Bible Dictionary: An. 1840
- A'NAH, [h] (one who is poor), a Hittite,
father of a wife of Esau, Gen. 36:
- A'NAK, [h], or ONOK, (a collar, or chain),
a famous giant of Canaan, dwelling at
Hebron, Num. 13:22, 33.
- AN'AKIMS, [h], a race of giants in
Canaan, descending from the sons of
Anak, Josh. 14:12-15; 15:14.
- ANAM'MELECH, [h] (answer of the
king and council), an idol deity of the
Sepharvites, supposed to denote the
moon, as Adrammelech did the sun,
2 Kings 17:31.
- ANANI'AS, [g] (the cloud of the Lord),
a hypocritical professor of Christianity
in the [early] church at Jerusalem,
Acts 5:1-20. See SAPPHIRA.
- ANANI'AS, an [important] evangelist, who,
by the direction of Christ, comforted
Paul at Damascus, Acts 9:10-17.
- ANANIAS, a tyrannical high-priest of
the Jews, and persecutor of the apostle
Paul, Acts 23:2; 24:1.
- ANATH'EMA, [g] (accursed), 1 Cor.
16:22; as the word is rendered, Rom.
9:3; 1 Cor. 12:3; Gal. 1:8, 9; or a
curse, as Acts 23:12. See ACCURSED,
- AN'ATHOTH, [h] (answer, song, afflic-
tion, or poverty), a grandson of Benjamin,
1 Chron. 7:8.
- AN'ATHOTH, a city of Benjamin, given
to the Levites, 1 Chron. 6:60; and the
birth-place of the prophet Jeremiah, Jer.
- ANCESTORS, forefathers, Lev. 26:45.
- ANCHOR, an instrument of stopping
and fastening a ship at sea, when near
the shore, Acts 27:20: hope is called
the anchor of the Christian's soul in the
course of this life, Heb. 6:19.
- ANCIENT, very old, Deut. 33:15;
- ANCIENT OF DAYS, a title applied to
God the Father, Dan. 7:9, 13, 22.
- AN'DREW, Ανδρεας (a strong man), an
apostle of Christ, and brother of Peter,
Matt. 4:18: very little is said of him in
the New Testament; but tradition re-
ports that he preached the gospel in
Scythia and the adjacent countries, and
was crucified by the proconsul Ægeus,
at Petreae in Achaia.
- Andrew. See THE TWELVE.
- ANDRON'ICUS, [g] (a man excel-
ling others, or a victorious man), a kinsman
of Paul, a man of note among the Chris-
tians at Rome, Rom. 16:7.
- A'NER, [h] (answer, song, affliction, or of
light), a Canaanite chief, who aided Abra-
ham in recovering Lot from the kings
who had plundered Sodom, Gen. 14:24.
- ANGEL, Gr. Αγγελος, Heb. [h], MA-
LEAC (a messenger), a title given to those
intelligent spirits who surround the
throne of the Creator, and are employed
as His messengers in executing His works
of providence, Gen. 19:1, 15; Psal. 8:
5; 68:17; 103:20; Ezek. 1:5, 28.
They were created by the Son of God
before man, and of various ranks, Job
38:6, 7; Col. 1:16: their holiness
and ardent love to God are denoted by
their title, Seraphim, or burning ones, Isa.
6:2, 6; and their vast intelligence by
their name, Cherubim, or knowing ones,
Gen. 3:24: they are incorporeal and
immortal, Luke 20:36: they are most
benevolent beings, rejoicing in the wel-
fare of mankind, Luke 2:9, 14; 15:10;
16:22: they are innumerable, Dan. 7:
10; and are constituted the guardian
attendants of the godly, Heb. 1:14.
Many of the angels became apostates
from the faith and service of God; and
these, with their guilty leader in rebel-
lion, are held in chains, reserved unto
judgment and eternal punishment, Jude
6; Matt. 25:41.
- ANGEL, as a title of office, is applied
to Christ, the Messenger, or Angel, of the
covenant, Mal. 4:1: it is applied also to
the Christian pastors or bishops, as the
messengers (Gr. angels) of the churches,
Rev. 1:18; 2:1, 2; 2 Cor. 8:23. Spies,
Heb. 11:31, are called messengers, Jam. 2:
25; but angels, in the Greek. Angels, re-
ferred to in Christian assemblies, 1 Cor. 11:
10, is to be understood of spies, who might
be awed or edified by a proper decorum
observable in the worship of God.
It may be remarked, that scarcely any
subject is more worthy of study by
Christians than the doctrine of angels,
as it is contained in the Scriptures.
- ANGEL OF THE LORD, or ANGEL
JEHOVAH, is a title of the Son of God,
as given in the Old Testament.
Gen. 16:7, 13; 18:1, 13, 17; 32:
24, 30; Hos. 12:4, 5; Exod. 3:2, 4, 14,
15; Acts 7:30, 32.
ANGER, displeasure, Gen. 27:45.
Anger against sin, when governed by
reason, is lawful and virtuous, Exod.
32:19, 22. Vehement anger is wrath;
raging anger is fury; cherished anger
against a person is hatred; and, settled
in the mind, it is malice.
ANGER, to provoke, or excite, Rom.
ANGER OF GOD, is His holy displeasure
against sin and sinners, Num. 25:4;
Deut. 29:20. Yet God is long-suffering
and slow to anger, Exod. 34:6, 7;
ANGLE, a fisher's rod with a line, Isa.
19:8; Hab. 1:15.
ANGRY, excited with anger, Lev. 10:
16; 1 Kings 11:9; Psal. 2:12; John
ANGUISH, excessive grief, or pain,
Gen. 42:21; 2 Sam. 1:9.
ANISE, a flowering aromatic plant,
from which a cordial is prepared: [and]
the herb DILL is intended by Matthew, 23:23.
AN'NA, Αννα (gracious), a holy pro-
phetess, who waited for the Messiah:
some suppose that her "great age" was
extended to about 116 years, as she was
"a widow of about fourscore and four years,"
Luke 2:36, 37.
AN'NAS, Αννας (he that afflicts), a Jewish
high-priest, who, and his deputy and
son-in-law Caiaphas, were both Sadducees,
and determined enemies of Christ and
His apostles, Luke 3:2; John 18:13;
Acts 4:1, 6; 5:17.
ANOINT, to pour oil on a person or
thing, Gen. 28:18; 31:13; Luke 7:
38. Priests, prophets, and kings, were
anointed to fulfil their several offices,
Exod. 28:41; 30:30; 1 Sam. 9:16;
1 Kings 1:34; 19:15, 16, indicating
their need of the various gifts and graces
of the Holy Spirit, to qualify them for
their respective duties.
Jesus Christ was anointed, not with
material oil, but in an extraordinary
manner and degree, with the Holy Spirit,
to prepare Him for all His offices of
prophet, priest, and king, Isa. 61:1;
Psal. 45:7; Luke 4:18; John 3:34;
Acts 4:27; 10:38. On this account our
Saviour is called the ANOINTED, or the
CHRIST. See MESSIAH and CHRIST.
Believers, partaking of the grace of
the Holy Spirit, for their sanctification,
are thus anointed with the unction from
the Holy One, 1 John 2:20, 27.
ANOINTED, oiled with a precious oint-
ment, John 11:2; 12:3: oiled for an
office, as a king, 1 Sam. 24:6, 10: con-
secrated to God, Gen. 28:18; 31:
13; Lev. 6:3; 7:36, 37: designated
to a special service, as Cyrus to deliver
the Jews from Babylon, Isa. 45:1:
sanctified to holiness, 2 Cor. 1:21.
ANOINTING, consecration, by the pour-
ing on of oil, as that of priests, Exod.
37:29: sanctification, as that of
Christians, 1 John 2:27.   Our engraving
represents the anointing of an Egyptian
king, drawn from the representations
most commonly found on ancient monu-
ANSWER, a reply to a question, Prov.
15:4; Luke 2:47: an evidence, 1 Pet.
ANSWER, to reply, Gen. 45:3; 2 Kings
18:3; 1 Pet. 3:15: to make a suitable
return in the fruits of labour, Gen. 30:
33: to grant blessings, Ezek. 14:4.
ANSWERABLE, corresponding with,
ANSWERED, did answer, or reply,
1 Sam. 3:4: did resume a discourse,
Matt. 4:4; 11:25.
ANT, a small insect, celebrated for
industry and economy, Prov. 6:6; 30:
ANTICHRIST (adversary of Christ), a
teacher perverting the pure doctrines of
Christ: such were numerous, even in the
times of the apostles, as is evident by their
epistles. Diotrephes, 3 John 9, in his
bigotry and intolerance, illustrates their
spirit; and John complains of them as
"many antichrists," 1 John 2:18; 4:3:
this class continued and increased in the
[nominal] Christian church, working towards the
maturing of the enormities of the great
antichrist, as predicted by Daniel, Paul,
and John, Dan. 7:20-27; 2 Thess. 2:
4-7; Rev. 11:7, &c.
ANTICHRIST, the great antichrist is a
pretended Christian priesthood, an anti-
scriptural hierarchy, which arose gradu-
ally in the [nominal] Christian church, through the
ambition of unholy men, who assumed
its sacred ministry: it prevailed chiefly
in the West, as the imperial power of
Rome declined, until it exhibited all the
blasphemous extravagance of the papal
system, foretold by the apostles, as
"already work[ing]" in their days, and
described by them as the "man of
sin[,]" "the son of perdition[,]" "the
mystery of iniquity[,]" and "THE
MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINA-
TIONS OF THE EARTH[,]" 2 Thess. 2:4-7;
Rev. 17:5-7. This antichristian hier-
archy, in various forms, by establishing
creeds, tests, and decrees, independently
of, or contrary to, the oracles of God in
the Scriptures, has raised all the perse-
cutions ever known in Christendom, and
it has been "drunk with the blood of the
saints, and with the blood of the martyrs
of Jesus--the blood of prophets--and of
all that were slain upon the earth," Rev.
This terrible power of antichrist, in
every form of error, is doomed--"whom
the Lord shall consume with the spirit
of his mouth, and shall destroy with the
brightness of his coming:" 2 Thess. 2:8:
that is, the brightness of the manifesta-
tion of the Lord Jesus, in the prevalence
of pure Christianity, by the knowledge
of the word of God in the Scriptures.
- Antichrist, Eastern. See Tract.
AN'TIOCH, Αντιοχεια, ANTIOCHEIA,
(instead of a chariot), the capital of Upper
Syria, situated on the river Orontes,
about twelve miles from the north-east
corner of the Mediterranean sea, Antioch
was built by Seleucus Nicanor, about the
year B.C. 300, and so called after his
father Antiochus: and this city was
made the chief residence of the kings of
Syria, the successors of Alexander the
Great, and afterwards of the Roman
governors in the East. Luke was a
native of this city; and here the disciples
were first called Christians, Acts 11:19,
26. Being admirable for situation, con-
taining about 500,000 inhabitants, it was
chosen as a principal missionary station
for the apostles, Acts 13:1; 14:26.
Christianity flourished at Antioch for
several ages; but its church became
corrupted with false doctrine, and torn
with heresies: the city, from the greatest
magnificence, fell by luxury, and a suc-
cession of wars, famines, &c. In A.D. 588,
an earthquake destroyed most of the city,
and 60,000 of its inhabitants: yet it was
rebuilt, and continued a place of great
note, but suffered grievously under the
Saracens [Musl_ms] and crusaders. Antioch has
long belonged to the Turks, who call it
Antakia; and it is governed by the pasha
of Aleppo. In 1822, it was reduced to a
heap of ruins by an earthquake: from
this it partly recovered, so as to contain
about 20,000 inhabitants; but its houses
being rebuilt of mud and straw, its narrow
streets exhibit scenes of the deepest
misery and wretchedness. Our engraving
represents modern Antioch: in the fore-
ground, a Turkish burial-place; and on
the hill-tops the walls of the ancient city.
ANTIOCH in Pisidia was a town of
some note, the capital of Pisidia, in Asia
Minor, Acts 13:14.
ANTIPAS, Αντιπας (against all), a martyr
for Christ in the apostolic age, and sup-
posed to have been the first bishop of
the Christian church at Pergamos, in
Asia Minor, Rev. 2:13.
ANTIP'ATRIS, Αντιπατρις (on behalf of
the father), a city in Samaria, about 42
miles from Jerusalem, on the road to
Cesarea. It was so named by Herod the
Great, after his father Antipater, Acts
ANTIQUITY, great age, remote origin,
ANVIL, the iron block on which the
smith lays his metal to forge, Isai. 41:7.
ANY, one, whoever or whatever, Exod.
11:7; Luke 8:4; 2 Pet. 3:9.
APART, separately, Lev. 15:19: speci-
ally, Psal. 4:3.
APE, a species of monkey, 1 Kings 10:
22; 2 Chron. 9:21. Dr. Harris distin-
guishes this tribe into, 1. monkeys, those
with long tails; 2. apes, those without
tails; 3. baboons, those with short tails.
Apes are worshipped as sacred animals
in India and Japan.
APIECE, each, Num. 3:47: belonging
to each, Luke 9:3.
APOC'RYPHA, Αποκρυφος (hidden, con-
cealed, or uncertain): this word is not
properly belonging to the Bible; but it
is the title given to a number of ancient
Jewish writings, sometimes bound up
with large [book]s. Though written by
Jews, but after the close of the canon of
the Old Testament, those books were
never admitted as canonical, by that
people; nor were they regarded or re-
ferred to by the apostles, nor acknow-
ledged as inspired by the Christian
teachers for several centuries; but igno-
rance [generally] prevailing, several of
them were received authoritative about
the ninth century, and at the council of
Trent, in the sixteenth century, they were
embraced as canonical by the church of
Rome. Several books of the Apocrypha
contain valuable history, and wise moral
instructions; but others are deserving
only of being classed with the absurd
traditions of pagan mythology.
APOLLO'NIA, [g] (perdition), a
town of Macedonia, between Amphipolis
and Thessalonica, Acts 17:1.
APOL'LOS, Απολλως (one that destroys),
a Jewish Christian of Alexandria, an
eloquent preacher of the gospel. Having
embraced the gospel at first as taught by
the disciples of John, he gladly received
the perfect doctrine of Christ from Aquila
and Priscilla. He laboured in the ministry
first at Ephesus, and then in Greece; and
was held in high estimation by Paul and
the church at Corinth, Acts 18:24;
19:1; 1 Cor. 1:12; 3:5, 6.
APOL'LYON, [g] (the destroyer),
Rev. 9:11. See ABADDON.
APOSTLE, Αποστολος (a messenger, or
missionary), the title given by Christ to
each of His twelve chief messengers,
whom He selected from His disciples to
be witnesses of His life, ministry, and
resurrection: their office required that
they should have seen Christ after His
resurrection, and been inspired with a
commission from Him for their service
in establishing His religion upon earth,
Luke 6:13; Matt. 10:2; 28:16-20;
Acts 1:22-25; 1 Cor. 9:1, 2; 15:7, 8.
Besides these qualifications they were
furnished with miraculous endowments,
by the gift of the Holy Spirit, so as to
understand the prophecies in the Old
Testament, and to preach in [many] lan-
guages: thus they were distinguished
with this title as messengers sent to all
nations, to assure salvation and eternal
glory to all who believed on Jesus
Christ as the Son of God and the
appointed Redeemer, Acts 2:4; 1 Cor.
- Apostle. See THE TWELVE.
APOSTLE, a title given to Christ, as
the chief missionary to men, sent from
the Father to declare His will to man-
kind, Heb. 3:1; John 3:13, 17. This
title is sometimes given to the ministers
of Christ, as to Epaphroditus, the "mes-
senger" (Gr. apostle) of the Philippians
to Paul at Rome, Phil. 2:25.
APOSTLESHIP, the office of an apostle
of Christ, to bear testimony to the world
concerning the ministry, death, and re-
surrection, of Jesus Christ, Acts 1:21, 25;
Rom. 1:5. Matthias, as an attendant on
Christ's ministry, was chosen in the stead
of Judas; but Paul was qualified for the
office by a special vision of Christ, after
His ascension to Heaven, Acts 9:17;
22:12, 16; 1 Cor. 15:8; Gal. 1:11, 16.
APOTHECARY, a compounder of per-
fumes, or medicine, Exod. 30:35; Neh.
APPAREL, clothes, or dress, 1 Kings 10:
5; 2 Sam. 12:20; Acts 20:.
- Apparel, modest. 1 Tim. 2:9.
APPARELLED, clothed, or dressed,
2 Sam. 13:18; Luke 7:25.
APPARENTLY, visibly, or in appear-
ance, Num. 12:8.
APPEAL, to refer to a superior judge;
as Paul, being free of the city of Rome,
appealed to Cesar, Acts 25:11.
APPEAR, to be visible, Gen. 1:9: to
seem, Matt. 6:13: to be in the presence
of, Exod. 34:23: to be present as an
advocate, Heb. 9:24.
APPEARANCE, likeness, Num. 9:15:
show, 2 Cor. 5:12.
APPEARED, became visible, Gen. 12:7;
APPEARING, visible manifestation,
1 Tim. 6:14; [Tit.] 2:13.
APPEASE, to pacify anger, as Jacob
did that of Esau, Gen. 32:20.
APPEASED, became calm in mind, Est.
2:1: quieted, Acts 19:35.
APPERTAIN, to belong to, as a man's
family and property, Num. 16:30: to
be due, as honour and reverence to God,
APPETITE, natural desire of food, Job
38:39. To be given to appetite, is to
be addicted to excessive eating or drink-
ing, Prov. 23:7.
APPII'-FO'RUM, [g] (the court
of death), a town about 50 miles from
Rome, founded by Appius Claudius, on
the great road which he constructed
from Rome to Capua, Acts 28:15.
APPLE, the fruit of the apple-tree,
Song 2:5; 8:8: the pupil of the eye,
Deut. 32:10; Zech. 2:8.
APPLE-TREE: it is generally agreed
that the citron-tree is intended by the
sacred writers, Song 2:2, 3; Joel 1:12.
Our first engraving represents the citron
apple-tree, Citrus medica, and the second
shows its leaves, stamens, and a section
of its fruit.
"Apples of gold in pictures of sil-
ver," refers to the rich fillagree, or
silver net-work baskets, in which the
fruit was served up, Prov. 25:11.
Oriental sculpture abounds in this kind
APPLY, to study, or labour, Eccles.
7:25; 8:9. To apply the heart to
wisdom is to seek the saving knowledge
of God by His word, Psal. 90:12.
APPOINT, to assign, as to a service,
Num. 4:19: to fix, as a time, Job 14:
13: to constitute, as in office, 2 Sam. 6:
21; Acts 6:3: to sentence, as to punish-
ment, Matt. 24:51: to choose or elect,
as a leader, Hos. 1:11.
APPOINTED, designed, Gen. 24:14;
1 Kings 1:35: fixed, Num. 9:2, 7:
determined, 2 Sam. 17:14: decreed,
Heb. 9:27: commanded, Luke 3:13:
APPOINTMENT, order or direction,
Num. 4:27: agreement, Job 2:11: con-
trivance, 2 Sam. 13:32: request, Ezra
APPREHEND, to seize, as a prisoner,
2 Cor. 11:32: to gain, as a special favour,
APPREHENDED, seized, Acts 12:4:
converted by divine grace, Phil. 3:12.
APPROACH, to come near, as to God
in his worship, Lev. 21:17: as to ene-
mies in battle, Deut. 20:31; 2 Sam. 11:
20: to marry, Lev. 18:6.
APPROVE, to like, or commend, Psal.
49:13; 1 Cor. 16:3.
APPROVED, honoured, Acts 2:22:
esteemed, Rom. 14:19: upright, 1 Cor.
APRON, a cloth hung before[,] Gen. 3:
7; Acts 19:12. Ruth's vail seems to
have been her apron, Ruth 3:15.
APT, qualified, 2 Kings 24:16:
skilful and inclined, 1 Tim. 3:2.
AQUILA, Ακυλας (an eagle), a Christian
Jew, a native of Pontus, and who, with
his wife Priscilla, rendered service, in
various ways, to many of the early be-
lievers, to Apollos, and to the apostle
Paul, Acts 18:2-26; Rom. 16:3, 4.
AR, [h] (watching, or uncovering), the
capital of Moab, Num. 21:28; Deut. 2:
9, 29; Isa. 15:1. This city was de-
stroyed by an earthquake, A.D. 350.
ARA'BIA, [h], Gr. Αραβια (evening, or a
desert place), a large country comprehend-
ing the south-western part of Asia; it is
a peninsula, about 1500 miles long from
north to south, and about 1200 broad
from east to west, formed by the Persian
gulf on the east, the Arabian sea on the
south, and the Red sea on the west; and
bounded on the north by the river
Euphrates and Syria. Cush, the son of
Ham, and his descendants, were the first
inhabitants of Arabia, Gen. 10:7-20; 14:
5, 8: but these were chiefly expelled,
and succeeded by the numerous posterity
of Nahor, Abraham, and Lot, Deut. 2:
8, 9, who formed many tribes and nations.
Ptolemy, the Greek geographer, divided
this country into three regions, Arabia
Petrea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix.
ARABIA PETREA, or the rocky, so
called from its stony surface, and its
chief city, Petra, the Selah of the Scrip-
tures, 2 Kings 14:7. See SELAH. It
included Idumea, Mount Sinai, and the
country of the Cushites, Moabites, Midi-
anites, &c., around the southern border
of the sea of Sodom, to the Red sea, and
Egypt. Our engraving exhibits a view of
a valley in this province, and the general
character of the country: in the fore-
ground is seen a group of Bedouin Arabs.
ARABIA DESERTA, or the desert, ex-
tended north and east to the Euphrates,
which separated it from Mesopotamia:
it was inhabitated by the Itureans, Haga-
renes, Nabatheans, &c.; and in this
region was built, by Solomon, Tadmor,
the celebrated city Palmyra, 2 Chron.
8:4. See TADMOR.
ARABIA FELIX, or the happy, so called
from its rich productions. This part
comprehends the south-east division of
the country, including the regions of
Sheba and Seba: the more modern cities
of Mecca and Medina, the h_ly places
of the Moh_mm_dans; and the domin-
ions of the present imaum of Muscat.
Arabia is greatly celebrated in history,
as being peopled by part of the descend-
ants of Abraham, especially the Ishmael-
ites, and by the prevalence of the im-
posture of its famous conqueror and
- Arabic Bible. The true God is reported to be al-Ilaah.
Not All_h. See Ministry.
A'RAD, [h] (wild ass, in Syriac, a dra-
gon), a king in the south of Canaan, Num.
A'RAM, [h] (elevation, highness, or mag-
nificence), the fifth son of Shem, by whom
a great part of Syria was peopled; and
that country, in the Hebrew, is called
ARAM, Gen. 10:22. See SYRIA.
- Aramaic. See Aramaic Ministry.
AR'ARAT, [h] (the curse of trembling,
or mount of trembling), a mountain of
Armenia, on which the ark of Noah
rested, Gen. 8:4. Ararat is supposed
to be, Ar-dagh, or Parmak-dagh, that is, the
finger mountain, with two peaks, between
which Noah is believed to have landed;
it stands in an extensive fruitful plain,
near the city Erivan, and rises conically
to the height of about 12,700 feet, the
highest peak some reckon 16,000 feet
above the level of the sea, and may be
seen at the distance of 180 or 200 miles.
Sir R. K. Porter visited this region, and
says of the blinding glory of the tremend-
ous mountain pyramids, "From the spot
on which I stood, it appeared as if the
largest mountains of the world had been
piled upon each other to form this one
sublime immensity of earth, and rocks,
and snow, whose inaccessible summits
have never been trodden by the foot of
man since the days of Noah."
ARAU'NAH, [h] (ark, song, or curse),
called Ornan, 1 Chron. 21:15, 28, a
generous Jebusite, who sold to David his
estate on Mount Moriah, the site of the
temple of Solomon at Jerusalem, 2 Sam.
AR'BA, [h] (the city of the four), a giant
chief of the Anakims, Josh. 14:15;
ARBA, or ARBAH, the original name
of Hebron, it having been built by Arba,
Gen. 35:27; Num. 13:22.
ARCHANGEL, Αρχαγγελος, (the chief
messenger): this word occurs twice in
Scripture--and while some learned men
apply it to a created angel, others think
it belongs exclusively to Jesus Christ,
"the head of all principality and power[.]"
1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 9. Michael signi-
fying, who is like God, is by the latter
class believed to denote only our Lord
and Saviour, Dan. 12:1.
ARCHELA'US, [g], (the prince of
the people), the favourite, but the most
cruel of the sons of Herod the Great,
Matt. 2:22, 23. This monster was de-
posed, after filling the office of ethnarch
for about seven years, by the Roman
emperor; and he died an exile in Gaul.
ARCHER, he that shoots with a bow,
Jer. 51:3: a hunter, such as used bows
and arrows in hunting before the inven-
tion of fire-arms, Gen. 21:20.
ARCHERS, ancient warriors using bows
and arrows, 1 Sam. 31:3: enemies,
ARCHIP'PUS, Αρχιππος (governor of
horses), a minister in the church at
Colosse, officiating as pastor in the ab-
sence of Epaphras, who had been sent to
visit Paul in bonds at Rome, Col. 1:7;
4:12-17; Phil. 2.
ARCTURUS, [h] HASEH (a cluster), a
brilliant star near the northern constel-
lation, Ursa Major, the Great Bear. "His
sons" denotes the surrounding smaller
stars, Job 9:9; 38:32.
AREOP'AGITE, [g], a judge in
the court of Areopagus, Acts 17:34.
AREOP'AGUS, [g] (the hill of
Mars), the sovereign tribunal at Athens,
celebrated for the justice of its decisions:
it was situated on a lofty hill, dedicated
to Mars, the fabulous god of war, as the
city was to his sister Minerva. Paul was
led thither, and required to declare his
religious principles, when Dionysius, one
of the judges, became converted to the
faith of Christ, Acts 17:19, 22, 34. Our
engraving represents the present appear-
ance of Areopagus.
ARE'TAS, [g] (the agreeable, or the
virtuous), a powerful Arab prince, whose
governor at Damascus endeavoured to
apprehend the apostle Paul, while at that
capital of southern Syria, 2 Cor. 11:32;
AR'GOB, [h] (a turf of earth), a luxuriant
and populous district of Bashan, Deut.
3:4; 1 Kings 4:13.
A'RIEL, [h] (the light of God, or the lion
of God), a title given to Jerusalem, pro-
bably on account of its military charac-
ter, Isa. 29:1, 2, 7.
ARIMATHE'A, [g] (a lion dead to
the Lord), a city of Ephraim, the native
place of the counseller, Joseph, Luke
23:51; and of the prophet Samuel, in
his time called Ramah, 1 Sam. 1:1, 19;
7:17; it is now called Ramla.
ARIGHT, religiously, Psal. 1:23: dis-
creetly, Prov. 15:2.
ARISE, to rise up, as from repose, Gen.
31:13: to leave a habitation, 35:1:
to come forth into public notice, as a
teacher or prophet, Deut. 13:1; Acts
20:30: to commence a work, Neh. 2:
20: to recover prosperity, Amos 7:2:
to be active in duty or service, Judg. 5:
12; Acts 22:16.
ARISTAR'CHUS, [g] (the best
prince), an [important] Christian of Thessa-
lonica, who accompanied Paul to Ephesus,
to Greece, and in his voyage to Rome,
Acts 19:29; 20:4; 27:2. Some say
he was bishop of the Christians at Thes-
salonica; others, of those at Apamea, in
Syria, and that he was beheaded with
Paul at Rome.
ARISTOB'ULUS, Αριστοβουλος (the best
counseller), supposed to have been a
brother of Barnabas, and, as some think,
a preacher of the gospel as a missionary
in Britain, Rom. 16:10.
ARK, a chest, or coffer, Exod. 2:3:
Noah's ark, according to Dr. Arbuthnot,
who reckoned the cubit at nearly twenty-
two inches, was of the following dimen-
sions: length, 300 cubits, or nearly 560
feet; breadth, 50 cubits, more than 90
feet; height, 30 cubits, more than 54
feet; and its capacity 2,730,782 solid or
cubical feet, fully sufficient for the car-
riage of 81,062 tons burthen. [....]
one, therefore, doubt of its being suffi-
cient to contain eight persons, and about
two hundred and fifty pairs of four-
footed animals, a number to which, ac-
cording to Buffon, all the various distinct
species [or kinds] may be reduced?" Noah's ark
was built of gopher-wood, and plastered
with pitch or bitumen: it was designed,
not for sailing, but to float when borne
up by the waters; and being constructed
on the most accurate geometrical propor-
tions, under the immediate inspiration
and direction of God, it was amply capa-
cious for its requirements, and adapted
to its awful destination, Gen. 6. 7.
ARK (of the covenant), the sacred chest,
made at the command of God, for the
preservation of the tables of the law,
which He gave to Moses, Exod. 25:10-
16. This was also the consecrated repo-
sitory of the golden pot of manna, and
the budding rod of Aaron, Exod. 16:33;
Num. 17:4-10; Heb. 9:4: it was
made of precious wood overlaid with
pure gold, and its lid of solid gold formed
the mercy-seat. See MERCY-SEAT. This
precious vessel, with its inestimable con-
tents, was lost in the overthrow of the
apostate Jews, when the temple was de-
stroyed with Jerusalem, and they carried
captives to Babylon; and though a new
ark was made for the service of the
second temple, its chief and divine trea-
sures could not be restored, 2 Kings
25:9; 2 Chron. 36:19.
ARM, the limb from the shoulder to the
hand, Job 31:22: human strength, of
which the arm is the chief emblem, Psal.
10:15; 44:3. God's arm denotes His creat-
ing power, Psal. 89:13; Jer. 27:5:
and His almighty grace, Isa. 53:1.
ARM, to furnish with weapons of war,
Num. 31:3: to cultivate mental endow-
ments and gracious habits, 1 Pet. 4:1
ARMAGEDDON, Αρμαγεδδων (the moun-
tain of Megiddo): Megiddo was a city near
the great plain of Jezreel, and was pro-
verbial as a place of mourning on account
of various battles, especially that of
Barak, with the Canaanites, Judg. 5:19,
and that of king Josiah with the Egyp-
tians, 2 Kings 23:29, 30. Antichrist
and his confederated powers are fore-
told as being decreed to be destroyed
here, in the great day of God Almighty,
See Bible Prophecy.
ARMED, accoutred as a soldier with
weapons of war, Gen. 14:14.
ARMENIA, [h], ARARAT, a large
country of Asia, consisting of the modern
Turcomania and part of Persia: its three
parts are subject to Russia, Persia, and
Turkey; but its ancient limits are un-
known. Armenia is regarded as bounded
on the north by Georgia and the Cau-
casus; on the east by the Russian pro-
vinces of Shirwan and Adjbijan; on the
south by Diarbekir and Kurdistan; and
on the west by the river Euphrates.
Ararat and chains of mountains traverse
and fill the country, giving rise to six
celebrated rivers; the Araxes and Cyrus
flowing east into the Caspian sea, Lycus
and Phases west into the Euxine; and
the Tigris and Euphrates, south-west,
into the Persian gulf, 2 Kings 19:37.
--Armenia received Christianity about
the first or second century; but it be-
came corrupted by many superstitions of
the Greek and Roman churches: but
from its state of ignorance and degra-
dation it is believed to be rising through
the labours of the Bible Society, and of
mies. from Britain and America.
- Armenian. See Ministry.
ARMHOLES, the cavities under the
shoulders, Jer. 38:12. Sewing pil-
lows to the arm-holes, denotes cherishing
delusive hopes excited by false doctrines,
ARMOUR, defensive clothing and wea-
pons of war, 1 Sam. 17:54; 2 Kings
3:21. Our engravings exhibit the vari-
ous arms and armour mentioned in
several parts of Scripture: the first,
represents a group of the principal
military dresses and instruments of an-
cient Egypt, selected from paintings and
sculptures of that country; the second,
shows the chief dresses and instruments
used by the soldiers of ancient Greece
and Rome, selected from sculptures and
paintings of those countries.
ARMOUR OF GOD, armour of light, and
armour of righteousness, &c., denote the
doctrines of the gospel maturely studied,
and the graces of the Holy Spirit dili-
gently cherished, by which the Christian
may conquer in his conflict with his
spiritual enemies, Eph. 6:11-13; Rom.
13:12; 2 Cor. 6:7.
ARMOUR-BEARER, an attendant on a
warrior, or captain, carrying his weapons,
Judg. 9:54; 1 Sam. 31:6.
ARMY, a collection of armed men, as
soldiers, Deut. 11:4: a multitude of per-
sons, as each of the tribes of Israel mar-
shalled for their journey from Egypt,
Exod. 7:4; 12:17: the heavenly host,
ARNON, [h] (trembling), a river rising
in the mountains of Gilead, and running
into the Jordan, Num. 21:13-28; Deut.
AR'OER, [h] (heath, tamarisk, or naked-
ness of the skin), a city of Gad on the river
Arnon, Num. 32:3: it gave name
also to a district, Isa. 17:2.
AR'PAD, [h] (a support, or bed), an
idolatrous city of Syria, near Hamath,
2 Kings 18:34; Isa. 10:9.
ARPHAX'AD, [h] (one that heals, or
one that releases), a son of Shem, the son
of Noah, Gen. 10:22; 11:12, 13.
ARRAY, clothing, or ornaments, 1 Tim.
2:9: military order, as soldiers for
battle, 2 Sam. 10:9; Jer. 50:14.
ARRAY, to clothe, Job 40:10: to adorn,
ARRAYED, robed, Gen. 41:42; Luke
ARRIVED, reached a place by travel-
ling, Luke 8:26.
ARROGANCY, haughtiness, Isa. 13:11;
ARROW, a dart shot from a bow, 1
Sam. 20:36; 2 Kings 9:24: mental ter-
rors, Job 6:4: wicked intentions, Psal.
11:2: slanderous words, Jer. 9:8; Psal.
57:4: divine judgments, Ezek. 5:16: the
reproving word of God, Psal. 45:5.
ART, practical science, Exod. 30:25:
ingenuity, Acts 17:29.
ARTAXERX'ES, [h] (Artachshasta),
a Persian monarch, believed to be the
same as Ahasuerus, who married Esther:
he commissioned Ezra to proceed to
Judea and finish the temple at Jerusa-
lem, in the seventh year of his reign,
Ezra 7:7-11; and Nehemiah, in his
twentieth year, to rebuild the city walls,
Neh. 1:1; 2:1. See AHASUERUS.
ARTIFICER, an ingenious workman,
Gen. 4:22; 1 Chron. 24:5.
ARTILLERY, weapons of war, 1 Sam.
A'SA, [h] (physician), a good king of
Judah: though educated under his idol-
atrous grandmother Maachah, his heart
was perfect with the Lord all his days; he
deposed her from her royal dignity, and
effected a great reformation in the king-
dom; yet he sinned in hiring the king
of Syria against Israel, and in regarding
the physicians in his disease, rather than
God, 1 Kings 15.; 2 Chron. 14. 16.
- Asa. See Revival.
AS'AHEL, [h] (a creature of God), a
son of king David's sister, and brother of
Joab, 2 Sam. 2:18-23.
ASAI'AH, [h] (a creature of the Lord),
a courtier, serving king Josiah, 2 Chron.
A'SAPH, [h] (one that assembles together,
or one that completes), a Levite, and cele-
brated musician in the time of David,
1 Chron. 6:39; 16:7; 25:2. Psalms 50.;
73., and ten more, are ascribed to
Asaph, but some of them are supposed
to have been only set to music by him.
Some of them were composed in later
times, perhaps by his descendants bear-
ing the name of Asaph.
ASAPH, father of Joah, the secretary
to king Hezekiah, 2 Kings 18:18.
ASAPH, chief forester of Lebanon,
under the king of Persia, in the time of
Nehemiah, Neh. 2:8.
ASCEND, to go or mount up, as on a
hill, Josh. 6:5: or to heaven, John 6:
ASCENT, the way up, as to a hill, 2
Sam. 15:36: or to a lofty edifice, 1 Kings
ASCRIBE, to attribute a quality or
work to any one, Deut. 32:3; 1 Sam.
AS'ENATH, [h] (peril, or misfortune),
an Egyptian princess, daughter of the
priest or prince of On, wife of Joseph,
and mother of Ephraim and Manasseh,
Gen. 41:45; 46:20.
ASH, a well-known tree: Isaiah is
supposed to mean that which we call the
prickly-ash, Isa. 44:14.
ASHAMED, filled with shame, 2 Sam.
10:5: confused, 2 Kings 8:11.
ASH'DOD, [h] (a fortified place), a
city of the Philistines, rendered famous
by its temple for the idol Dagon, 1 Sam.
5:17: it was situated near the Mediter-
ranean, between Gaza and Joppa, and
called in the New Testament Azotus,
ASH'ER, [h] (blessedness, or happiness),
a son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Gen. 30:13;
but of his life or death nothing is re-
ASH'ER (the tribe of): this tribe was
numerous, located in a fruitful part of
Galilee, having Lebanon on the north,
Zebulon and Naphtali on the east,
mount Carmel and Issachar on the south,
and on the west Phenicia, Gen. 49:
20; Josh. 19:24, 31.
ASHES, the remains of burnt fuel,
Lev. 6:10, 11: to put ashes on the head,
or to sit down in ashes, indicated deep
grief in mourning, 2 Sam. 13:19; Jonah
3:6; Isa. 58:5: to eat ashes, or to
become ashes, is to be reduced to misery
and degradation, Psal. 102:9; Mal. 4:3.
AS'TAROTH, or ASH'TAROTH, [h]
(flocks, the sheep, or riches), the goddess of
the Zidonians, Judg. 2:13; 10:6; 1 Kings
11:33. Some suppose her to have been
the wife of Ham. Under this name the
moon was worshipped, and called the
Queen of Heaven, Jer. 44:17-25. She
was regarded as the goddess of the groves,
where she was worshipped with the
grossest abominations. Cicero calls hers
the forth Venus of Syria. Astoreth and
Astarte are names of this divinity; and
from her the Saxons derived their Æstar,
or Eostre, whence the title of our Easter.
ASH'TAROTH-KARNA'IM, a city of the
giant Rephaims, Gen. 14:5; Josh. 12:4.
ASH'UR, ASSH'UR, or AS'SUR, [h] (a
step, or pace), a son of Shem, the builder
of the city of Nineveh, and founder of
the empire of Assyria, Gen. 10:11, 22.
ASH'UR, the country or empire of As-
syria, Num. 24:22, 24; Ezek. 27:
23; Hos. 14:3.
A'SIA, Ασια (boggy, muddy, or extended):
this country, as mentioned in the New
Testament, was the Roman Proconsular
Asia, containing only the western part
of Asia Minor, but including the cities
of the seven churches, Acts 16:6; 1 Cor.
16:19; 1 Pet. 1:1; Rev. 1. 2. 3.
ASIA MINOR, the small western divi-
sion of the continent of Asia, about 600
miles long, and 320 broad, lying between
the Euxine, or Black sea, on the north,
and the Mediterranean on the south; it
is now called Natolia, Anatolia, includ-
ing the provinces of Bithynia, Pontus,
Galatia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Pamphylia,
Pisidia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, Mysia, Troas,
&c. This lovely country has been the
theatre of innumerable wars under the
Greeks, Persians, Romans, Saracens, and
Turks; and, under the latter, it is now in
a most deplorable condition. Flourishing
churches existed here in the apostolic
age; but now there is to be found in it
little more than the name of Christian:
still there is hope from the labours of
our mies. and from the circulation
of the Scriptures.
A'SIA, in its largest acceptation, de-
notes the continent so called, bounded
on the north by the Frozen ocean, on
the east by the Pacific ocean, on the
south by the Indian ocean, and on the west
by Europe and Africa: it extends, from
east to west, 7580 miles, and from north
to south 5250 miles. In this the richest,
the most fruitful and delightful division
of the earth, man was created: here the
most celebrated monarchies flourished;
and it is still by far the most populous:
here the holy oracles of God were given
--the most important events of Divine
Providence occurred;--and here the
stupendous work of human redemption
was accomplished, by the obedience and
death of incarnate Deity.
ASIDE, apart, 2 Kings 4:4; Mark
ASK, to inquire, Gen. 32:29: to
request, 2 Kings 3:5.
AS'KELON, [h] (weight, balance, or fire
of infamy), a city of the Philistines on the
Mediterranean, about 65 miles from
Jerusalem, Judg. 1:18; 1 Sam. 6:17;
Zech. 9:5. Askelon is celebrated as
the birth-place of Herod the Great, but
more so as a place of resort by the
crusaders; it is now a wretched village
ASLEEP, sleeping, Judg. 4:21: dead
in the true faith, Acts 7:60; 1 Thess.
ASP, a very venomous serpent, whose
poison kills within a few hours with a
universal gangrene, Deut. 32:33;
Psal. 58:4. This is the effect of the
cobra di capello of India: but endless
sleep is the effect of the bite of the asp
of Ceylon. Wicked men are fitly com-
pared to these venomous creatures, Rom.
3:13. See ADDER.
ASS, an animal somewhat resembling
a horse, remarkable for patience, sub-
mission, and temperance in eating.
Several species of asses [donkeys], in the East, are
larger, more active, and more beautiful
than ours: they were, therefore, used
for travelling and for state by the most
honourable persons, as Abraham, Gen.
12:16; 22:3-5; Balaam, Num. 22:
23, 30; the Judges of Israel, Judg. 5:10;
10:4; 12:4; and Christ, in entering
Jerusalem, Matt. 21:4; Zech. 9:9. Our
engraving exhibits the ass of Persia.
ASS (the Wild). This was a beautiful
species of the Arabian breed, said to be
swifter than a horse, and needing the
restraint of a bridle; hence the proverb,
"A whip for the horse, and a bridle for
the ass," Prov. 26:3.
ASSAULT, to attack with violence,
Esth. 8:11; Acts 14:5.
ASSAY, to endeavour, Job 4:2; Acts
ASSEMBLE, to bring people together,
Num. 10:3; Ezek. 11:17.
ASSEMBLY, a company met together,
Exod. 12:6: a congregation, Jam. 2:2.
ASSENT, to agree, 2 Chron. 18:12;
ASSIGNED, marked out and allotted,
Gen. 47:22; Josh. 20:8.
ASSIST, to help, Rom. 16:2. ASSOCIATE, to unite, Isa. 8:9. ASSOS (approaching), a maritime town
of Troas, in Asia Minor, Acts 20:13.
ASSUR.--See ASHUR. ASSURANCE, a satisfactory declaration,
or testimony, Acts 17:31; 1 Thess 1:5:
firm confidence, especially of interest in
the favour of God, Isa. 32:17. Seri-
ous errors have been cherished on the
subject of full assurance, as excluding
all doubting; it is taught in the Script-
ures thus :--
Full assurance of understanding: this
denotes a comprehensive knowledge of
the revealed mysteries of redemption
and grace as declared in the gospel of
Christ, Col. 2:2.
Full assurance of faith: this is an intel-
ligent confident belief of the truth of the
gospel, in its revelation of God in Christ,
and its promise of blessings through
the Mediator, Heb. 10:22.
Full assurance of hope, is the confident
personal expectation of future and eter-
nal blessings and salvation by Jesus
Christ, Heb. 7:11; Rom. 8:38, 29.
These attainments of Christian expe-
rience, although rare and high, may be
possessed; and all believers are com-
manded to seek them from God in the
appointed means[?] of grace.
ASSURE, to give confidence, 1 John
ASSUREDLY, certainly, 1 Kings 1:13;
ASSYRIA, [h] ASHUR, (see ASHUR), a
celebrated country of Asia, lying be-
tween the rivers Tigris and Euphrates,
Gen. 2:14; 2 Kings 15:29. It derived
its name from Ashur, who built its
ancient capital, Nineveh, Gen. 10:11.
Ninus and his magnanimous queen Semi-
ramis were among its most famous
sovereigns; and Tiglath-Pileser, Shal-
manezer, and Sennacherib, were among
its most powerful kings, enemies of
Israel and Judah, 2 Kings 16:7; 17:
3; 18:9. Nineveh was besieged and
taken by the Medes and Babylonians
about the year B. C. 606, when Sardana-
palus burnt his palace with his eunuchs,
his concubines, and his treasures, and
perished in its flames; after which the
city declined till it became a heap of
ruins, as predicted by the prophet
Nahum; and the country is now almost
desolate, called Kurdistan. See NINEVEH.
ASSWAGED, lessened or abated, Gen.
8:1: relieved, Job 16:5, 6.
ASTONIED, filled with perplexity,
Ezr. 9:3; Dan. 3:24.
ASTONISHED, filled with wonder or
fear, Lev. 26:32; Acts 9:6.
ASTONISHMENT, amazement and fear,
Deut. 28:28, 37.
ASTROLOGERS, vain pretenders to the
knowledge of future events, by observ-
ing the aspect of the stars, Isa. 47:13;
A'TAD, [h] (a thorn, or a bramble bush),
the owner of the place where the sons of
Jacob halted to mourn when they con-
veyed the body of the patriarch to his
grave near Hebron, Gen. 50:10, 11.
ATHALI'AH, [h] (the time of the Lord),
the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah, and
daughter of Omri, king of Samaria, 2
Kings 8:26. She was a wicked woman,
the "counsellor of her son to do wick-
edly," 2 Chron. 22:3: she murdered
all the royal family of Judah, and
usurped the throne; but she perished by
the sword, 23.
ATH'ENS, from Αθηναι (Athene), a title
of Minerva, who was the tutelar guardian
of the city: it was the most celebrated
city of Greece, and about 25 miles from
Corinth; founded, as it is said, by
Cecrops, an Egyptian, in the year B.C.
1556, several years before the birth of
Moses. Learning and the arts were
improved with the greatest zeal at
Athens; and the wisdom of its sages
was famous throughout the world at the
period of the Christian era; yet all
ranks were sunk in the most degrading
superstition and idolatry, of which the
case of the apostle Paul, before the court
of Areopagus, affords an illustration,
Acts 17:16-22. Solon, Socrates, and
Aristides, were among the famous philo-
sophers of Athens; Demosthenes was
the prince of orators; Miltiades, Cimon,
Themistocles, and Alcibiades, were re-
nowned generals. Our engraving repre-
sents modern Athens, with several ruins
of the ancient city.
ATONEMENT (a reconciliation), as the
Greek word is translated, 2 Cor. 5:18,
19, and in the margin of Rom. 5:11:
in Rom. 11:15, it is rendered reconciling.
The Levitical atonement was the cere-
monial reconciliation, by means of sacri-
fices appointed by the Divine authority,
Exod. 30:10; Lev. 16:10-34, designed
to prefigure the atonement made by
Christ "as the Lamb of God, which
taketh away the sin of the world," Heb.
9:1-15; John 1:29.
The Christian atonement is the satis-
faction offered to the Divine justice for
the sins of mankind by the obedience and
death of Christ, the incarnate Son of
God, Rom. 5:1-11. The virtue of this
atonement reaches back to the first
transgressor; and secures to all true
penitents, believing on Christ, personal
reconciliation with God; they, therefore,
enjoy the Divine forgiveness, and are
constituted, through the righteousness
of the Mediator, heirs of eternal life,
Rom. 3:24-26; Isa. 53:4-12; 2 Cor. 5:
17-21. Viewing this atonement of Christ,
under the influence of the Holy Spirit,
believers can look up to God with confi-
dence and joy, notwithstanding His awful
perfections of glorious holiness and in-
flexible justice, Rom. 5:11.
ATTAIN, to gain or acquire, Prov. 1:5:
to reach, as a place, Acts 27:12: to
advance to, as a state, Rom. 9:30, 31;
ATTEND, to regard, Psal. 17:1;
Prov. 4:1; Acts 16:14: to wait on,
ATTENDANCE, waiting in service,
1 Kings 10:6; Heb. 7:13.
ATTENT or ATTENTIVE, regardful,
2 Chron. 6:40; Neh. 1:6.
ATTIRE, g. clothing, Prov. 7:10;
AUDIENCE, hearing, Gen. 23:13;
AUGMENT, to increase, Num. 32:
AUGUS'TUS, [g] (increased or
augmented), the Roman emperor at the
time of our Saviour's birth. His decree
of enrolment or taxation, occasioned the
accomplishment of the Divine prediction
for Messiah to be born at Bethlehem,
the city of David, Joseph being a de-
scendant from that royal prophet, Luke
2:1-11; Matt. 2:5, 6. Augustus was
the second Roman emperor, succeeding
Julius Caesar, his uncle, A.M. 3965.
From the defeat of Mark Antony, A.M.
3973, he held the sole sovereignty forty-
five years, and died A.D. 14.
AUNT, a father's or mother's sister,
AUSTERE, severe or harsh, Luke 19:
AUTHOR, the beginner or original
mover in a business or work, 1 Cor. 14:
33; Heb. 5:9; 12:2.
AUTHORITY, rightful power, Est. 9:
29: warrant or commission, Matt. 21:
23; Acts 9:14.
AVAIL, to profit, Est. 5:1-3; Jam. 5:16. AVENGE, to revenge or punish an
affront, Lev. 19:18: to vindicate, Num.
31:2; Deut. 32:43.
AVENGER, a revenger, Deut. 19:6;
Josh. 20:5-9: a vindicator, 1 Thess.
AVENGING, revenging, Judg. 5:22;
1 Sam. 25:26, 33.
AVERSE, strongly disinclined, Mic. 2:8. A'VITES, [h], AVIM (the wicked), a
people of the ancient Canaanites, called
Hivites, Gen. 10:15-17; Josh. 13:3. See
AVOID, to shun, Rom. 16:17: to
refrain from, 1 Cor. 8:2: to escape
from, 1 Sam. 18:11.
AVOUCHED, declared, Deut. 26:17,
AWAKE, to rouse from sleep, Mark 4:
38: to rise up from inactivity, Judg. 5:
12: to arise from ungodly sloth, Eph. 5:
14: to rise from the dead, Job 14:12;
AWARE, vigilant, Jer. 50:24: conscious,
AWAY, at a distance, Gen. 15:11:
begone, John 19:15.
AWL, a piercing instrument to bore
small holes, Exod. 21:6; Deut. 15:17.
AX or AXE, a sharp instrument of iron
for cutting down trees, Deut. 19:5: this
word is used metaphorically, to denote
an individual or a power in the hand of
God to strike or cut down the wicked:
hence, as an axe in the hand of a car-
penter, so were the Assyrians in the
hand of God, Isa. 10:15, and John the
Baptist, Matt. 3:10.
AXLETREE, the bar of a carriage, on
the ends of which the wheels turn,
1 Kings 7:32, 33.
AZARI'AH, [h] (assistance of the Lord,
or court of the Lord), a common name in
Israel: six high-priests are mentioned,
besides many others, who were so called;
among whom the following are most
AZARIAH, called Uzziah, king of
Judah, 2 Kings 14:21; 15:13; 2 Chron.
26:1.   See UZZIAH.
AZARIAH, the high-priest who with-
stood Uzziah, 2 Chron. 26:17-20.
AZARIAH, captain of the guards to
king Solomon, 1 Kings 4:5.
AZARIAH, the son of Oded, a prophet,
who instructed and encouraged king
Asa, 2 Chron. 15:1-7.
AZARIAH, a captive in Babylon, one
of the three friends of Daniel, called
Abednego, Dan. 1. 3.
AZE'KAH, [h] (strength of walls), a city
of Judea, near Gibeon, Josh. 10:10, 11;
AZO'TUS, [g], the Greek name of
Ashdod, Acts 8:40. See ASHDOD.
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