falsely so called, was the
    vain and corrupt speculations of the
    heathen philosophers, 1 Tim. 6:20.
  142. SCOFF, to mock or insult, Hab. 1:10.
  143. SCOFFERS, profane mockers, especially
    religion, 2 Pet. 3:3.
  144. SCORCH, to burn externally, Rev. 16:
    8, 9; Matt. 13:6.
  145. SCORN, to despise or slight, Job 16:
    20: to disregard, 39:7-18.
  146. SCORN, contempt, Psal. 44:13; Hab.
    1:10: meanness, Est. 3:6.
  147. SCORNER, a scoffer, Prov. 9:7, 8; 14:
    6; Hos. 7:5.
  148. SCORNFUL, profane, Psal. 1:1; Isa.
  149. SCORNING, impiety or profanity, Prov.
  150. SCORPION, a venomous reptile, of which
    there are several species, yellow, brown,
    and black; it is commonly about two or
    three inches long, and greatly resembles
    a small lobster, which the Arabs there-
    fore call the sea scorpion: its body when
    coiled up is shaped somewhat like an
    egg, Luke 11:12, and it has a very small
    head with six or eight eyes: it has eight
    feet or claws proceeding from the corslet,
    and two larger ones from the sides of
    the head, with a pair of pincers at the
    end of each: the tail proceeds from the
    belly in a series of seven rings, formed
    like a string of seven beads: the poison of
    this animal is very strong, consequently
    its bite is dreadful, Deut. 8:15; Rev.
    9:3, 5, 10.  
    Rehoboam exhibited his
    cruel folly in his reply to the elders of
    Israel, in threatening to govern them
    with severe, stinging exactions, as the
    venom of scorpions, 1 Kings 12:11.
    Christ taught His apostles their security,
    by giving them power to tread on scor-
    pions, Luke 10:19; malicious wicked men
    are intended by scorpions, Ezek. 2:6.
    These reptiles abounded in ruins, and
    among the rocks of Egypt and Arabia.
  151. SCOUR, to rub bright, as a brazen
    vessel, Lev. 6:28.
  152. SCOURGE, a large whip made of thongs,
    ropes, or twigs, John 2:15: an instru-
    ment of the Divine judgment, Isa. 10:26.
    The scourge of the tongue is a slan-
    derer's, Job 5:21.
  153. SCOURGE, to whip or flog, as a punish-
    ment by order of a magistrate, Lev. 19:
    20; Deut. 25:2.   This practice seems to
    have been common in the synagogues of
    the Jews in the time of our Saviour and
    His apostles, Matt. 10:17; 20:19; 23:
    Paul suffered scourging from the
    Jews five times, forty stripes save one
    each time, 2 Cor. 11:21; as the law did
    not allow more than thirty-nine stripes,
    Deut. 25:2, 3, which was usually done
    by thirteen stripes of a scourge with
    three lashes.   This was also a mode of
    punishment by the Romans, attended
    with torture, against which Paul pro-
    tested as a freeman of Rome, Acts 22:
    24, 25.
  154. SCRABBLE, to paw with the hands, 1
    Sam. 21:13.
  155. SCRAPE, to take away dust or filth, as
    from a wall, Lev. 19:41; Ezek. 25:4.
  156. SCREECH-OWL, a species of owl, Isa.
    34:14.   See OWL.
  157. SCRIBE, a writer, as the Hebrew word
    is translated, Judg. 5:14, where it is men-
    tioned first by Deborah.   As few persons
    in the early ages learned the art of
    writing, a scribe or writer was a person
    of high acquirements, and several classes
    of officers are described under this
    title.--1. A scholar, or learned man, as
    Jonathan, the uncle of David, 1 Chron.
    Baruch, the amanuensis of
    Jeremiah, Jer. 36:26, 27; Ezra, whose
    learning was famous in the court of
    Babylon, Ezra 7:6-16: he that is called
    a lawyer or doctor of the law, Matt. 22:
    34, is called a scribe, Mark 12:28-32.--2.
    A secretary, a chief officer in a govern-
    ment: as Seraiah was scribe or secretary
    to king David, 2 Sam. 8:17, succeeded
    by Sheva, 20:25: such were Elihoreph
    and Ahiah to Solomon, 1 Kings 4:3.
    Shebna, 2 Kings 19:2, and Shaphan,
    22:8.--3. A muster-general or commis-
    sary of an army, or secretary at war, 2
    Kings 25:19; 2 Chron. 26:11.
  158. SCRIBES, writers or secretaries, Jer.
    8:8; 1 Kings 4:3; Est. 3:12: they
    were the national historiographers, 2
    Chron. 34:13; Est. 3:12.
  159. SCRIBES, copiers and expounders, or
    doctors of the law, Matt. 7:29; 15:1-9;
    23:2, 13: these, having corrupted the
    purity of the Scripture doctrines by their
    pharisaic traditions, by which means they
    derived great profits in their profession,
    were the most determined enemies of
    Christ, on account of His zeal for the
    exclusive and divine authority of the
    sacred books
    , Matt. 23:2, 13, 15, 23,
    24, 25, 27, 29.
  160. SCRIP, a small bag, as the wallet of a
    labourer or traveller, to contain food and
    necessaries, 1 Sam. 17:40; Matt. 10:10;
    Luke 22:35, 36.
  161. SCRIPTURE, a writing, pre- eminently
    the volume of Divine
    Revelation, Dan. 10:
    21; John 2:22; 7:38-42; 2 Tim. 3:16:
    a particular sentence of the sacred ora-
    , Mark 12:10; 15:28; Luke 4:21:
    the Holy Spirit speaking in the divine
    , Gal. 3:8.
  162. SCRIPTURES, the writings of the in-
    servants of God
    , Matt. 21:42;
    Luke 24:45; Rom. 1:2; 2 Tim. 3:15.
    These form an invaluable collection of
    sacred books, containing the whole of the
    revealed will of God to men,--the history
    of the creation of our world--of the origin
    of nations, and of the diversity of lan-
    guages--of human sin, misery, and mor-
    tality--of the dispensations of the Divine
    mercy for the recovery and salvation of
    transgressors by the mediation and re-
    of Jesus Christ, and of the
    establishment of Christianity in the world
    by the ministry of the apostles.
    the first book, was written about A.M.
    2369, and Revelation about A.M. 4100, or
    A.D. 96.
      See BIBLE, and the titles of the
    several books.
  163. SCROLL, a writing as on parchment,
    rolled up, Isa. 34:4; Rev. 6:14.
  164. SCUM, impure froth on the top of liquor
    boiling in a pot.   To this the prophet
    likens the moral impurity of the Jews in
    Jerusalem, Ezek. 24:6, 12.
  165. SCURVY, a scabbed disease, Lev. 21:
  166. SCYTHIAN, Σκυθης (a tanner or currier),
    a native of Scythia, which was the gene-
    ral name to the vast regions of northern
    Asia and north-eastern Europe, including
    much of the modern
    Russian empire, and
    of Germany, and the countries around
    the Black sea, and the Caspian sea, Col.
  167. SEA, [h] ([y]am θαλασσα thalassa), a large
    collection of waters, or the ocean, Gen. 1:
    10-22.   The Hebrews called all large
    bodies of water, seas, as lakes and rivers,
    thus the Red sea, Exod. 14:2: the lake
    of Gennesareth, Luke 5:1; John 6:1, 18.
    The river Euphrates, Isa. 21:1; Jer. 51:
    36: the immense brazen bason, a laver
    capable of containing 2000 baths, or the
    whole apparatus 3000 baths, made by
    Solomon, for the convenience of the
    priests washing while performing their
    services in the temple, 1 Kings 7:23,
    2 Chron. 4:5.   See LAVER.   Sea is used
    for the inhabitants of the islands, or
    mariners, Isa. 60:5.


    1. Mediterranean or Great sea, Num.
        34:6; Jon. 1:4.
    2. Arabian Gulf or
    Red sea, Exod. 10:
        19; 15:4, 22.
    3. Dead sea or Salt sea, Gen. 14:3;
        Josh. 3:15; 12:3.
    4. Lake of Tiberias, or Sea of Galilee,
        Luke 5:1; John 6:1.
    5. Sea of Jazer, probably a lake east of
        Jordan, Jer. 48:32.

  168. SEAL, a stamp with an engraving to
    make an impression on wax for the fasten-
    ing and marking of letters, 1 Kings 21:
    8, or written documents of great import-
    ance, Rev. 5:1; 6:1: a mark, 20:3: a
    visible evidence, as the
    holiness of rege-
    men is of the divinity of the
    gospel ministry, 1 Cor. 9:2.   Seals were
    commonly worn as rings on the fingers
    or wrists, Esth. 3:12; Luke 15:22: but

    the Babylonian seal was an engraved
    cylinder, fixed on an axle, with a handle
    in the manner of a garden roller, and
    produced the impression by being rolled
    on the softened wax.

  169. SEAL, to mark with the impression of
    a seal, for security, Deut. 32:34; for
    legal authority or validity, Jer. 32:44;
    Deut. 6:17; as one's own property, 2
    Tim. 2:19.
  170. SEALED, marked for security, Jer. 32:
    10, 11; Dan. 12:9: impressed, as with
    shining holiness in heart and life by the
    grace of the Holy Spirit, 1 Cor. 1:22;
    Eph. 1:13; 4:30.
  171. SEARCH, an examination, Ezra 4:15,
    19; Jer. 2:34.
  172. SEARCH, to explore, as a country, Num.
    10:33; Deut. 1:22, 33: to investigate, Prov.
    25:2: to examine, John 5:39.
  173. SEARCHING, surveying or investigating,
    Job 11:7: seriously considering, 1 Pet. 1:
    God searching indicates His perfect
    knowledge of everything
    , Zeph. 1:12,
    even the thoughts of the heart, 1 Chron.
    28:9; Rev. 2:23.
  174. SEARCHINGS, investigations, Judg. 5:16.
  175. SEARED, hardened by burning, as flesh
    may be with a hot iron: men are said to
    have their
    consciences seared, when they
    fail to receive moral impressions so as to
    be restrained from abominable courses, 1
    Tim. 4:2.
  176. SEASON, a period of time, Gen. 40:4:
    a proper time, Deut. 28:12: a year,
    Acts 13:11.   Days and nights, spring
    and harvest, and seasons regulated by
    the sun and moon, according to the
    merciful appointment of our bountiful
    Creator, Gen. 1:14; and the various dis-
    pensations of His providence, Acts 1:7; 1
    Thess. 5:1.
  177. SEASON, to give a relish to a thing, as
    by salt, Lev. 2:13.
  178. SEASONED, imbued, as salt with its
    proper flavour, Luke 14:34: as our
    speech with convincing wisdom, Col. 4:6.
  179. SEAT, a place on which to sit, Judg.
    3:30: a chair of honour, Esth. 3:1; or
    of authority, Matt. 23:2: a noble resi-
    dence, habitation, or state, Ezek. 28:
    2. Oriental nations use for seats, mats,
    or carpets, or these on very low sofas
    called divans, sitting with their legs bent
    under them in a half-kneeling posture.
    After the captivity of the Jews in Baby-
    lon, the rich and noble adopted the
    Persian mode of reclining on beds and
    couches at table, Amos 6:4; and this
    method became common with the Greeks
    and Romans, Luke 7:38; John 13:23.
    Pergamos being called "Satan's seat,"
    Rev. 2:13, indicates its being, as a city,
    notorious for the wickedness of its in-
  180. SEBA, [h] (drunkard, or that turns, or
    old man), a son of
    Cush, Gen. 10:7.   See
  181. SEBA, a province or district of Arabia,
    Psal. 72:10; Isa. 43:3.
  182. SEBAT, [h] (twig, sceptre, or tribe), the
    fifth month of the civil, and eleventh of
    the sacred year of the Jews, Zech. 1:7.
  183. SECOND, next to the first, Gen. 22:15.
  184. SECONDARILY, in the second degree,
    1 Cor. 12:28.
  185. SECRET, a thing held private, Dan. 2:
    18, 30, 47: a private habitation, Gen.
    49:6: retirement, Matt. 6:6, 18.   God's
    secret, means His blessing giving peace
    and prosperity
    , Job 29:41; the graci-
    ous purposes of His mercy and the saving
    influences of His Spirit, which by His
    word lead to salvation
    , Psal. 25:14;
    Prov. 3:32.
  186. SECRET, private, Deut. 27:15.
    "Secret things belong unto God," means,
    His eternal purposes regarding the future,
    having no relation to our duty, rest with
    God, Deut. 29:29.
  187. SECRETLY, privately or privily, Gen.
    31:27; John 19:38.
  188. SECT (αι'ρεσις, heresis), a heresy, properly
    a choice or option; hence a class or party
    holding certain opinions in religion, Acts
    5:17; 15:5; 24:5, 14; 26:5; 28:22.
    The Jews were divided into two chief
    sects or heresies,
    Pharisees and Saddu-
    : see these articles: the Herodians
    are, by some, regarded as a religious sect;
    but they were rather a political faction.
    Josephus mentions also the Essenes, but
    they are not referred to in the New
    Testament, unless included among the
    Pharisees, of whom they were a branch:
    they were extremely rigid in their moral
    habits, and scrupulous in their religious
    observances: they did not frequent the
    temple lest they should be contaminated
    with immoral professors: they venerated
    the sacred books, particularly the law of
    Moses, holding the chief articles of the
    Jewish faith; but with various errors
    and superstitions, living in rural districts
    in Palestine, Syria, and Egypt, many of
    them in a manner resembling the Rechab-
    ites.   John the Baptist is [mistakenly] thought from
    his manners to have spent his early years
    among the Essenes
    , Luke 1:80.   Christian-
    ity was regarded by many as a sect of
    Judaism, Acts 28:22.
  189. SECURE, safe, Job 11:18: careless,
    Judg. 8:11; 18:7-10.
  190. SECURE, to preserve safely, Matt.
  191. SECURELY, safely, Prov. 3:29; Mic.
  192. SECURITY, a bond or bail, Acts 18:9.
  193. SEDITION, a rebellious tumult in a
    city, Ezra 4:15; Luke 23:9.
  194. SEDUCE, to decoy or mislead by false
    representations, Mark 13:22; 1 John 2:
    26; Rev. 2:20.
  195. SEDUCED, deceived and perverted, as
    idolatry, 2 Kings 21:9.
  196. SEDUCERS, deceivers, false teachers,
    2 Tim. 3:13.
  197. SEE, to look upon, Gen. 45:12: to
    observe, Exod. 23:5: to survey, Matt.
    22:11: to ascertain, Gen. 37:14:
    to visit, 1 Sam. 15:35: to yield to, Ezra
    4:14; Eph. 3:9: to discover feelingly,
    Rom. 7:23: to beware, Rev. 19:10:
    to enjoy the vision of heaven, Job 19:
    26; Matt. 5:8.   This word, as in common
    language, is variously used in Scripture,
    especially in relation to the mental per-
    ceptions: as of unbelievers it is said,
    "Seeing they see not," when rejecting
    the doctrines of salvation by Christ, Matt.
    13:13, 36.
  198. SEED, the organised particle produced
    by plants, from which the several species
    are propagated, Gen. 1:11; 47:19, 24:
    progeny, an individual, 4:25; Dan. 9:1:
    or as many, Gen. 17:7, 8: principles of
    holiness from the
    Holy Spirit, 1 Pet. 1:
    23; 1 John 3:9.
  199. SEED OF THE WOMAN: this announce-
    ment to our first parents denoted the
    Messiah, Gen. 3:15, as further promised
    to Abraham, 12:3-7; 17:7; Gal. 3:16.
  200. SEED-TIME, the time for sowing corn
    and other seeds, secured to mankind by
    God's covenant of safety with Noah, Gen.
  201. SEEING, the act of vision, Exod. 23:
    10: the act of perceiving or understand-
    ing, Acts 2:31.
  202. SEEING, since or because, Gen. 15:2;
  203. SEEK, to look for, Gen. 27:17: to
    inquire after, 1 Kings 18:10: to take
    care of, Neh. 2:10.   To seek
    God, is to
    study His will and pray for His salvation
    Psal. 63:1; Heb. 11:6.   God seeks men
    by His merciful providence, by sending
    His gospel to them, and by blessing the
    instructions of His ministers
    , Ezek. 34:
    11, 16.
  204. SEEM, to appear, Gen. 27:12; Gal.
    2:6, 9; Jam. 1:26.
  205. SEEMLY, suitable or fit, Prov. 19:10;
  206. SEER, a prophet, who was anciently so
    called from his foreseeing future events,
    1 Sam. 9:9; 2 Kings 17:13; Isa. 30:
    10; Amos 7:12.
  207. SEETHE, to boil or dress food by boil-
    ing, Exod. 16:23; 2 Kings 4:38.
  208. SE'GUB, [h] (fortified or raised), the
    youngest son of Hiel, a Bethelite, who
    died when his father was finishing the
    rebuilding of Jericho, as his eldest son
    Abiram had died when he commenced
    it, having undertaken the work, as some
    suppose, in defiance of the curse of God,
    by Joshua, Josh. 6:26; 1 Kings 16:34.
  209. SE'IR, [h] (hairy, goat, demon, tempest, or
    barley), the father of the Horites, who
    were a people in the time of
    Gen. 14:6; 36:20-30.
  210. SEIR, the country of Edom, of which
    the mount Seir is famous in the history
    of the patriarchs and the Israelites, Gen.
    14:6; 32:3; Deut. 2:1-5.   See EDOM.
  211. SEIZE, to take possession of by force,
    Josh. 8:7; Matt. 21:38.
  212. SE'LA or SELAH, [h] (a rock), the capi-
    tal of Edom, Isa. 16:1; 2 Kings 14:7,
    taken by Amaziah, and called Joktheel:
    it is thought to have been the famous
    city Bozrah, whose ruins in a rocky
    valley correspond with the representa-
    tions of Jeremiah, Jer. 49:13-16.   Re-
    cent travellers have discovered these
    terrible ruins, which they suppose to
    have been the capital of
    Arabia Petrea,
    and they call the city Petra.
  213. SE'LAH, [h] (the end or pause); it occurs
    seventy-four times in the book of Psalms,
    and thrice in the book of Habakkuk: it
    is translated [g] (Diapalma), a
    musical rest or pause, in the Sept.,
    Psal. 3:2, 4, 8; Hab. 3:3, 9, 13.
  214. SELEUCIA, [g] (shaken or beaten by
    the waves
    , or that runs as a river), the sea-
    port of Antioch, whence
    Paul sailed to
    Cyprus, Acts 13:4: it was built and so
    named by Seleucus Nicanor, the first
    Syro-Grecian monarch, at the mouth of
    the river Orontes, on the coast of the
  215. SELF, one's own person, Exod. 32:
    13; 1 Cor. 4:3: it is commonly united
    with a pronoun, as myself, Judg. 5:29;
    1 Kings 14:5.
  216. SELF-WILLED, rash, headstrong, obsti-
    nate, Tit. 1:7; 2 Pet. 2:10; Gen. 49:6.
  217. SELL, to give a thing for a price, Exod.
    21:35; Deut. 2:28.   Domestic slavery
    prevailing in the ancient nations, it was
    common to sell men for servitude: hence
    Joseph's brethren agreed to sell him,
    Gen. 37:27, 28.   It was common for
    creditors to sell their debtors, 2 Kings
    4:1; Matt. 18:25; and even for parents
    to sell their children for service, Exod.
    21:7, 8; or themselves, Lev. 25:30, 47.
    King Ahab did sell himself to work
    wickedness, taking the inheritance of the
    murdered patriot Naboth, and yielding
    himself, as a slave, to the atrocious
    counsels of his wicked wife Jezebel, 1
    Kings 21:20-25.
  218. SELLER, the person who sells, a dealer,
    Acts 16:14; Neh. 13:20; Ezek. 7:12, 13.
  219. SELVEDGE, the edge of cloth as left by
    the weaver, Exod. 26:4.
  220. SELVES, the plural of self: as our-
    selves, Gen. 37:10.   See SELF.
  221. SENATE, the chief council or sanhedrim
    of Israel, Acts 5:21: it originally con-
    sisted of seventy elders or chief judges
    of the several tribes, Num. 11:16, 24, 25.
    The power of this court was but limited
    in the time of the apostles.   See
  222. SENATORS, chief counsellors or judges,
    members of the senate, Psal. 105:22.
  223. SEND, to commission or despatch from
    a place, Gen. 24:17; 45:5; Acts 10:5.
  224. SENDING, despatching, 2 Chron. 36:
    15: driving, 2 Sam. 13:16: commission-
    ing, Rom. 8:3.
  225. SENNACH'ERIB, [h] (bush of the de-
    , of the sword, or of drought), a king
    of Assyria, the successor of Shalmanezer
    in the time of
    Hezekiah, whose kingdom
    he invaded after the tribute had been
    paid: but Rabshakeh, his general, blas-
    pheming Jehovah, God interposed by the
    destruction of his mighty army in a single
    night, and himself was slain by his two
    sons, in his idol temple at Nineveh,
    2 Kings 18:13, 28; 19:37.
  226. SENSE, the meaning, Neh. 8:8: thus
    the Hebrew Scriptures being read, the
    meaning was explained in the language
    of the people, as they had learned it in
  227. SENSES, the faculties of the soul or
    powers of reason, so called in allusion to
    the bodily senses, seeing, hearing, feeling,
    smelling, and tasting, Heb. 5:14.
  228. SENSUAL, fleshly, animal [carnal], brutish, Jam.
    3:15; Jude 19.
  229. SENT, did send, Gen. 37:32: did
    commission, John 20:21.
  230. SENT, despatched, Acts 10:17: com-
    missioned, Ezra 7:14; John 3:26:
    communicated, Acts 28:28.
  231. SENTENCE, a speech, as the determina-
    tion of a judge, Luke 23:24: a deci-
    sion on a controverted point, Acts 15:
    19.   "A divine sentence" is a gracious
    declaration, Prov. 16:10.   "The sen-
    tence of death"
    is the expectation of
    suffering, 2 Cor. 1:9.   "Hard sentences"
    are difficult to be explained, Dan. 5:12;
  232. SEPARATE, to part or sever, Gen. 30:
    4: to set apart, Acts 13:2: to with-
    draw, as a Nazarite, from society, Num.
    6:[21]: to appoint, Deut. 19:2: to dis-
    tinguish, 1 Kings 8:53: to excommu-
    nicate, Luke 6:22: to
    apostatise from
    religion, Jude 19.
  233. SEPARATE, divided from, 2 Cor. 6:17;
    Gen. 49:16: distinct from, Heb. 7:26.
  234. SEPARATED, divided, Gen. 13:11:
    appointed, Deut. 10:8.
  235. SEPARATION, the state of being sepa-
    rated, Num. 6:4: a division, Ezek. 42:
  236. SE'PHAR, [h] (a book or writing), a
    mountain of the East, supposed to be in
    Armenia, or near the Euphrates, Gen. 10:
  237. SEPHARVA'IM, [h] (books or writings,
    or scribes), a country of Sephar in Arme-
    nia, some of whose people were brought
    into Samaria, 2 Kings 17:24.
  238. SEPHARVITES, the people of Sephar-
    vaim, 2 Kings 17:31.
  239. SEPULCHRE, a grave or tomb, usually
    in a cave or rock, Gen. 23:46: the
    throat of a wicked man, as the channel
    of impiety in ungodly speeches, Psal. 5:
    9; Rom. 3:13.
  240. SEPULCHRE OF MOSES, an unknown
    place on mount
    Nebo, Deut. 34:6:
    it was pretended to have been found in
    1665, by some Maronite shepherds.
  241. SEPULCHRE OF DAVID, a place at
    Jerusalem, still held sacred, but without
    the walls of the modern city, Acts 2:29.
  242. SEPULCHRE OF CHRIST, a cave in a
    rock on mount
    Calvary, near Jerusalem,
    over which, as is supposed, a sumptuous
    church has been erected
    , John 19:41.
  243. SE'RAH, [h] (lady of scent, or morning-
    ), the daughter of Asher, Gen. 46:17.
  244. SERA'IAH, [h] (prince of the Lord, or
    song of the Lord); several bore this name,
    of whom the chief were,--a secretary to
    king David, 2 Sam. 8:17.
  245. SERAIAH, a son of Neriah, and brother
    of Baruch, the companion and secretary
    of the prophet Jeremiah, Jer. 32:12.
    Being commissioned by king Zedekiah
    to carry presents as a tribute to Nebu-
    chadnezzar, he was appointed to bear
    the denunciation against Babylon from
    the prophet of God, 51:59-61.
  246. SERAIAH, the high-priest of Israel
    before the captivity in Babylon: being
    taken by Nebuzaradan, he was carried
    to Nebuchadnezzar, who put him to death
    at Riblah, with seventy other chief men
    of Jerusalem: his son Jehozadak was
    carried captive to Babylon, 2 Kings 25:
    18-21; 1 Chron. 6:14, 15; Jer. 52:24-27.
  247. SERAIAH, a chief among the Jews who
    returned from Babylon, Ezra 2:2; Neh.
  248. SER'APHIMS, [h] (burning ones, or
    full of fire), the highest order of angels,
    as is supposed by some, superior to che-
    rubim, Isa. 6:2.   See CHERUBIM.
  249. SERGEANTS, lictors, officers of Romans
    police, attendant upon magistrates, Acts
  250. SER'GIUS, Σεργιος, Sergius Paulus, the
    Roman proconsul of the isle of Cyprus,
    converted by the ministry of Paul, Acts
  251. SERPENT, a general name for various
    species of reptiles, Jam. 3:7.   See
    DRAGON, and
    VIPER.   Serpents are distinguished for
    subtlety and a venomous bite, Deut.
    32:24; Psal. 58:4: hence the great
    enemy of man is represented by a ser-
    pent, Gen. 3:1-13; 2 Cor. 11:3.
  252. SERPENT, the Devil and Satan, Rev.
    12:9, by whose malignity and wiles man
    was overcome, and all human misery
    and mortality introduced into our world,
    Gen. 3:1; 2 Cor. 11:3.
  253. SERVANT, one in a state of subjection,
    Gen. 9:25; 24:34: a slave, Exod. 21:
    5; Deut. 5:15; 1 Sam. 30:13: a domestic
    labourer, Exod. 20:10: an assistant in
    office, as
    Joshua to Moses, Exod. 33:
    11; or Elisha to Elijah, 1 Kings 19:16-
    21; 2 Kings 2:3: an officer of a prince,
    Gen. 40:20; 1 Sam. 19:1: a subject,
    2 Sam. 8:6.
  254. SERVANT OF GOD, a rational creature,
    Psal. 119:91: a sincere worshipper of
    God, Rom. 6:22: one commissioned for
    a great service, as Moses to deliver
    Israel, Josh. 1:2; as Cyrus to deliver the
    Jews, Isa. 45:1; as Nebuchadnezzar to
    punish wicked nations, Jer. 25:9; as
    His own Son Jesus Christ, to redeem the
    , Isa. 52:13; Zech. 3:8.
  255. SERVE, to be subject to, Gen. 15:13:
    to labour for, Gen. 29:18; Exod. 1:13:
    to worship, Exod. 3:12; Dan. 3:17.
  256. SERVED, did serve, or labour for, Gen.
    30:26: did worship, Josh. 24:2, 31.
  257. SERVICE, labour, Gen. 29:27; Exod.
    1:14: performance of religious cere-
    monies, Num. 3:7; 4:19: worship and
    obedience, Eph. 6:7.   "Eye-service,"
    the labour of an idler while in the sight
    of his master, ver. 6.
  258. SERVILE, ordinary or menial labour,
    Lev. 23:7.
  259. SERVING, labouring for, Exod. 14:5;
    Deut. 15:18: religiously obeying, Rom.
    12:11: yielding to, Tit. 3:3.
  260. SERVITOR, a domestic servant, a butler,
    2 Kings 4:43.
  261. SERVITUDE, burdensome taxation, 2
    Chron. 10:4: slavery, Lam. 1:3.
  262. SE'RUG, [h] (branch, layer, or twining),
    the great-grandfather of
    Abraham, and
    supposed to have been the first wor-
    shipper of images after the deluge, Gen.
    11:20-22; Josh. 24:2.
  263. SET, to place, Gen. 9:13: to fix,
    Deut. 19:14: to appoint, Num. 27:
    16: to direct, Col. 3:2.
  264. SET, did set, Gen. 1:17: did place,
    1 Sam. 5:2: did fix, Acts 13:9: did
    reveal, 3:25.
  265. SET, placed, Gen. 24:33: defined,
    1 Chron. 9:22: commissioned, Phil. 1:
    17: appointed, Acts 12:21: arranged,
    Dan. 7:10.
  266. SETH, שח (put, or who puts), a son of
    Adam and Eve, born in the year of the
    world 130; at the age of 105 years he
    begat Enos, and died at the age of 912
    years.   Seth is regarded as the chief of
    the race of the saints, as the Scripture
    calls them "sons of God[,]" in contradis-
    tinction from the wicked race of Cain,
    Gen. 4:25, 26; 5:3-8; 7:2.
  267. SETTER, one who sets, makes known,
    or preaches, Acts 17:18.
  268. SETTING, a rim, as of gold, to enclose
    a precious stone, Exod. 28:17.
  269. SETTING, fixing or erecting, Ezek.
    43:8: appointing, Matt. 28:66.
  270. SETTLE, a sort of base or projecting
    lower border, as of the altar, Ezek. 43:
  271. SETTLE, to establish, as in the posses-
    sion of property, Ezek. 36:11: to
    confirm in assurance of mind, 1 Pet. 5:
    10: to resolve, Luke 21:14.
  272. SETTLED, established, 1 Kings 8:13:
    reposed, Jer. 48:11: constant, Col. 1:
  273. SEVEN, a number, as of the days in a
    week: this number is used throughout
    the Scriptures with peculiar emphasis,
    regarding both persons and things: the
    seventh day is the Sabbath, Exod. 20:
    10; the seventh year was the year of
    release among the Israelites, Deut. 15:1;
    and every seven time seventh was a
    jubilee, Lev. 25:8.   This number is
    used to denote completeness or perfec-
    tion; as "seven evil spirits" indicates
    extreme wickedness, Matt. 12:45; "the
    seven Spirits of God,"
    the fulness of
    knowledge of the Holy Spirit
    , Rev. 1:4;
    3:1; 4:5; 5:6.   "[S]even horns and seven
    indicate the omnipotence and infi-
    nite knowledge of Christ
    , Rev. 5:6.
  274. SEVENTH, the ordinal number of seven,
    Gen. 8:4; Exod. 21:2.
  275. SEVENTEENTH, the seventh after the
    tenth, Gen. 7:11; 8:4.
  276. SEVENTY, seven times ten, Gen. 4:24;
    Dan. 9:2, 24.
  277. SEVER, to divide or separate, Exod. 9:
    4; Matt. 13:44.
  278. SEVERED, separated, Lev. 20:26: ap-
    pointed or fixed upon, Deut. 4:41.
  279. SEVERAL, distinct, Num. 28:13;
    Rev. 21:21.
  280. SEVERALLY, distinctly, 1 Cor. 12:11.
  281. SEVERITY, rigid strictness, Rom. 11:
  282. SEW, to join together with thread
    drawn by a needle, Eccles. 3:7; Ezek.
  283. SEWED, did sew, Job 16:15; Gen.

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