Bro. J. Morley's The Acts Of The Apostles Class
May 17, 1993
"(2)Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter-1, and Andrew his brother-2; James-3 the son of Zebedee, and John his brother-4;
(3)Philip-5, and Bartholomew-6; Thomas-7, and Matthew the publican-8; James-9 the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus-10;
(4)Simon the Canaanite-11, and Judas Iscariot-12, who also betrayed him." (Matthew 10:2-4)
"(16)And Simon he surnamed Peter-1;
(17)And James-3 the son of Zebedee, and John-4 the brother of James; and he surnamed them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder:
(18)And Andrew-2, and Philip-5, and Bartholomew-6, and Matthew-8, and Thomas- 7, and James-9 the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus-10, and Simon the Canaanite- 11,
(19)And Judas Iscariot-12, which also betrayed him: and they went into an house." (Mark 3:16-19)
"(14)Simon, (whom he also named Peter,)-1 and Andrew his brother-2, James-3 and John-4, Philip-5 and Bartholomew-6,
(15)Matthew-8 and Thomas-7, James-9 the son of Alphaeus, and Simon called Zelotes-11,
(16)And Judas-10 the brother of James, and Judas Iscariot-12, which also was the traitor." (Luke 6:14-16)
"And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where abode both Peter-1, and James-3, and John-4, and Andrew-2, Philip- 5, and Thomas-7, Bartholomew-6, and Matthew-8, James-9 the son of Alphaeus, and Simon Zelotes-11, and Judas-10 the brother of James." (Acts 1:13)
[Numbering of the apostles' names corresponds to the order in The Gospel According to St. Matthew.]
The goal of this paper is to present a detailed account of the lives of God's twelve apostles. The approach is to advance each of these individuals separately so that in a short amount of time one may read and review about any one of them. I have left a number of question marks '?' in the report purposely in order that in future study these might be removed when verification of the truth from reliable sources is achieved.
'PETER[-1]. Originally SIMEON, or SIMON, heard. (Cephas, a stone--Peter, a rock). The son of Jonas, and a native of Bethsaida, in Galilee. He was married (his wife's name was Concordia?) at the time of his call to follow Jesus; and lived with his mother-in-law, at Capernaum. He was a fisherman, and was fishing with his father and brother, An- drew, when Jesus found him. Peter and his brother Andrew were, probably, disciples of John the Bap- tist. Peter, James, and John, only, of the twelve, were witnesses of the transfiguration and the agony in Gethsemane. It seems that Peter was more intimate than any of the other apostles with Jesus, for the tax-collector asked him if his Master paid tribute; and to him and John was given the duty of providing the lamb for the paschal supper, although Judas carried the purse. Peter walked on the Sea of Galilee, but his heart failed, and he cried for help. He frequently declared his faith in Jesus, although he was disappointed that the Christ was not the temporal prince that the Jews had looked for. He first refused to have Jesus wash his feet; but when he learned that it was a symbol, he wished to have his hands and head washed also. He boldly and vauntingly avowed his attachment to Jesus, and offered to lay down his life for Him, and then disgracefully denied Him the same day, and wept bitterly when conscious of what he had done. Jesus forgave him, accepted his renewed professions, and gave him a new commission to work in his cause. After this time his character changed. Instead of a hasty zeal, he showed a sober dignity. He first proclaimed salvation through a crucified Saviour, and, when arrested with the others, boldly declared his faith and purpose before the Sanhedrin. He... and rebuked Simon the magician, at Samaria, who wished to buy the secret of working miracles. At Joppa he was taught, in a vision, that the ancient ritual distinctions of clean and unclean were abol- ished. Herod put him in prison, at Jerusalem, and he was released by an angel. He first advo- cated an exemption from the ceremonial law of Moses. Paul rebuked him for timidly dissem- bling on the question of the equality of the Jews and Gentiles, at Antioch. Here the Gospel history ends, and we have tradition only for the rest of his life, which says that he traveled (as Paul did) among the cities and churches to which his epistles are addressed, in Pontus, Galatia, Bithynia, Cap- padocia, and Asia; that he visited Rome, and was made bishop of the church there, and suffered mar- tyrdom under Nero, being crucified with his head downward.' [SBD, p. 241-242]
'Peter, rock, bro. of Andrew, Jn. 1. 40, and son of Jonah, Mt. 16. 17, or John, Jn. 1. 42; 21. 15-17; also known as Simeon (Ac. 15. 14; 2 Pet. 1. 1) or Simon; originally a fisherman of Bethsaida, on W. coast of Sea of Galilee; called to be a disciple, Mt. 4. 18-22; Mk. 1. 16-20; Lk. 5. 1-11; Jn. 1. 40-2; at that time he was living at Capernaum with his wife and wife's mother, Mt. 8. 14; Mk. 1. 29; Lk. 4. 38. His Aramaic name Cephas, of which Peter is the Greek equiv., was given him by our Lord, Jn. 1. 40-2. He was one of the three disciples present on several impor- tant occasions, Mk. 5. 37; Mt. 17. 1; 26. 37.
Other refs. to him are found in Mt. 14. 28- 33; Jn. 6. 66-71; and in the very important passage Mt. 16. 13-19, where we find his confession of our Lord's Messiahship and Godhead.' [CBD, p. 79]
'Other events connected with his life: his denial, Mt. 26. 33-5, 58, 69-75; at the resur- rection, Mk. 16. 7; Lk. 24. 12, 34; Jn. 20. 2- 7; I Cor. 15. 5; with our Lord by the Sea of Galilee, Jn. 21; in Jerusalem after Pentecost, Ac. 2-5; with Simon Magus, Ac. 8. 14-24; at Lydda and Joppa, Ac. 9. 32-43; with Cornelius, Ac. 10-11. 18; in prison, Ac. 12. 1-19; at the Jerusalem Conference, Ac. 15. 7-11; Gal. 2. 7-9; at Antioch, Gal. 2. 11 ff.
From his Epp. we learn (I Pet. 5. 13) that he worked in Babylon (which may be the well- known city on the Euphrates, or more likely is a disguised name for Rome), and had as his companions Mark and Silvanus or Silas.
It was under his direction that Mark wrote his Gospel. From A.D. 44 to 61 he was prob- ably at work in Syrian towns, having Antioch as his centre. It is generally believed that he suffered martyrdom at Rome, perhaps in 64 or 65.' [CBD, p. 79]
'Simon, ... (6) S. Peter the apostle; see Peter;' [CBD, p. 95]
Peter was probably between 30 and 40 years of age at the date of his call. The Gospels and Acts narrate his life at length. Peter was probably employed for the most part in building up and completing the organization of the Christian communities in Palestine and the adjoining districts. There is, however, strong reason to believe that he visited Corinth? at an early period. The name of Peter as founder or joint founder is not associated with any local church save the churches of Corinth?, Antioch?, or Rome?, by early ecclesiastical tradition. It may be considered as a point that he did not visit Rome before the last year of his life; but there is evidence that he? and Paul? were the founders of the Roman? church, and suffered death in that city. The time and manner of the apostle's martyrdom are less certain. According to early writers, he suffered at or about the same? time with Paul, and in the Neronian? persecution, A.D. 67?, 68?. All agree that he was crucified. Origen says that Peter felt himself unworthy to be put to death in the same manner as Christ, and was therefore, at his own request, crucified with his head downward. The apostle is said to have employed interpreters. Of far more importance is the statement that Mark wrote his Gospel under the teaching of Peter, or that he embodied in that Gospel the substance of our apostle's oral instruction. The only written documents which Peter has left are his two epistles.
'the blessed apostle Peter was condemned to death, and crucified, as some do write, at Rome; albeit some others, and not without cause, do doubt thereof.' 'Jerome saith that he was crucified, his head being down and his feet upward, himself so requiring, because he was (he said) unworthy to be crucified after the same form and manner as the Lord was.' [FBM, p. 12-13]
'ANDREW[-2] (strong man). Brother of Peter, and native of Bethsaida in Galilee (John i. 44). He was first a disciple of John the Baptist, but fol- lowed Jesus on John's testimony, and informed his brother Peter of what he had found--that Jesus was the Christ (verses 35, 36, 41). He did not leave his business of fishing until some time after (Mark i. 14). He was present at the feeding of the 5,000 at Jerusalem, when the Greek Jews wished to see Jesus (John vi. 8); and, with others, on Olivet, asked privately of Jesus what he meant by his strange words about destroying and rebuilding the temple. Of his after-life and death nothing is re- corded. Tradition says he preached in Scythia, or Achaia, and was crucified on a cross[.]' [SBD, p. 16]
'Andrew, the first-called apostle, bro. of Simon Peter, and son of Jonas or John of Bethsaida in Galilee, Mt. 4. 18; 10. 2; Mk. 1. 16, 29; 13. 3; Jn. 1. 40, 44; 6. 8; 12. 22.' [CBD, p. 5]
'writeth Jerome. Andrew did preach, in the year fourscore of our Lord Jesus Christ, to the Scythians and Sogdians, to the Sacae, and in a city which is called Sebastopolis, where the Ethiopians do now inhabit. He was buried in Patrae, a city of Achaia, being crucified by AEgeas, the governor of the Edessenes.' [FBM, p. 7-9]
'1. JAMES, THE SON OF ZEBEDEE[-3]. He first ap- pears as a fisherman, A. D. 27, when he, with his brother John, was called by Jesus to be his disci- ple (Mark i. 20). His father owned a boat (ship) and employed help. On another occasion he, his brother John, with Simon and Andrew, were di- rected by Jesus, and caught a very large number of fish at one haul, which was explained by the Great Teacher to mean that they all should become successful fishers of men. James was numbered with the 12, among the first 4. He was always se- lected for any special duty. He was present at the raising of Jairus' daughter (Mark 5:37); one of the three on the Mt. of Transfiguration (Matt. 17: 1); one of the 4 who heard the sermon on the last days (Mark xiii. 3); and one of 3 in Gethsemane (Matt. xxvi. 37). He joined his brother John in the request that fire should be called down on the Samaritans (Luke ix. 54); and in the ambitious request, with their mother, to sit nearest to Christ in his kingdom (Matt. xx. 20). These requests were refused with indignation by Jesus, and they were named Boanerges (Mark 3:17). They were at the Feast of Pentecost. He was a man of very resolute purpose and determined action, and was given a high position among the apostles (Acts xii. 2); and he is the only one of the 12 whose death is recorded, which took place about 10 years after the crucifixion.' [SBD, p. 143]
'James, an English form of the Heb. name Jacob. .... There are (1) son of Zebedee, apostle bro. of John; his call, Mt. 4. 21; Mk. 1. 19; Lk. 5. 10; given the name of Boaner- ges, Mk. 3. 17; one of the inner circle of three chosen to be with our Lord on certain special occasions, at the raising of the dau. of Jairus, Mk. 5. 37; at the Transfig., Mt. 17. 1; Mk. 9. 2; Lk. 9. 28; at Gethsemane, Mt. 26. 37; Mk. 14. 33; see also Mk. 10. 35, 41; 13. 3; Lk. 8. 51; 9. 54; beheaded by Herod, Ac. 12. 2.' [CBD, p. 56]
-- James was the older? brother of John the apostle. On the day? of the ascension, he is mentioned? as 'persevering', with the rest of the apostles and disciples in prayer?. Shortly? before the day of the passover, in the year 44 A.D.?, he was put to death by Herod Agrippa? I.
'When this James, saith Clement, was brought to the tribunal seat, he that brought him and was the cause of his trouble, seeing him to be condemned and that he should suffer death, was in such sort moved therewith in heart and conscience that as he went to the execution he confessed himself also, of his own accord, to be a Christian. And so were they led forth together, where in the way he desired of James to forgive him what he had done. After that James had a little paused with himself upon the matter, turning to him he saith 'Peace be to thee, brother;' and kissed him. And both were beheaded together, A.D. 36.' [FBM, p. 6]
'JOHN, THE APOSTLE[-4]. Was a native of Beth- saida, on the Sea of Galilee, the son of Zebedee and Salome. He was acquainted with the charac- ter of Jesus as the Messiah before the call to be an apostle. In company with his brother James, and Peter he was specially favored by Jesus on several occasions: at the Transfiguration; the restoring of Jairus' daughter; in the garden Gethsemane; and (including Andrew) at the discourse on the fall of Jerusalem. He was mistaken, with the others of the twelve, in his idea of the temporal mission of the Messiah; and with James joined his mother in the ambitious request for places of dignity and honor. He and James were called Boanerges, for their zeal. John was called also the DIVINE and the REVELATOR, from his writings. His family could not have been poor, because they kept ser- vants, and contributed to the support of Jesus; and he received Mary into his home at Jerusalem, after the crucifixion. He also enjoyed social privi- leges, and the acquaintance of the high-priest.' [SBD, p. 164-165]
'Jesus loved John, who was the youngest of the twelve. Twice he showed himself to him as the Lord, by a miracle touching his own occupation, that he could understand without doubt. He was probably more intimate with him than any other, as the leaning on his bosom at the supper would indicate. After the ascension Paul found him living in Jerusalem, where he was a pillar in the church; and he was yet there when Paul was in Ephesus, A. D. 58. After Paul left Ephesus, John was sent there, about A. D. 65. From there he is believed to have been taken to Rome during one of the persecutions of the time, where he was thrown into boiling oil, from which he emerged unscathed. He was exiled to Patmos, where he wrote the Apocalypse, about A. D. 96. (Patmos and 7 Churches). Polycrates (A. D. 200) calls him a martyr, but does not record either the time, place, or manner of his death. His epistles give evi- dence of a large diocese, requiring many journeys of pastoral visitation. He is described as a mild man, affectionate...; but as a true Oriental, sometimes firing up as in the case of the Samaritans, when they rejected Jesus.' [SBD, p. 165]
-- 'John, the Apostle and Evangelist; s. of Zebedee and Salome (who was probably sister of the virgin), and brother of James; in early life a fisherman in fairly comfortable circum- stances, Mk. 1. 20. We may assume he is the unnamed disciple of the Baptist mentioned in Jn. 1. 40. Later on he received a further call to be a disciple of Jesus Christ, Mt. 4. 21, 22; Lk. 5. 1-11. He was one of the inner circle of three who were with our Lord at the raising of Jairus' daughter, at the Trans- figuration, and in Gethsemane. In his own Gospel he refers to himself as "the disciple whom Jesus loved", Jn. 13. 23; 19. 26; 20. 2; 21. 7, 20. In him deep love was united with strong energy and even impetuosity, so that he received the name Boanerges, "The sons of thunder", Lk. 9. 54. Other incidents which reveal this side of his character are recorded in Mk. 9. 38; 10. 35-40. Refs. to him are fre- quent in the accounts of our Lord's Passion and Resurrection, Lk. 22. 8; Jn. 18. 15; 19. 26, 27; 20. 2; 21. 2, etc. In the Acts he appears but seldom, Ac. 3. 1, 11; 4. 13; 8. 14.
Paul refers to his meeting with him in Jeru- salem, Gal. 3. 9. In Rev. 1. 9 John tells us of his banishment to Patmos. During the latter part of his life he lived at Ephesus. His death occurred somewhere near A.D. 100.' [CBD, p. 60]
-- John, brother of James the elder?. He is that disciple who (without mention by name) is spoken of in the Fourth Gospel as especially dear to Jesus.
'John...came to Ephesus in the year fourscore and seventeen; where he continued until the time of Trajan, and there governed the churches in Asia, ...; and so lived till the year after the passion of our Lord, threescore and eight, which was the year of his age about one hundred.' [FBM, p. 13-17]
'PHILIP[-5]. One of the twelve apostles. A native of Bethsaida, in Galilee (John i. 44). He became a disciple of John the Baptist, and was the fourth of the twelve in the order of his call. He intro- duced Nathanael, who was afterwards called Bar- tholomew, the fifth apostle. Jesus asked Philip where bread (vi. 5) was to be found for feeding the 5000, and Philip did not even suspect the real source; nor did he seem to know the spiritual character of Jesus and his teaching much later, when he said to him, "Lord, shew us the Father," (xiv. 8), and he had heard the voice from heaven, which was sent for the special instruction of such as were so slow to perceive the light--although he was at Cana when the water was made wine [grape juice]. He consulted with Andrew before gratifying the re- quest of the Jews from Greece to see Jesus (out of curiosity only?) Philip was with the other apostles in that "upper room" (Acts i. 13) at Jerusalem, after the ascension, and on the day of Pentecost.' [SBD, p. 244]
'Tradition says he preached in Phrygia. There is no account of his death.' [SBD, p. 244]
'Philip, lover of horses, (1) the apostle; formerly of Bethsaida, Jn. 1. 44; mentioned along with Barthol., Mt. 10. 3; Lk. 6. 14; see also Jn. 1. 43-6; 6. 5, 7; 12. 21, 22; 14. 8, 9;' [CBD, p. 79]
Philip was among the Galilean peasants? of Bethsaida who flocked to hear the preaching of John the Baptist?.
'Philip, the holy apostle, after he had much laboured among the barbarous nations in preaching the word of salvation to them, at length suffered, in Hierapolis, a city of Phrygia, being there crucified and stoned to death; where also he was buried, and his daughters also with him.1' [FBM, p. 9]
'BARTHOLOMEW[-6] (son of Talmai). One of the 12. The same as Nathanael. Born at Cana. Philip had some difficulty in bringing him to regard Jesus as the Christ. He was one of the 7 to whom Jesus appeared after the resurrection at the lake of Ti- berias, and a witness of the ascension. Tradition only gives any account of him after that time, when he is supposed to have gone as a preacher into 'the East' (India).' [SBD, p. 33]
'NATHANAEL[-6] (given of God). Born at Cana of Galilee. One of the Twelve, under the name of Bartholomew (son of Talmai). (See BAR- THOLOMEW). He was one of the seven Apostles to whom Jesus appeared after the resurrection at the Sea of Tiberias. When introduced to Jesus by Philip, Jesus said, "Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile[,]" thus making his name almost a synonym for sincerity. Tradition says he preached in Arabia Felix, having Matthew's gos- pel, and was crucified in Armenia or Cilicia.' [SBD, p. 214]
'Bartholomew, one of the Twelve, Mt. 10. 3; Mk. 3. 18; Lk. 6. 14; Ac. 1. 13. See Nathanael.' [CBD, p. 12]
'Nathanael, God has given, his friendship with Philip and call to be a disciple, Jn. 1. 45-51; see also 21. 2, where we learn that he belong- ed to Cana in Galilee.' [CBD, p. 74]
The name Nathanael does not occur in the first three Gospels; but it is commonly believed that Nathanael and Bartholomew are the same person. The evidence for that belief is as follows: John, who twice mentions Nathanael, never mentions Bartholomew at all. Matthew, Mark, and Luke all speak of Bartholomew but never Nathanael.
'Bartholomew is said also to have preached to the Indians, and to have translated the Gospel of St Matthew into their tongue. At last in Albinopolis, a city of greater Armenia, after divers persecutions, he was beaten down with staves, then crucified; and after, being excoriate, he was beheaded.' [FBM, p. 7]
'THOMAS[-7] (a twin; Gr. Dydimus, a twin. Lydia was his twin-sister). A native of Galilee. .... He was slow to believe, weighing the diffi- culties of the case, of a desponding heart, but ar- dently attached to his Master. He was ready to go with Jesus into any danger, but was incredulous about the unknown future; and after the resurrec- tion, he would and he could only believe after he had seen and felt the very wounds made by the nails and the spear. He was one of the seven apos- tles who saw Jesus at the Sea of Galilee, and met with the others in the "upper room" after the as- cension. Tradition says he preached in Parthia, was a martyr, and was buried at Edessa. The church in Malabar claims him as its founder, and shows a tomb as his.' [SBD, p. 308]
'Thomas, one of the twelve; the name means a twin, and so it is translated in Jn. 11. 16 by the Greek Didymus. He is mentioned in the lists of apostles, Mt. 10. 3; Mk. 3. 18; Lk. 6. 15; Ac. 1. 13; and also in Jn. 11. 16; 14. 5; 20. 24, 28; 21. 2. The refs. to him in John enable us to form a fairly clear concep- tion of his character. He was devoted to our Lord ("Let us also go, that we may die with him"), but he was naturally despondent, he believed without hope, and was inclined to let his mind dwell on the darker side of things.' [CBD, p. 102]
Thomas is said to have been born in Antioch?. The earlier traditions, as believed in the fourth? century, represent him as preaching in Parthia or Persia. The later traditions carry him farther east?. His martyrdom, whether in Persia? or India, is said to have been occasioned by a lance.
'Thomas preached to the Parthians, Medes and Persians, also to the Carmanians, Hyrcanians, Bactrians and Magians. He suffered in Calamina, a city of India, being slain with a dart.' [FBM, p. 6]
'MATTHEW[-8] (Mattathias, the gift of Jehovah). Is only mentioned at the time of his call to be an apostle, when he was in "the receipt of custom[,]" (Matt. ix. 9). Mark gives him another name-- Levi, the son of Alphaeus (Mark ii. 14; iii. 18).... On his call he gave a feast by way of a farewell to his friends, to which Jesus was invited (Luke v. 27). His humility is seen in his styling himself "the publican" (Matt. x. 3). He was with the other apostles after the resurrection (Acts 1:13). After this there is no record of him or his acts. It is not known how or where he died. There is a tradition that he lived in Jerusalem 15 years after the crucifixion, and that he became a martyr in Persia. See HISTORY OF THE BOOKS for the GOSPEL.' [SBD, p. 195]
'Matthew, gift of God, known before his con- version as Levi, son of Alphaeus, Mk. 2. 14; he was tax-gatherer at Capernaum. Soon after his call he gave a feast to his old associ- ates, Mt. 9. 9-13; Mk. 2. 14-17; Lk. 5. 27- 32, at which our Lord was present, and was in consequence blamed by the Pharisees. M. was probably a silent, unobtrusive, contem- plative man, a thorough Jew, with a wide knowledge of the O.T. Scriptures, and able to see in every detail of our Lord's life the fulfilment of prophecy. His gospel was writ- ten for the use of Jewish converts in Pale- stine. It is full of quotations from the O.T.
His chief object is to show that Jesus is the Messiah of whom the prophets spoke. He also emphasizes the truth that Jesus is the King and Judge of men. His gospel was prob- ably written in Aramaic, but is known to us by a Greek translation, possibly made by Matt. himself. It may be regarded as the ac- count of the life and words of Jesus Christ received by Jewish Christians in Palestine in the 1st cent. Of the Apostle's later life little is known for certain. A tradition... asserts that he died a martyr's death.' [CBD, p. 67-68]
'Levi, joined, ... (4) = Matthew, Mk. 2. 14; Lk. 5. 27, 29.' [CBD, p. 64]
Matthew's business was the collection of dues and customs from persons and goods crossing the sea of Galilee?, or passing along the great Damascus? road which ran along the shore between Bethsaida?, Julius? and Capernaum?. He appears to have been a man of wealth, for he made a great feast in his own house, in perhaps order to introduce his former companions and friends to Jesus. His business would tend to give him a knowledge of human nature, and accurate business habits, and of how to make a way to the hearts of many publicans and sinners not otherwise easily reached. He is mentioned by name, after the resurrection of Christ, only in Acts 1:13; but he must have lived many? years as an apostle since he was the author of the Gospel of Matthew, which was probably written at least twenty years later. There is a tradition that he remained for fifteen? years at Jerusalem?, after which he went as missionary to the Persians?, Parthians?, and Medes?. There is a legend that he died a martyr in Ethiopia?.
'Matthew, otherwise named Levi, first of a publican made an apostle, wrote his Gospel to the Jews in the Hebrew tongue. After he had con- verted to the faith AEthiopia and all Egypt, Hircanus, their king, sent one to run him through with a spear.' [FBM, p. 9]
'JAMES THE SON OF ALPHAEUS[-9] (Clopas), and Mary (John xix. 25), one of the apostles (Matt. x. 3; Mark iii. 18, etc.), (Matt. xxvii. 56; Mark xv. 40), and is also called James the Less. He had a brother named Joses, and a sister Salome.' [SBD, p. 143]
'James, an English form of the Heb. name Jacob. .... There are... (2) Son of Alphaeus, also an apostle, Mt. 10. 3; Mk. 3. 18; Lk. 6. 15; Ac. 1. 13.' [CBD, p. 56]
'THADDEUS[-10] (Heb. TADDAY, courageous). JUDE. JUDAS. Also called Lebbeus and Thaddeus (Matt. x.). One of the twelve. He is only mentioned as among those who could not see the spiritual king- dom of Jesus (John xiv. 22). Of his life, labors, and death, we know nothing. Tradition says he preached at Edessa, and died a martyr there (Mark iii. 18).' [SBD, p. 305]
'Thaddaeus (Lebbaeus, whose surname was T.), Mt. 10. 3; Mk. 3. 18; called Judas the brother of James, Lk. 6. 16; Ac. 1. 13.' [CBD, p. 102]
'Judas, .... (3) ("not Iscariot"), one of the 12, also called Judas (son or brother) of James, Lk. 6. 16; Jn. 14. 22; Ac. 1. 13; probably the same as Leb- baeus or Thaddaeus, Mt. 10. 3; Mk. 3. 18;' [CBD, p. 62]
From a comparison with the catalogue of apostles, Judas, Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus were the same person. According to opinion he wrote the Epistle of Jude.
'Thaddeus -- shot to death with arrows' [LOP, p. 81]
'SIMON[-11]. --5. Simon, the Canaanite, one of the twelve apostles (Matt. x. 4), otherwise described as Simon Zelotes (Luke vi. 15).' [SBD, p. 289]
'Simon, ... (2) S. the Canaanite, one of the 12, Mt. 10. 4; Mk. 3. 18; called S. Zelotes, Lk. 6. 15; Ac. 1. 13; see Zelotes;' [CBD, p. 95]
'Zelotes, a name of Simon, one of the 12 Apostles; Lk. 6. 15; Ac. 1. 13, which is formed from an Aramaic word (Kanan), of which Zelotes is the Gk., and Zealot the English equivalent. The Zealots were a party among the Jews (so called from their zeal for the Law) who were determined to resist Roman or any foreign authority in Palestine.' [CBD, p. 106]
'Simon the apostle, called Cananeus and Zelotes, preached in Mauritania, and in the country of Africa, and in Britain: he was likewise crucified.' [FBM, p. 6-7]
'JUDAS ISCARIOT[-12] (from KERIOTH, his native place.) Son of Simon (John vi. 71). His early life is not recorded. He was awarded the unhappy notoriety of betraying Jesus, the Lord and Master. He must have been a useful man among the 12, because he was appointed their steward (John xii. 6). Jesus knew his character from the first (vi. 64); but no one else even suspected him up to the very last day, when Peter and John were only made to know by a private sign from the Master who was the betrayer (xiii. 26). He got from the high-priest 30 shekels, the price of a slave, but returned the money when repentance overtook him, after the crucifixion. His tender heart and quick conscience appears in the fact that he killed himself rather than live with the feeling of remorse for his crime.' [SBD, p. 169-170]
'Some have thought that he believed that Jesus would be able to free himself from the priests, and stand higher than ever for the trial; others think that he as well as the rest believed Jesus was delaying the opening of his temporal kingdom, and that he would only force him to declare his power and majesty by bringing him face to face with his enemies. While these theories are only possibly true in a slight degree, the love of money was beyond question a motive. The other 11 were weak, perplexed, vascillating, faint-hearted, but Judas was active and speculative, in the trying moment, his religion is only a servant to his worldly interest, and he perhaps discovered that the spirit- ual kingdom would not pay. This is why he was dishonest in his stewardship (John xii. 4), and grudged the value of the perfume that Mary hon- ored Jesus with at Bethany. His presence among the 12 is explained in 'The presence of such a false friend in the company of his disciples was needed to complete the circle of Christ's trials and tempta- tions.' David in the Psalms describes such a character, whose words were smooth as butter; whose actions were drawn swords; who ate his meat, and lifted his heel against him.' [SBD, p. 170]
'It seems probable that Judas did not stay [for] the Lord's Supper.' [SBD, p. 170]
'Judas, (1) Iscariot, i.e. belonging to Kerioth (Jos. 15. 25) in the tribe of Judah, one of "the twelve", and the only one who was not a Galilean. The passages in which he is men- tioned are Mt. 10. 4; 26. 14; Mk. 3. 19; 14. 10; Lk. 6. 16; 22. 3; cf. Jn. 6. 71; 12. 4; 13. 2, 26; Ac. 1. 16, 25. The main cause of his ruin seems to have been love of gain. It has been sometimes suggested in his defence that his object in offering to betray Jesus to the Temple party was to force on a crisis and to compel Jesus to assert Himself more strongly. But there is no support for such a theory, and the bribe of money was prob- ably his only motive.' [CBD, p. 62]
SBD = SMITH'S BIBLE DICTIONARY <-- Includes Apocrypha references.
CBD = CONCISE BIBLE DICTIONARY
(Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge
The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP
32 East 57th Street, New York, NY 10022, USA)
FBM = Foxe's Book of Martyrs Prepared by W. Grinton Berry (Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1989)
LOP = Lectures in THE LIFE OF PAUL Prepared by Dr. Gary S. Prisk (Bible Baptist Church Publications, 1219 N. Harns Road, Oak Harbor, Washington 98277 U.S.A.)
The following James appears to me to be a DIFFERENT person:
[Omitted part from SBD.]
'(3) The brother of the Lord, Gal. 1. 19; and of Joses, Simon, Jude and some sisters, Mt. 13. 55; Mk. 6. 3; Jude 1; known as J. the Just. He occupied an important position in the Church of Jerusalem, Ac. 12. 17; 15. 13; 21. 18; Gal. 2. 9-12; I Cor. 15. 7, and was the writer of the Epistle of James. ....' [CBD, p. 56-57]
According to tradition, James had his brains? dashed out.
'Of James, the brother of the Lord, ...
James, took in hand to govern the [local] Church with the apostles, being counted of all men, from the time of the Lord, to be a just and perfect man. He drank no wine nor any strong drink, ....' [FBM, p. 9-11]
He was set upon the battlements of the temple by the Scribes and the Pharisees, thrown down from, stoned, and smitten in the head with a fuller's club unto his death.