Bible Dictionary: Tn.   1840

  1. TOB, [h] (good or goodness), a small
    canton on the north-east of Canaan on
    the confines of Syria, where Jephthah
    lived in exile, Judg. 11:3: thought to be
    the same as Ish-tob, 2 Sam. 10:6, 8.
  2. TOBI'AH, (the goodness of God), a Levite
    who could not find his genealogy on
    returning from Babylon to Jerusalem,
    Ezra 2:60, 62.
  3. TOBIAH, a governor, with Sanballat, of
    the Samaritans, and an enemy of the
    Jews, opposing the rebuilding of the
    temple at Jerusalem, Neh. 2:10.   Tobiah
    married a daughter of a principal Jew;
    and, in the absence of Nehemiah, dwelt
    at Jerusalem, in an apartment of the
    temple, from which he was expelled on
    the return of the governor, 6:12, 18,
  4. TOBIAH or TOBIJAH, one of the Levites,
    sent by king Jehoshaphat to instruct the
    people in the several cities of Judah in
    the knowledge of the law of God, 2 Chron.
  5. TOES, the divided extremities or small
    members of the feet, 1 Chron. 20:6.   The
    ten toes of Nebuchadnezzar's image, de-
    note ten minor kingdoms, Dan. 2:41, 42.
    Cutting of the toes and fingers, was a
    cruel mode of treating captives, among
    some people, Judg. 1:6, 7.
  6. TOGAR'MAH, [h] (which is all bone, or
    breaking the bones), a son of
    Gomer, sup-
    posed to have peopled Cappadocia, Gen.
  7. TOGARMAH, the people of Cappadocia,
    Ezek. 27:14; who will assist the
    nations of Gog and Magog against the
    people of God, 38:2, 6, 18.
  8. TOGETHER, united in a place, Deut.
    22:10; Matt. 18:20; or in a condition,
    19:6; 1 Pet. 3:7.
  9. TO'I, [h] (who wanders), the king of
    Hamath, who sent his son Joram, with
    valuable presents, to congratulate him on
    his conquering Hadadezer, 2 Sam. 8:9-
  10. TOIL, wearisome or sorrowful labour,
    Gen. 5:29, 41:51.
  11. TOIL, to labour with fatigue, Matt. 6:
  12. TOILED, laboured hard, Lev. 5:5.
  13. TOILING, labouring with fatigue, Mark
  14. TOKEN, a memorial, as the rainbow of
    God's covenant of safety made with Noah,
    Gen. 9:12; or Aaron's rod that budded,
    of his appointment to the priesthood by
    the Divine choice, against the rebellious
    troublers of Israel, Num. 17:10: a sign
    or evidence, as the blood of the passover
    upon the doors of Israel, Exod. 12:13;
    or the treacherous kiss of Judas, Mark
  15. TOLA, [h] (worm or grub), the eldest son
    of Issachar, and head of a family, Gen.
    46:13; Num. 26:23.
  16. TOLA, one of the judges of Israel, Judg.
  17. TOLD, did tell or inform, Gen. 9:22;
    Matt. 14:12.
  18. TOLD, reported, Josh. 9:24: counted,
    2 Kings 12:11.
  19. TOLERABLE, supportable, Matt. 10:15;
  20. TOLL, an excise of goods, or a tax on
    property, Eph. 4:13, 20; 7:24.
  21. TOMB, a monument in which the dead
    are enclosed, Matt. 23:29; 27:60.
  22. TONGS, an instrument by which any-
    thing is taken up, Exod. 25:38; as coal
    from the fire, Isa. 6:6; or held, as heated
    iron for the smith to forge, 44:12.
  23. TONGUE, the organ of speech, Job 5:
    21; Prov. 5:9:
    language, Gen. 10:20- 31;
    as the Syrian, Ezra 4:7; or Chaldee,
    Dan. 1:4; or Hebrew, Acts 26:14: a
    people using a distinct language, Rev. 5:
    9; 14:6.
  24. TONGUED: double-tongued, is insin-
    cere in profession, or deceitful in speech,
    1 Tim. 3:8.
  25. TOOK, did take, or receive, as money,
    Num. 3:49: did seize, Deut. 2:35: did
    conquer, 1 Kings 20:34: did remove,
    1 Kings 14:26: did regard, Gen. 42:
  26. TOOL, an instrument of work or manual
    operation, as a hammer, Deut. 27:5;
    or a graver, Exod. 32:4.
  27. TOOTH, a small bone in the mouth for
    eating, Exod. 21:24, 27.   See TEETH.
  28. TOP, the highest part, as of a building,
    Gen. 11:4; Judg. 15:8: the upper part,
    Exod. 30:3; John 19:23.
  29. TOPAZ, a precious stone of a greenish
    yellow colour, Exod. 28:17.   Oriental
    topazes are the most valuable, Job 28:
    19; and one was possessed by the Great
    Mogul, in India, weighing 137 carats,
    valued at L200,300.   It was called Topa-
    zion in Greek, from an island of that name
    in the Red sea, where it was anciently
    found, Rev. 21:10: but an inferior kind
    is common in Abyssinia, Peru, Bohemia,
    and Scotland, some of which are indeed
    very beautiful.
  30. TO'PHET, [h] (a drum, or betraying), a
    horrid place near Jerusalem, part of the
    valley of Hinnom, where the Canaanites,
    and afterwards the idolatrous Jews, burnt
    their children in sacrifice to the idols
    Baal and Molech.  
    Josiah destroyed the
    symbols of idolatry there, 2 Kings 23:
    10-13: but on account of the abomina-
    tions of the Jews, they were threatened
    with the most grievous calamities, Jer.
    7:31, 32; 19:2, 6, 9, 13.   Isaiah calls
    the place where the Assyrian army was
    destroyed by the name Tophet, Isa. 30:
    33, as that horrid valley was dreaded as
    the place where the murdered children
    were consumed, and many of the dead
    buried from the city of Jerusalem.   See
  31. TORCH, a wax light, larger than a
    candle, to carry in the hand in a dark
    night, Nah. 2:3; John 18:3.
  32. TORMENT, extreme pain, Matt. 4:24;
    Rev. 9:5;
    agonising misery, Luke 16:
    23, 28.
  33. TORMENT, to inflict pain, or to punish,
    Matt. 8:29; Mark 5:7.
  34. TORMENTED, afflicted, Matt. 8:6:
    punished, Luke 16:24, 25.
  35. TORMENTORS, jailors, who inflicted
    various tortures on their prisoners, Matt.
  36. TORN, rent by violence, as by a beast
    of prey, Gen. 31:39; 1 Kings 13:26,
  37. TORTOISE, a large species of lizard,
    supposed to be the Arabian Dub, or
    Saharawan Lizard, about eighteen inches
    long and four inches across the back:
    this word occurs only Lev. 11:29.
  38. TORTURED, put to extreme pain, as
    martyrs, Heb. 11:35.
  39. TOSS, to fling as a ball, Isa. 22:18: to
    agitate, as the waves of the sea in a
    storm, Jer. 5:22.
  40. TOSSED, agitated, as a ship in a storm
    at sea, Matt. 14:24; Acts 27:18.
  41. TOSSINGS, paroxysms of pain, Job 7:
  42. TOTTERING, shaking, as ready to fall
    down, Psal. 62:3.
  43. TOUCH, to come in contact, Deut. 11:
    8, 31: to feel lightly, Matt. 9:21; Luke
    11:46: to approach, Exod. 19:12: to
    meddle with, Num. 16:26; Job 1:11: to
    injure or distress, Gen. 20:6; 26:11: to
    prevail against, 1 John 5:18.
  44. TOUCHED, did touch or come in con-
    tact with, 1 Kings 6:27: did feel lightly,
    Matt. 9:20, 29: did approach, as a shore,
    Acts 27:3.
  45. TOUCHED, affected to sympathy, Heb.
    4:15: engaged by divine influence, 1
    Sam. 10:26.
  46. TOUCHING, regarding, concerning, or
    with regard to, Gen. 27:42; Acts 21:
  47. TOW, flax or hemp prepared for spin-
    ning, Judg. 16:9.   Wicked men, equally
    prepared to be consumed by the anger of
    God as tow is to be consumed by fire,
    Isa. 1:31; 43:17.
  48. TOWARD, inclining to, Gen. 48:13:
    with regard to, 2 Chron. 24:16; Acts
  49. TOWEL, a napkin, a small cloth to wipe
    the hands, Job 13:4, 5.
  50. TOWER, a high building, as a castle or
    fortification, for protection or defence,
    Judg. 9:51; 2 Chron. 27:4; Isa.
    32:14.   Towers were commonly
    erected in vineyards, for the purposes
    of the plantations, and for pleasure,
    Isa. 5:2.  
    God, as our protector, is the
    tower of His people
    , Prov. 18:10; Psal.
  51. TOWER OF BABEL, the famous temple
    of Babylon, Gen. 10:10; 11:4, 9.   See
  52. TOWER OF EDAR, an elevation about a
    mile from Bethlehem, supposed to have
    been called the "Tower of the flock"
    with reference to that city as the birth-
    place of Messiah, Gen. 35:[21]; Mic.
    4:8.   This is thought to have been the
    place where the honoured shepherds were
    watching at the birth of Christ, Luke 2:
    8, 15; Mic. 5:2.
  53. TOWER OF SHECHEM, a spacious
    citadel near the city, which about a
    thousand persons left, vainly hoping for
    greater security in the temple of their
    idol Berith, when besieged by Abimelech,
    Judg. 9:46, 49.
  54. TOWER OF SILOAM, a lofty structure
    on the bank of the Siloah, perhaps a part
    of the wall of Jerusalem, Neh. 3:15, and
    the fall of which, occasioning the loss of
    life, is referred to by our Saviour, Luke
  55. TOWN, a city, 1 Sam. 16:4; 23:7: a
    large village unwalled, Josh. 15:45, 47;
    Esth. 9:19.
  56. TOWN-CLERK, the secretary or recorder
    of the city of Ephesus, as some think, of
    the temple of Diana: he was a person of
    great prudence, as evinced by his quelling
    the riot, occasioned by Demetrius against
    Paul, Acts 19:35.
  57. TRACHONI'TUS, [g] (rough or
    strong), a small rocky canton in Arabia,
    south of Damascus, under the govern-
    ment of Philip, son of Herod the Great,
    Luke 3:1.
  58. TRADE, occupation or business, Gen.
  59. TRADE, to traffic or barter, buying and
    selling, Gen. 34:10.
  60. TRADED, did trade, Ezek. 27:12, 17;
    Matt. 25:16.
  61. TRADING, trafficking, Luke 14:15.
  62. TRADITION, a doctrine or precept, not
    contained in a written law, but delivered
    from father to son without writing: such
    traditions were observed by the Pharisees
    to the neglect of the laws of
    God, Matt.
    15:2-6; Mark 7:3: apostolic instruc-
    tions are so called, 2 Thess. 2:15; 3:6.
    From our Saviour's censures of the Jewish
    , we learn that no ordinances or
    doctrines can be of any authority unless
    as they derive it from agreement with the
    • Tradition(s), human.   They are NOT
      found in God's Word.
      Many are RCC inventions.   See
      Heresies & Human Traditions.
      Others are Isl_mic.
    the Jews pretend, are explanations of the
    written law, which God gave to Moses:
    they say that he recited them four times
    to Aaron, three times to his sons, twice
    to the seventy elders, and once to the
    people: that Joshua having received
    them from Moses delivered them, with
    others given in his time, to the elders,
    and they to the priests and prophets in
    succession, by whom they were preserved
    with great care, until the time of Rabbi
    Juda Hakkadosh, who was famous in the
    Jewish school at Tiberias, in the second
    century: this great doctor spent forty
    years in collecting and writing them
    under distinct heads, which he completed
    about A. D. 190, and called his volume
    MISHNA or Second Law.   Expositions
    and commentaries were made upon the
    Mishna; and these were collected and
    written by another famous rabbi, about
    A. D. 300, or later; and called GEMARA or
    PERFECTION: these two works together
    form the TALMUD, or INSTRUCTION.   The
    Jews of Chaldea were dissatisfied with
    this, and therefore wrote another Gemara,
    which, together with the Mishna, is called
    the BABYLONIAN TALMUD: and the Jews
    generally prefer this to the other, which
    is called the JERUSALEM TALMUD.   The
    Jerusalem Talmud is in one volume
    folio, the Babylonian Talmud, in twelve
    volumes: but Rabbi Maimonides, in the
    twelfth century, published a summary or
    abridgment of the whole.   The Gemara
    is full of extravagances and puerilities,
    but the Mishna
    contains many things
    illustrative of Christianity.
  64. TRAFFICK, trade or merchandise, 1
    Kings 10:15; Ezek. 27:5, 18.
  65. TRAFFICK, to trade or pursue merchan-
    dise, Gen. 42:34.
  66. TRAFFICKERS, traders or merchants,
    Isa. 23:8.
  67. TRAIN, a retinue, as of a sovereign, 1
    Kings 10:2.   Christ's train filling the
    temple, is supposed to denote angels
    attending Him in glory, Isa. 6:1; and to
    indicate His ministers and their endow-
    ments for His gospel church, Eph. 4:8-
  68. TRAIN, to discipline or educate, Prov.
  69. TRAINED, disciplined, Gen. 14:14.
  70. TRAITOR, one who betrays his friend,
    master, or country, Luke 6:16; 2 Tim.
  71. TRAMPLE, to tread under foot with
    contempt, Psal. 91:13; Isa. 63:3.
  72. TRANCE, an ecstacy, or kind of dream:
    such a rapture of mind as gives the
    person who falls into it a look of asto-
    nishment, rendering him insensible to
    external objects, while his imagination is
    excited with impressive scenes which
    absorb his attention.   Balaam seems to
    have been so affected supernaturally, for
    the purpose of preparing him to bless
    Israel and to foretell their prosperity
    under the care of God, Num. 24:4, 16.
    Peter's trance was designed to prepare
    him to welcome the Gentiles into the
    church of Christ, Acts 10:10; 11:5: and
    Paul's to direct his missionary labours
    among the Gentiles, 22:17, 21.
  73. TRANQUILLITY, peaceful prosperity,
    Dan. 4:27.
  74. TRANSFERRED, made over from one to
    another, 1 Cor. 4:6.
  75. TRANSFIGURED, changed in outward
    form and appearance, as our
    Saviour was
    transfigured, appearing in glory
    to James,
    Peter, and John, on mount Tabor, at-
    tended by Moses and Elijah, Matt. 17:
    2; Mark 9:2.   This glorious manifesta-
    tion was designed as a confirmation of
    the prophetical office of Christ; as an
    emblem of humanity glorified at the
    resurrection; as declaring Christ to be
    to Moses and Elijah; and as a
    proof that the bodies of [saved] men shall
    be so refined and changed, as, like Elijah,
    to live in a state of immortality, and in
    the presence of God.
  76. TRANSFORMED, changed in character,
    as the minds of
    Christians are trans-
    formed by the renewing influence of
    divine grace, qualifying them to obey and
    glorify God, Rom. 12:2; in appearance
    or profession, as designing men, the agents
    of Satan are transformed, assuming the
    character of teachers of the truth, 2 Cor.
    11:14, 15.
  77. TRANSFORMING, assuming a profession
    or character, as some designing men do,
    2 Cor. 11:13.
  78. TRANSGRESS, to go beyond the bounds,
    as in violating a law, Num. 14:41; Matt.
    15:2, 3; Esth. 3:3.
  79. TRANSGRESSED, exceeded the limits,
    as of a law, Josh. 7:11; Ezra 10:10.
  80. TRANSGRESSING, violating, Deut. 17:
    2; Isa. 59:13.
  81. TRANSGRESSION, violation of a law,
    especially the
    law of God, Rom. 4:15; 5:
    14.   Every sin is a transgression of the
    Divine law
    , 1 John 3:4; but various
    terms are employed by the sacred writers
    to express it, as indicating a greater or
    less degree of aggravation.   "[T]rans-
    gression and disobedience[,]"
    are sins, Heb.
    2:2: the former denoting the breach of
    the law, the latter indicating a refusal to
  82. TRANSGRESSOR, a violater of a law,
    Mark 15:28; Gal. 2:18.   Every man is a
    transgressor of the law of
    God, and needs
    the mercy of God through the atonement
    of Christ
    , Rom. 3:19, 26.
  83. TRANSLATE, to transfer, as the sove-
    reign power from one to another, 2 Sam.
  84. TRANSLATED, transferred, or removed
    from one state to another, as
    are brought from the dominion of sin and
    Satan, to the kingdom of grace in Christ
    , Col. 1:13; and as Enoch was taken
    from a mortal life to a state of immortal
    glory, Heb. 11:5.
  85. TRANSLATION, removal from one state
    to another, as Enoch from earth to Heaven,
    Heb. 11:5.
  86. TRANSPARENT, reflecting the light, as
    polished brass, Rev. 21:21.   See GLASS.
  87. TRAP, a snare or gin, as for the catch-
    ing of noxious animals, Job 18:8-10.
    Evil persons, and even our enjoyments,
    may become a trap to us unless we have
    the preserving care of God, Josh. 23:
    13; Jer. 5:26; Rom. 11:9.
  88. TRAVAIL, labour with pain and suffer-
    ing, as a woman in child-bearing, Jer.
    30:6; as
    Messiah in bearing the pen-
    alty of human transgression
    , Isa. 53:
  89. TRAVAIL, to labour in pain, Isa. 13:8;
    Rom. 8:22.
  90. TRAVAILED, did labour in pain, 1 Sam.
    4:19: did labour in prayer and active
    zeal, as the church in seeking the
    of sinners, Isa. 66:7, 8.
  91. TRAVAILING, labouring in pain, Hos.
    13:13; Rev. 12:2.
  92. TRAVEL, fatiguing labour on a journey,
    Exod. 18:8; Acts 19:29: laborious
    care in the progress of life, Eccles. 1:13;
    2:23, 26.
  93. TRAVEL, to make journeys from place
    to place, as the my. labour of the
    apostles, 2 Cor. 8:9.
  94. TRAVELLED, did travel or journey,
    Acts 11:19.
  95. TRAVELLER, one who goes journeys,
    Job 31:32; Judg. 5:6.
  96. TRAVELLING, proceeding on a journey,
    Isa. 63:1; Matt. 25:14.
  97. TRAVELLING, habituated to travel from
    place to place, Isa. 21:13.
  98. TRAVERSING, crossing or journeying,
    as the camels across the deserts of Arabia,
    Jer. 2:23.
  99. TREACHEROUS, perfidious, faithless, as
    idolatrous priests and people, Zeph. 3:4;
    Jer. 3:7, 11.
  100. TREACHEROUSLY, perfidiously, deceit-
    fully, Judg. 9:23; Jer. 3:20; Mal. 2:10,
  101. TREACHERY, perfidy, breach of faith,
    or treason; as Joram king of Israel ex-
    claimed against his captain,
    Jehu, when
    that bold man disobeyed his royal master,
    in fulfilling his commission from the
    prophet to cut off the guilty house of
    Ahab, 2 Kings 9:7, 23.
  102. TREAD, to walk, Deut. 11:24, 25: to
    press, as men pressed grapes in the
    making of wine, Job 24:11; Isa. 16:10;
    or as they pressed mortar for building,
    Nah. 3:14.   Wicked men tread God's
    courts without rendering him spiritual
    worship, Isa. 1:12.   God treads his ene-
    mies by grievous calamities, 62:3.
  103. TREADER, a labourer at the winepress,
    Isa. 16:10; Amos 9:13.
  104. TREADING, labouring at the winepress,
    Neh. 13:15: pasturing, Isa. 7:25: op-
    pressing, Amos 5:11.
  105. TREASON, an offence against the king,
    1 Kings 16:9, 10, 16; 2 Kings 11:14.
  106. TREASURE, riches, valuable things
    accumulated in stores: as money, Gen.
    43:23; gold and silver, Ezek. 28:4;
    Dan. 11:43; precious vessels and rich
    furniture, Neh. 7:70; 1 Kings 14:26;
    15:18; corn and national stores, Jer. 41:
    8; Exod. 1:11.   Treasure denotes what is
    valuable; as divine grace, in an intelli-
    gent holy mind, is the "good treasure of
    the heart,"
    Matt. 12:36: the gospel, as
    committed to the apostles, was "treasure
    in earthen vessels,"
    2 Cor. 4:7: eternal
    glory and blessedness with God, is the
    "treasure" which we are directed to lay
    up or secure in heaven, Matt. 6:19, 20.
    "All the treasures of wisdom and know-
    being hid in Christ, denotes the
    spiritual gifts and blessings which are
    designed for His church, Col. 2:3.
  107. TREASURE, to store up or accumulate,
    as wicked men treasure guilt for the day
    of wrath, Rom. 2:5.
  108. TREASURED, stored for seasonable use,
    Isa. 23:18.
  109. TREASURE-CITIES, towns built and
    fortified for the security of national
    stores, Exod. 1:11.
  110. TREASURE-HOUSES, buildings for the
    preservation of national stores, as corn
    and arms, Ezra 5:17; 7:20.
  111. TREASURER, an officer appointed to
    take care of the national stores in the
    treasure-cities, or the royal palace, Isa.
    22:15; Ezra 1:8; 7:21.
  112. TREASURY, an apartment or a building
    in which the national treasure was kept,
    Josh. 6:19: a division of the temple
    where the sacred gifts were received,
    Jer. 38:11; Mark 12:41.
  113. TREATISE, a discourse or narrative,
    written for instruction, as the author
    calls the "Gospel according to Luke,"
    Acts 1:1.
  114. TREE, a large vegetable with a wooden
    stem, and branching variously, Gen. 1:29:
    a gallows or gibbet, Acts 5:30; 10:39; Gal.
    3:13.   Trees were numerous and various
    in Canaan and the adjacent countries:
    those for timber particularly included the
    cedar, oak, ash, elm, pine, cypress, shittah,
    poplar, &c.; among the fruit-trees were,
    the apple-citron, almond, fig, olive, palm,
    vine, pomegranate, mulberry, chesnut,
    &c.; and among the aromatic and orna-
    mental were, the aloe, balsam, box, cin-
    namon, cassia, thyme, willow, &c. men-
    tioned in the Scriptures.   Many of the
    trees in those countries exhibit their
    rich foliage in January, and even before
    the falling of the old leaves; by this
    means affording the delightful sight of an
    almost universal and perpetual spring.
  115. TREE OF KNOWLEDGE: this tree,
    planted in the garden of
    Eden, was so
    called on account of its having been
    appointed as the easy and reasonable
    test of man's obedient loyalty to God.
    Doubtless, it was a fine and noble tree,
    bearing most beautiful fruit; and by
    means of which the evil spirit tempted,
    deceived, and overcame Eve, in whose
    folly and crime she soon obtained the
    guilty and ruinous concurrence of our
    father Adam, Gen. 2:9-17; Gen. 3:3.
  116. TREE OF LIFE: this tree, planted in
    Eden, appears to have been so called,
    as the appointed symbol of the Divine
    favour, and the sacred means of pre-
    serving the natural vigour of Adam and
    Eve during their continued obedience
    to the will of God, Gen. 2:9.
  117. TREE OF LIFE: John beheld in his
    prophetic visions the "tree of life," as
    planted on either side of the river of
    water of life in the New Jerusalem, Rev.
    22:2.   He learnt that all obedient
    believers have right to eat of it, ver. 14;
    which is also promised as part of the
    reward of the faithful in the present
    service of Christ, 2:7.
  118. TREMBLE, to shake or quake with
    dread, Deut. 2:25; 20:3: to regard with
    guilty dread, Jam. 2:19: to regard with
    reverence, Dan. 6:26.
  119. TREMBLED, did tremble or quake,
    Gen. 27:33; 1 Sam. 4:13; Acts 7:32.
  120. TREMBLING, terror, Exod. 15:15; Isa.
    51:17-22: reverential regard, Phil. 2:12.
  121. TREMBLING, quaking, Deut. 28:65:
    1 Sam. 13:7; Acts 9:6.
  122. TRENCH, a ditch, 1 Kings 18:32:
    a deep ditch, excavated round a camp
    for its protection, 1 Sam. 17:20; 26:
    5; or around a city to prevent the escape
    of its inhabitants, Luke 19:43.
  123. TRESPASS, an offence committed, as
    that of Joseph's brethren in selling him
    to slavery, Gen. 1:17; as the
    sin of a man,
    violating the law of God
    , Num. 5:6; Ezra
    9:27; 2 Cor. 5:19.
  124. TRESPASS, to offend or injure man,
    1 Kings 8:31; Matt. 18:15: to pro-
    God, 2 Chron. 28:22.
  125. TRESPASSED, transgressed or sinned,
    Lev. 5:19; 2 Chron. 33:22.
  126. TRESPASSING, transgressing the law
    of God
    , Ezek. 14:13.
  127. TRESPASS-OFFERING, a sacrifice for
    some offence, Lev. 5:16; 1 Sam. 6:3.
  128. TRIAL, test or experiment, as by afflic-
    tion, Job 9:25; 1 Pet. 1:7.
  129. TRIBE, a distinct body or family of
    people, as each of the great families
    descending from the twelve sons of
    Jacob, Gen. 49:28; or of a large family
    of any of those tribes, as the Kohathites,
    Num. 4:18.   Levi and Joseph are not
    generally reckoned as distinct tribes:
    but their numbers were supplied by
    Ephraim and Manasseh, the sons of
    Joseph, who had been adopted by Jacob,
    Gen. 48:5-20; Num. 1:32, 35, 47, 49.
    Thirteen tribes, therefore, really existed
    in Israel, but the land of Canaan was
    divided into twelve parts only; the Le-
    vites having no share of the country,
    except forty-eight cities and their suburbs,
    as they were supported by the tithe of
    the produce, in return for their giving
    themselves to the service of the Lord,
    as the priests and instructors of the
    other tribes of Israel, Num. 35:1-8;
    Josh. 22:14, 33.   See LEVITES, and
    TITHES OF LEVI.   Tribal distinctions
    continued in Israel, who remained united
    until the reign of Saul, when David was
    appointed to the throne of Judah; and
    though the whole nation reunited under
    David after the death of Ishbosheth, and
    so continued under Solomon, ten of the
    tribes revolted from Rehoboam, forming
    the kingdom of Israel: thus the nation
    became divided and weakened; idolatry
    was made the established religion of the
    ten tribes, leading to a series of errors,
    crimes, and calamities, which hastened
    the ruin of both nations, and the capti-
    vity of both Israel and Judah.   See
  130. TRIBULATION, painful affliction or
    calamities, Deut. 4:3; 1 Sam. 10:19; Matt.
    24:21: persecution, 13:21: eternal
    torment, Rom. 2:9.
  131. TRIBUTARIES, people who pay a tri-
    bute to a superior in acknowledgment
    of subjection, Deut. 20:11; Judg. 1:30.
  132. TRIBUTARY, subjected, so as to pay
    tribute, Lam. 1:1.
  133. TRIBUTE, a contribution, Num. 31:
    28, 40; 2 Sam. 20:24: a tax imposed
    upon a subjected people, especially on
    those conquered, as the Canaanites were
    obliged to render to Israel, Josh. 16:10;
    2 Chron. 8:8; and as the Jews paid
    tribute to the Romans, Matt. 22:
  134. TRICKLE, to flow down in drops, as
    tears, Lam. 3:49.
  135. TRIM, to decorate or make attractive,
    Jer. 2:33.
  136. TRIMMED, dressed or made neat, as
    the beard, 2 Sam. 19:24; or clean and
    fit for burning, as lamps, Matt. 25:7.
  137. TRIUMPH, victory or joyful confidence,
    Psal. 47:1.
  138. TRIUMPH, to rejoice boastingly; as
    wicked men do in prosperity, 2 Sam. 1:
    20; Psal. 25:2; as Christian ministers
    do in the holy conquests of the gospel,
    2 Cor. 2:14; as pious men do, assured
    of the favour of God, Psal. 92:4.
  139. TRIUMPHED, conquered, as God over-
    threw Pharaoh and his host, Exod. 15:1.
  140. TRIUMPHING, vain-glorious boasting,
    as of the wicked, Job 20:5.
  141. TRIUMPHING, glorying, as Christ over
    the enemies of Himself and of His church,
    in His ascension, Col. 2:15.
  142. TRO'AS, Τρωας (penetrated), a city of
    Mysia, on the north-western coast of
    Asia Minor: it is famous as being the
    place where the apostle
    Paul was directed
    by a vision to carry the gospel into
    Europe, A.D. 53, Acts 16:8.   Troas
    being a convenient seaport, was repeat-
    edly visited by the apostle, 20:5-12;
    2 Cor. 2:12; 2 Tim. 4:13.   Troas stood
    on or near the site of the ancient Troy,
    so celebrated in history for its capture
    after ten years' siege by the Greeks,
    about the year 904 B.C., in the reign of
  143. TRODE, did tread or press, as grapes,
    Judg. 9:27: did trample, 20:43; 2 Kings
    9:33; 14:9.
  144. TRODDEN, walked over, Deut. 1:36:
    trampled, Isa. 14:19; Luke 8:5; 21:
    24: regarded with profane disrespect,
    Heb. 10:29.
  145. TROGYLLIUM, a town and promontory
    of Lydia, opposite the isle of Samos, and
    distant about five miles, Acts 20:15.
  146. TROOP, a company, as of soldiers, 2
    Sam. 23:11-13; or of robbers, 1 Sam.
    30:8; Hos. 7:1; or of merchants, Job
    6:19; Isa. 21:13.
  147. TROPH'IMUS, Τροφιμος (well-educated), an
    converted to Christianity by
    the ministry of Paul.   He seems to have
    become an evangelist, as he travelled
    with the apostle, who left him sick at
    Miletum, on his last journey to Rome,
    2 Tim. 4:21.
  148. TROUBLE, care, anxiety, or calamity,
    Neh. 9:34; Job 5:7; 2 Cor. 1:4: perse-
    cution, 2 Tim. 2:9.
  149. TROUBLE, to disturb or distress, Josh.
    6:18; Dan. 5:10: to agitate, Acts 16:20.
  150. TROUBLED, did trouble or distress,
    Exod. 14:24: did agitate, John 5:4.
  151. TROUBLED, distressed, Gen. 45:3;
    1 Sam. 28:21: perplexed, Matt. 2:3:
    agitated, John 5:7.
  152. TROUBLER, one who causes trouble,
    1 Chron. 2:7.
  153. TROUBLING, distressing, Job 3:7:
    agitating, John 5:4.
  154. TROUBLOUS, calamitous, Dan. 9:25.
  155. TROUGH, a small cistern for watering
    cattle, Gen. 24:20; 30:38: a knead-
    ing-trough was either a kind of tub or
    leathern bag, Exod. 8:3; 12:34.
  156. TRUCE, an agreement or covenant of
    peace and friendship, 2 Tim. 3:3.
  157. TRUE, faithful or sincere, as Joseph's
    brethren were in their professed cha-
    racter in Egypt, Gen. 42:11, 33; as the
    testimony or preaching of Christ, John
    8:14; or of John the apostle, 19:35.
    Jehovah is the true God, in opposition
    to idols and all the fabulous divinities of
    the heathen, Jer. 10:10; 1 Thess. 1:9.
    Christ is the true light, John 1:9; the
    true bread
    , 6:32; the true vine, 15:1,
    as being the fountain of wisdom, and
    possessed of all blessings for believers.

    A true heart is penitent and believing,
    Heb. 10:22, as possessed by all true wor-
    shippers, John 4:23, who are renewed
    in true holiness by the Spirit of God,
    Eph. 4:24.
  158. TRULY, faithfully, Gen. 24:49: cer-
    tainly, Num. 14:21; 1 John 1:3.
  159. TRUMP, a trumpet, or the sounding of
    a trumpet, 1 Cor. 15:52.   The awfully
    glorious summons which shall raise the
    dead in Christ to life and immortality at
    the resurrection is called the trump of
    , 1 Thess. 4:16.
  160. TRUMPET, a straight or bent tube for a
    musical instrument, Exod. 19:16; Judg.
    7:16-18.   Trumpets were at first only the
    horn of beasts, as of rams, Josh. 6:4-9;
    but at length some were made of silver:
    two of this kind were used by the priests
    as part of the service at the daily and
    other sacrifices, at festivals, and in the
    marches of the Israelites, Num. 10:2-10.
  161. TRUMPETERS, musicians who sounded
    trumpets, 2 Kings 11:14; 2 Chron. 5:13.
  162. TRUMPETS, FEAST OF: this sacred
    festival was kept on the new year's day,
    when sacrifices were offered, all seculars
    laid aside, and the blowing of trumpets
    indicated national rejoicing: this day
    was the first day of the seventh month
    of the sacred year, Lev. 23:24; Num.
    29:1.   See
  163. TRUST, confidence, Job 15:15; 2 Cor.
    3:4: care or protection, Luke 16:11;
    1 Tim. 6:20.
  164. TRUST, to confide, Ruth 2:12; Job 13:
    15; Mark 10:24; 1 Tim. 4:10: to hope or
    expect, 2 John 12: to be persuaded, Heb.
  165. TRUSTED, confided, Judg. 20:36; Dan.
    3:38; Eph. 1:12: permitted, Judg. 11:
  166. TRUSTING, confiding, Psal. 112:7.
  167. TRUSTY, honest, worthy of confidence,
    Job 12:20.
  168. TRUTH, faithfulness in words, Gen.
    42:16; Prov. 12:17; John 16:7: fide-
    lity in actions agreeably to a profession,
    Josh. 24:14; Judg. 9:15; 2 Kings 20:
    3: the fulfilment of promises, Gen. 24:
    27; 32:10.   Truth denotes divine
    doctrine, Psal. 26:5; Dan. 9:13; espe-
    cially the gospel of Christ, John 1:17;
    5:33; 16:13; Gal. 3:1; 1 Tim. 2:4.
    Truth is one of the titles of Christ, as He
    is the substance prefigured by the sacri-
    fices of former ages, and by all the Levi-
    tical ceremonies, to whose character and
    offices reference is made by all the evan-
    gelical predictions of the Old Testament
    John 14:6.
  169. TRUTH OF GOD, that perfection of the
    Divine nature by which He publishes
    that only in His word and promises which
    is true, and infallibly fulfils what He
    promises or threatens
    , Psal. 57:10; 100:5;
    Dan. 4:37.
  170. TRY, to examine, as to ascertain the
    quality of persons, Judg. 7:4; 2 Chron.
    32:31; or of works, 1 Cor. 3:13;
    1 Pet. 4:12.   God is said to try men,
    when he discovers to themselves, or to
    others, their real principles and charac-
    , Psal. 26:2; 139:23.
  171. TRYING, the act of examining or prov-
    ing, Jam. 1:3.
  172. TRYPHE'NA, [g] (delicious or deli-
    ), and Tryphosa, were Christian fe-
    males of some note in the
    church at
    Rome, Rom. 16:2.
  173. TRYPHO'SA, [g] (living delicately).
  174. TU'BAL, [h] (the world or the earth), the
    fifth son of
    Japhet, son of Noah, Gen. 10:
    2.   Tubal and his brother Meshech, or
    their descendants, are believed to have
    peopled the region of mount Caucasus,
    between the Black sea and the Caspian:
    and it is remarkable that the modern
    Circassians are slave dealers, Ezek. 27:
    13; 38:[2, 3]; Rev. 18:13.
  175. TUBAL-CAIN, [h] (worldly posses-
    ), a son of Lamech, of the family of
    Cain: he was famous as the inventor of
    the art of manufacturing brass and iron,
    Gen. 4:22.
  176. TUMBLED, did fall suddenly, Judg. 7:
  177. TUMULT, an uproar among a crowd,
    1 Sam. 4:14; Acts 21:34.
  178. TUMULTUOUS, noisy, as of a crowd of
    people, Isa. 13:4; 22:2.
  179. TURN, an orderly season, or time, as
    appointed, Est. 2:12, 15.
  180. TURN, to proceed in a new course,
    Gen. 24:49; Num. 14:25: to direct,
    Neh. 9:26; Amos 1:8: to return, Acts
    26:20: to change, Rev. 11:6.   Men
    turn to
    God when, by repentance and
    faith in His promises of mercy, they seek
    His face in the name of the Redeemer
    Hos. 12:6; Acts 26:20.
  181. TURNED, did turn or change, Gen. 3:
    24: did retire, 42:24; 2 Kings 5:12:
    did return, Acts 11:21: did change, as
    position, 2 Kings 20:2; 23:16; or
    course of
    life, 1 Thess. 1:9.
  182. TURNED, changed, 1 Sam. 10:6; Est.
    9:1; John 16:10: perverted, 2 Tim. 4:
    4: directed, Jam. 3:4.
  183. TURNING, change, mutability, Jam. 1:
  184. TURNING, changing, 2 Pet. 2:6: re-
    covering, Acts 3:26.
  185. TURTLE, a species of pigeon, migra-
    tory in its habits, Gen. 15:9; Jer. 8:7;
    Luke 2:24.   Turtle-dove, Psal. 74:19,
    is [right]ly translated, "soul of thy
  186. TUTORS, instructors or masters, Gal.
  187. TWAIN, two, 1 Sam. 18:21; Matt. 5:
  188. TWELFTH, the second after the tenth,
    1 Kings 19:19.
  189. TWELVE, two and ten, twice six, Gen.
    35:22; 1 Kings 7:25.
  190. TWENTY, twice ten, Gen. 18:31;
    1 Kings 9:10, 11.
  191. TWICE, two times, Gen. 41:32; Job
  192. TWIGS, the smallest branches of a tree,
    Ezek. 17:4.
  193. TWILIGHT, the dim light before sun-
    rise or after sunset, 1 Sam. 30:17; 2
    Kings 7:5; Prov. 7:5.
  194. TWINED, twisted, Exod. 26:36.
    Twined linen was made of a peculiarly
    fine thread.
  195. TWINKLING, a quick motion, as of the
    eye, 1 Cor. 15:52.
  196. TWINS, two children of one birth, Gen.
  197. TWO, one and one, Gen. 4:19; 6:19.
  198. TWOFOLD, doubly, Matt. 23:15.
  199. TYCH'ICUS, Τυχικος (casual or happen-
    ), an
    evangelist, distinguished by his
    services to the apostle Paul, who regarded
    him with much affection as a faithful
    minister of Christ.   Tychicus accompa-
    nied Paul from Corinth to Jerusalem,
    Acts 20:4; and was afterwards sent to
    visit the churches, conveying the epistles
    to the Ephesians and Colossians, Eph.
    6:21, 22; Col. 4:7, 8; 2 Tim. 4:12:
    when the apostle sent for Titus, it appears
    that he was succeeded by Tychicus in
    ordering the affairs in the churches of
    Crete, Tit. 3:12.
  200. TYRAN'NUS, Τυραννος (a king or prince),
    a philosopher of Ephesus, whose lecture-
    room was occupied by the apostle Paul
    preaching the gospel, when he could no
    longer obtain the use of the Jewish syna-
    gogue, Acts 19:9.   Tyrannus is thought
    to have been a convert to Christianity.
  201. TYRE, [h] (a rock), softened by the
    Greeks from Tzoor to Τυρος, Tyrus, Jer.
    25:22: this celebrated city, the seat of
    Phenician commerce, was situated about
    ninety miles north-west of Jerusalem
    and eighteen south-west of
    Sidon, on the
    coast of the Mediterranean.   Tyre was
    "a city whose antiquity was of ancient
    in the time of Isaiah, Isa. 23:
    7-12: and though, as the prophet calls
    it the "daughter" or colony of Sidon,
    it was called "the strong city of Tyre"
    by Joshua, Josh. 19:29, and allotted to
    the tribe of Asher.   Tyre does not appear
    to have ever been possessed by the Isra-
    elites: but Hiram, its king, was a pros-
    perous ally of David and of Solomon,
    greatly aiding those monarchs by supplies
    of timber and other materials, and with
    builders, in prosecuting their various
    architectural works, 2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Kings
    7:13; 9:12.   Tyre flourished for many
    centuries, as the chief centre of com-
    merce; and its wealth is celebrated by
    the prophets after the reign of Solomon,
    Isa. 23:2, 8, 18; Ezek. 27:3, 33:
    but on account of the crimes of the

    people, God gave it to Nebuchadnezzar,
    who took it after a siege of thirteen
    years, about the year 571 B.C., Ezek.
    27. 28:2, 18; 29:18, 19.   Old
    Tyre having been destroyed, the people,
    who had conveyed away their chief trea-
    sures, built a new city on an island
    within a mile of the main land; and
    this soon rose to greater splendour than
    the former one, Zech. 9:2, 3: so that
    for seven months it withstood the whole
    forces of Alexander the Great, who took
    it in the year 332 B.C.   Subsequently
    Tyre belonged to Syria, and to the
    Romans, under whom it regained much
    of its former prosperity, Matt. 11:21;
    Acts 12:20.   It was taken by the
    Saracens, A.D. 639; retaken by the Cru-
    saders [RCC], A.D. 1124; and razed to the
    ground, A.D. 1289, by the Mamelukes of
    Egypt, lest it should afford a refuge for
    the Christians.   Tyre was, in 1816, besides
    immense ruins, a walled town, having
    about eight hundred stone houses, con-
    taining, as Mr. Buckingham supposed
    about 5000, or perhaps 8000 inhabitants;
    three-fourths of whom he supposed to
    be Arab Catholics, and the rest Arab
    and Turkish Moh_mm_dans.

  202. TYRUS or TYRE.   See TYRE.

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