Bible Dictionary: Cn. 1840
- CNI'DUS, Κνιδος (joining), a city of
Caria, on the coast of Asia Minor, Acts
- COAL, a piece of wood or fossil burnt
as fuel, Lam. 4:8; Isa. 6:6: a living
representative of a family, as a son,
2 Sam. 14:7.
- COALS, fuel for fire, John 18:18;
21:9. On account of the various pro-
perties of fire, use is made of this word
in reference to purification, Isa. 6:6:
jealousy, Sol. Song 8:6: and terrible
punishment, Psal. 120:4.
- COAST, the boundary of a country,
Exod. 10:4; 1 Sam. 5:9: the border of
the sea, Num. 24:24.
- COASTS, parts or districts of a country,
Exod. 10:14-19; Matt. 2:16; Mark 7:
- COAT, an outer garment, Gen. 38:
3; John 19:23. God made coats for our
first parents of the skins of the sacrificed
animals, to teach them the art, to show
his paternal care, and to indicate the
need of their souls being clothed with
the righteousness of the Messiah, Gen.
3:21. See GARMENTS.
- COCK, the male of the domestic hen,
- COCKATRICE, a deadly venomous ser-
pent, thought to be the cobra di capello,
Isa. 14:29. The holy and peaceful
times of the gospel are predicted under
the idea of the cockatrice being rendered
perfectly harmless, even to infants in
their play, Isa. 11:8.
- COCKLE, a poisonous herb, thought to
be the deadly nightshade, Job 31:10.
- COFFER, a strong chest, 1 Sam. 6:8.
- COFFIN, a chest to enclose a dead body,
- COGITATIONS, deep reflections, Dan.
- COLD, chillness, as of the weather or
season, Gen. 8:22; Job 37:9.
- COLD, chilly, Prov. 25:25: declining
in religious affection, Matt. 24:12; Rev.
- COLLAR, the part of the garment fit-
ting the neck, Job 30:18.
- COLLARS, neck-chains of honour, made
of gold or silver, Judg. 8:26.
- COLLECTION, a sum of money gathered
from the contributions of the people,
2 Chron. 24:6; 1 Cor. 16:1.
- COLLEGE, a school for the education
of religious teachers, 2 Kings 22:14.
Huldah probably dwelt in a part of the
temple occupied as a college.
- COLLOPS, lumps of flesh, Job 15:27.
- COLONY, a new country or province
peopled from an ancient city, as from
Rome, Acts 16:12.
- COLOSSE, Κολοσσαι (punishment or cor-
rection), a city of Phrygia in Asia Minor,
where a flourishing church of Christians
was gathered in the time of the apostles,
Col. 1:2. This city was destroyed by an
earthquake, A.D. 65; and though it was
partly rebuilt, little more than the site
of the ancient city is now distinguishable:
the houses seen, as in the engraving are
those of the modern village and castle of
- COLOSSIANS, EPISTLE TO THE: this
was written by Paul, A.D. 62, on occasion
of Epaphras, the pastor of the Christians
at Colosse, visiting the apostle while
prisoner at Rome, to consult him respect-
ing some erroneous opinions which had
been [taught] among them, Col. 2:8-23.
It was designed to excite them to perse-
vere in holy obedience, by the considera-
tion of the Divinity, and the consequent
perfection of the redemption, of Christ.
- COLOUR, a dye or shade, as purple or
scarlet, Rev. 17:4: a mere pretence,
Acts 27:30. The art of colouring, or
dying cloth, is supposed to have been car-
ried to great perfection by the Jews.
- COLOURED, shaded or variegated, Rev.
- COLT, a young camel, Gen. :15;
ass [donkey], Judg. 10:4; or horse.
- COME, to approach, Gen. 45:19: to
arrive, 1 Sam. 9:13: to return, 1 Kings
22:27: to accompany, Num. 10:29: to
proceed or originate, 1 Chron. 29:12-
14: to arise, Matt. 2:16: to attain, Acts
26:7: to befal, 1 Sam. 2:34: to hap-
pen, 2 Thess. 2:3.
- COME, arrived, Gen. 6:13: befallen,
Job 3:25; Ezek. 7:5: revealed, Matt.
3:7; John 3:17: present, Josh. 5:14.
- COMELINESS, beauty or elegance of
person, Isa. 53:2; Dan. 10:8.
- COMELY, graceful or handsome, Jer.
6:2: proper, Psal. 33:1.
- COMERS, those that approach, Heb.
- COMFORT, mental peace and joy, Job
6:10. Spiritual comfort is sacred peace
and joy arising from the influence of the
Holy Spirit, filling the mind with the
knowledge of divine truth, with the
assurance of faith and hope of salvation
by Jesus Christ, and with satisfaction in
the love of God, Acts 9:31; Rom. 15:
13; 5:5. While the Holy Spirit is the
author, and the Scriptures are the means,
of consolation to believers, their happi-
ness and edification are greatly promoted
by the instrumentality of the ministers of
Christ, 2 Cor. 1:4.
- COMFORT, to relieve the troubled mind,
Gen. 5:29: to support, Psal. 23:4:
to sympathise with, John 11:19: to
encourage, 1 Thess. 5:11: to harden,
- COMFORTABLE, soothing or consoling,
2 Sam. 14:17; Zech. 1:13.
- COMFORTABLY, familiarly, 2 Sam. 19:
7: with encouragement, 2 Chron. 30:
22: with assurance of favour, Isa. 40:2.
- COMFORTED, did comfort, Gen. 50:21:
did condole with, John 11:31.
- COMFORTED, consoled, Gen. 37:
35: relieved from mourning, Gen. 24:
67: encouraged, Acts 20:12: made
happy, Matt. 5:4; Luke 16:25.
- COMFORTER, one that administers
consolation, Eccles. 4:3; Nah. 3:7.
- COMFORTER: this is the peculiar title
of the Holy Spirit, the [third] Person of
the ever blessed Trinity: it was given
by Christ, in His last discourses with the
apostles, in relation to His appropriate
office in the new covenant, applying the
blessings of our Lord's redemption in
the sanctification, consolation, and salva-
tion of the people of God, John 14:26;
15:26; 16:7. The Greek word trans-
lated comforter is rendered advocate,
1 John 2:1, and is applied to our
- Comforter. See The Holy Spirit.
- COMFORTLESS, without a friend or
consolation, as orphans, John 14:18.
- COMING, arrival, Gen. 30:30: a visit,
1 Cor. 16:17: the beginning, 2 Kings
13:20. The manifestation of God our
Saviour at the last day is called His
coming, 1 Cor. 1:7; 15:23.
- Coming of Christ, the Second. Imminent Pre-Trib. His bodily, visible return.
See Bible Prophecy.
- COMING, approaching, Luke 9:42.
- COMMAND, bidding or direction, Job
- COMMAND, to bid or order, Exod. 8:
27: to direct or enjoin, Num. 9:8: to
require, Matt. 19:7: to call for, Luke
8:31: to appoint, John 14:14, 17.
- COMMANDED, charged, Gen. 2:16:
ordered, 45:19: established, Mal. 4:
4: appointed, Psal. 133:3.
- COMMANDER, an appointed guide or
leader: a title of Christ, as the guide of
His people to holiness and eternal life in
Heaven, Isa. 55:4.
- COMMANDMENT, the declared will of
a superior, Num. 15:31; 1 Kings 2:43;
Est. 1:12: a special commission, 1 Sam.
15:11; John 12:49, 50; 14:31: law,
as the law of God, Exod. 34:28;
Matt. 15:3, 6; Rom. 7:8, 13: a pre-
cept, Acts 15:24; Matt. 11:9: an in-
struction, Acts 17:15.
- COMMEND, to praise, 2 Cor. 3:1; 5:
12: to recommend, Rom. 5:8; 16:1:
to commit, Luke 23:46: to render
illustrious, Rom. 3:5. God commends
His love to us in sending His Son to be
our Saviour, 5:8.
- COMMENDATION, certified worthiness,
2 Cor. 3:1
- COMMENDED, praised, Gen. 12:15:
recommended, Acts 14:23.
- COMMISSION, a warrant by which any
business is executed, [Acts 26:12].
- Commission, The Great. See Booklet.
- COMMIT, to do a fault, Exod. 20:14;
Rev. 2:14, 20: to intrust with, as the
execution of a business, Isa. 22:21, or
the preservation of something valuable,
Psal. 31:5; Luke 16:11: to send to
prison, Jer. 37:21.
- COMMITTED, perpetrated, Lev. 20:23;
Jude 15: intrusted, Gen. 39:22;
John 5:22; Rom. 3:2.
- COMMODIOUS, convenient or suitable,
- COMMON, ordinary, Num. 16:29; Jer.
31:5: usual, 1 Cor. 10:13: unhallowed,
1 Sam. 21:4: ceremonially unclean,
Acts 10:14, 15: free to all, Acts 2:44.
- COMMONLY, generally, Matt. 28:15;
1 Cor. 5:1.
- COMMONWEALTH, the general body of
the people, [Eph]. 2:12.
- COMMOTION, tumult, national agita-
tion, Jer. 10:22; Luke 21:9.
- COMMUNE, to talk freely for the pur-
pose of advice, Job 4:2, or to learn the
secret opinions and wishes of others, 1
Sam. 18:22; 19:3: to examine by self-
reflection, Psal. 4:4.
- COMMUNED, did talk freely, Gen. 23:
8; 1 Kings 10:2: did confer or advise
with, Luke 22:4: to question, Dan. 1:
- COMMUNICATE, to impart, as for the
support or relief of others, Gal. 6:6;
- COMMUNICATED, did impart succour,
Phil. 4:15: did reveal or declare, Gal.
- COMMUNICATION, conversation, 2 Sam.
3:17; Eph. 4:29: message or informa-
tion, Phil. 1:6.
- COMMUNING, conversing, Gen. 18:
- COMMUNION, agreement, 2 Cor. 6:14:
participation or fellowship in the Lord's
supper, which is so named, 1 Cor. 10:16:
the gracious influence of the Holy Spirit
on the mind of believers, 2 Cor. 13:14.
- COMPACT, well connected, as buildings
in a city, Psal. 122:3.
- COMPACTED, framed and regularly
joined, Eph. 4:16.
- COMPANIED, associated or travelled,
- COMPANIES, associations of men, as
soldiers, Judg. 7:16, or merchants, Isa.
21:13, or worshippers, Neh. 12:31.
- COMPANION, a familiar friend, 1 Chron.
27:33: a copartner in grace, counsel,
and labours, Acts 19:29: an associate,
Judg. 14:20; Isa. 1:23.
- COMPANY, an association of friends,
common or religious, 1 Sam. 30:15;
Acts 4:23; Heb. 12:22: edifying con-
versation, Rom. 15:24.
- COMPANY, to associate, 1 Cor. 5:9.
- COMPARABLE, equal, Lam. 4:2.
- COMPARE, to equal or to resemble, Isa.
- COMPARED, likened or resembled,
Prov. 3:15; Psal. 89:6: estimated,
- COMPARISON, resemblance, Mark 4:
30: estimation, Judg. 8:2; Hag. 2:3.
- COMPASS, a circle or boundary, Prov.
8:27: a circuitous course, 2 Kings 3:
9: a carpenter's instrument for drawing
circles, Isa. 44:13.
- COMPASS, to surround, Josh. 6:34;
Luke 19:43: to use the greatest endea-
vours, Matt. 23:15.
- COMPASSED, surrounded, Gen. 19:4;
Luke 21:20: subject, Heb. 5:2.
- COMPASSION, pity, Exod. 2:6: pitiful
kindness to the distressed, 1 Kings 8:
50: condescending regard, Heb. 5:2.
- COMPEL, to oblige or force, Lev. 25:
39: to persuade, Luke 14:23.
- COMPELLED, forced, Acts 26:11:
persuaded, 1 Sam. 28:23; 2 Chron.
- COMPLAIN, to murmur, Lam. 3:39:
to declare against evils endured, Judg.
21:22: to lament, Job 7:11.
- COMPLAINERS, discontented murmur-
ers, Jude 16.
- COMPLAINTS, pains, Job 7:13: accu-
sations, Acts 25:7: lamentations, Psal.
- COMPLETE, full, Lev. 28:15: per-
fected, Col. 2:10; 4:12.
- COMPOSITION, a mass compounded of
various materials, Exod. 30:32.
- COMPOUND, a mixture of different
articles, Exod. 30:25, 35.
- COMPREHEND, to fully understand,
Eph. 3:18; John 1:5.
- COMPREHENDED, enclosed, Isa. 40:12:
included, Rom. 13:9.
- CONCEAL, to hide, Gen. 30:26: to
keep secret, Deut. 13:8: to cover or
pardon, Prov. 25:2: to neglect, Job 6:
10; Psal. 40:10.
- CONCEITS, vain imaginations, Prov.
18:11; Rom. 11:25.
- CONCEIVE, to begin to be with young,
Gen. 30:38; Judg. 13:3: to form evil
purposes, Job 15:35; Psal. 7:14.
- CONCEPTION, the act of conceiving,
Gen. 3:16; Ruth 4:13.
- CONCERN, to relate to, Acts 28:31;
2 Cor. 11:50.
- CONCERNING, regarding or with respect
to, Gen. 19:21; Rom. 9:5; Eph. 5:32.
- CONCISION, a cutting off: this word is
applied to the bigoted Jewish Christians
who insisted on circumcision as essential
to salvation; cutting off, or denouncing,
all who declared the abolition of the
Levitical rites by the institutions of
Christ, Phil. 3:2; Gal. 6:12.
- CONCLUDE, to decide a dispute by
reasoning from settled principles, Rom.
- CONCLUDED, determined as proper,
Acts 21:25: infallibly declared, Gal.
- CONCLUSION, the final determination,
- CONCORD, agreement, 2 Cor. 6:15.
- CONCOURSE, a running together, Acts
- CONCUBINE, a secondary wife among
the ancients, after the law of marriage
had been corrupted by polygamy. Women
of this class were not wedded with the
usual solemnities of marriage; they took
no part in the family government; nor
did their children share in the paternal
inheritance. Polygamy was an evil
custom, and occasioned the chief sorrows
of Abraham, Jacob, David, and Solomon:
it was abolished by our Saviour's vindi-
cation of the original law of marriage;
and concubinage is now ranked as adul-
tery among Christians, Gen. 25:6;
2 Sam. 5:13; 1 Kings 11:3; Dan. 5:3;
Mark 10:11; 1 Cor. 7:2.
- CONDEMN, to pronounce guilty, Exod.
22:9: to sentence to punishment,
Matt. 20:18: to censure, John 8:11;
2 Cor. 7:3: to appear as evidence of
another's guilt, Matt. 12:41, 42.
- CONDEMNED, did sentence, as to fine,
2 Chron. 36:3, or to punishment, 2
Pet. 2:2: did censure, Job 32:3;
- CONDEMNED, sentenced to punish-
ment, Matt. 27:3: punished or exe-
cuted, Luke 24:20: held guilty, John
3:18: censured, Tit. 2:18.
- CONDEMNATION, the state of pro-
nounced guilt, Luke 23:24: final
punishment, John 5:24: guilt, 1 Tim 3:
6: the moral law, as condemning the
guilty, 2 Cor. 3:9. Reconciliation with
God having been made by the Divine
Mediator, "There is therefore now no
condemnation to them which are in Christ
Jesus," Rom. 8:1; John 5:24. By faith
in His blessed name, sinners become justi-
fied, and interested in all the blessings of
the new covenant and eternal salvation
by Christ, according to the appointment
of God. "Therefore as by the offence of one
judgment came upon all men to condem-
nation; even so by the righteousness of
one the free gift came upon all men
unto justification of life[,]" Rom. 5:18.
- CONDESCEND, to yield in kindness of
behaviour, Rom. 12:16.
- CONDITION, the stipulation or term of
agreement in setting peace, 1 Sam. 11:
2; Luke 14:32.
- CONDUCT, to lead, guide, or assist, 2
Sam. 19:15; Acts 17:15.
- CONDUIT, a water-course, 2 Kings
- CONEY, the Hebrew word, thus ren-
dered, is saphan, signifying a small
animal nearly the size and somewhat
resembling a rabbit, but without a tail.
Dr. Harris, from Bruce and others, says
that this timid but sagacious creature is
the ashkoko, as best answering the de-
scription of the saphan of the Scriptures,
and that it abounds in the rocks of
Arabia and Syria, Lev. 11:5; Psal. 104:
18; Prov. 30:24-26. Our engraving is
a representation of the Syrian Coney.
- CONFECTION, a preparation of spices
compounded as a perfume or incense,
- CONFECTIONARIES, makers of sweet-
meats, 1 Sam. 8:13.
- CONFEDERACY, a league or treaty be-
tween princes or nations, Isa. 8:12;
- CONFEDERATE, an alliance or cove-
nant for mutual assistance, Gen. 14:13;
- CONFERENCE, deliberation, Gal. 2:6.
- CONFERRED, consulted, 1 Kings 1:7;
Acts 4:15; Gal 1:16.
- CONFESS, to acknowledge, as sins be-
fore God, Lev. 16:21; 26:40; 1 John
1:9: to profess publicly, as Christ re-
quires that we honour His name and
ordinances before men, which He will
reward, acknowledging us before His
Father, Matt. 10:32; Phil. 2:11: to can-
didly acknowledge our mistakes and
offences, for mutual satisfaction and the
promotion of love, Jam. 5:16.
- Confess. "Confess your faults one to another,
and pray one for another," James 5.
- CONFESSED, did confess, as sins before
God, Ezra 10:1; Neh. 9:2: did acknow-
ledge, as unlawful practices, Acts 19:
18: did declare, John 1:20; Heb. 11:13.
- CONFESSION, acknowledgement, as of
sin against God, Josh. 7:19; Ezra 10:
11; or of religious principles before men,
Rom. 10:10; 1 Tim. 6:13.
- Confession of Faith. See Booklet.
- CONFIDENCE, dependence, Judg. 9:
26; Job 31:24: the object of reliance,
Jer. 48:13: succour or aid, 2 Kings
18:19: courage or boldness, Acts
28:31; 2 Cor. 10:2: safety, Ezek.
28:26: assurance, arising from in-
telligent belief in the promises of God,
Psal. 65:5; Eph. 3:12. Evangelical
confidence should be cherished by be-
lievers in Christ, as essential to their
spiritual peace, which is found to be its
own reward, Heb. 10:35.
- CONFIDENT, intelligently assured, 2
Cor. 5:6-8; Phil. 1:6: positive, Rom. 2:
19: daring, Prov. 14:16.
- CONFIDENTLY, positively, Luke 22:
- CONFIRM, to put past doubt by new
evidence, 1 Kings 1:14: to ratify, Esth.
9:29-31: to give further evidence, 2
Cor. 2:8: to strengthen the mind, espe-
cially by additional instruction and
assurance in the doctrines of Christ, 1
Cor. 1:8; Acts 14:22.
- CONFIRMATION, ratification, as of an
agreement or covenant by a solemn oath,
Heb. 6:16. Confirmation in Christianity
is the establishment of the mind in the
knowledge and belief of the declarations
of God in the Scriptures, especially in
relation to our salvation by Christ, Acts
15:32-41; Heb. 6:17, 18.
- Confirmation as practised by traditionalists is often founded upon heresy.
- CONFIRMED, ratified, as a decree or
contract, Esth. 9:32; Gal. 3:15; Heb.
6:17: established, 2 Sam. 7:24; 1
Chron. 14:2: encouraged by instruc-
tion, Acts 15:41.
- CONFIRMING, strengthening by in-
struction and exhortation, Acts 14:22;
- CONFISCATION, punishment by seizing
a man's goods for the use of the state,
- CONFLICT, a struggle with some diffi-
culty, Phil. 1:30: deep anxiety, Col.
- CONFORMABLE, resembling, Phil. 3:
- CONFORMED, made like, as believers
are to be conformed to the holy charac-
ter of Christ, Rom. 8:29, and not to
the corrupt maxims of the world, 12:2.
- CONFOUND, to confuse or disorder,
Gen. 11:7: to perplex and put to shame,
Jer. 1:17; 1 Cor. 1:27.
- CONFOUNDED, amazed or perplexed,
Acts 2:6: confuted, 9:22: ashamed,
Isa. 45:16; Ezek. 16:52.
- CONFUSED, disordered, Isa. 9:5;
- CONFUSION, perplexity, Job 10:15: dis-
order, Acts 19:29; 1 Cor. 14:33: shame,
- CONGEALED, made solid, as ice, Exod.
- CONGRATULATE, to compliment, as a
friend, 1 Chron. 18:10.
- CONGREGATION, an assembly, or
church: this word is chiefly used of the
people of Israel, who formed one church
or congregation, Num. 16:3; Acts 7:
38, assembling at the tabernacle for
sacrifice and divine worship, daily by
their representatives, Exod. 12:6, 47;
Lev. 4:4-15; 2 Chron. 6:3; Ezra 2:
64; and all the males, above twelve
years of age, personally, three times a
year, at the sacred festivals of the na-
tion, Deut. 16:16; Luke 2:42. See
- CONI'AH, [h] (the strength of the Lord),
a king of Judah, called also Jehoiachin,
and son of Jehoiakim: he began his
reign in the lifetime of his father, when
he was eight years old, 2 Chron. 36:
9, and he began to reign alone ten years
afterwards, on the death of his father,
2 Kings 24:8. Coniah was a wicked
man, and Jerusalem being taken, he was
carried captive to Babylon, where, it is be-
lieved, he died a penitent, 25:27-30; Jer.
22:24; 37:37. See JEHOIACHIN.
- CONQUER, to subdue, to gain by con-
quest, Rev. 6:2.
- CONQUERORS, victors, Rom. 8:37.
- CONSCIENCE, self-knowledge, or that
faculty of the mind by which we form
a judgment of our own motives and
actions. Conscience seems designed by
our Creator to be a light to the mind as
the eye is to the body; and this delicate
powerful faculty strikingly indicates the
goodness of the Deity. Conscience, how-
ever, may be in a healthy or corrupt
condition, according to the moral state
of the heart. A good conscience, 1 Tim.
1:5, is purified or freed from guilt by
feeling the efficacy of the blood of Christ,
1 Tim. 3:9; Heb. 9:14: it is illuminated
by the Holy Spirit, well instructed and
tender, forming right conceptions of
moral evil, according to the law of God,
Rom. 9:1; 1 Cor. 8:10; 2 Cor. 1:12.
Many have perpetrated the greatest
crimes conscientiously, ignorantly ima-
gining that they were doing God service
at the time, as was the case with Paul
before his conversion, persecuting to
death the disciples of the Lord, 1 Tim.
1:13. An evil conscience, Heb. 10:22,
is defiled, Tit. 1:15, and evil men wax
worse and worse, 2 Tim. 3:13: they are
given up of God to a reprobate mind,
Rom. 1:28; to believe a lie, 2 Thess. 2:
2: their hearts are hardened, and their
consciences are as if seared with a hot
iron, 1 Tim. 4:2.
- CONSECRATE, to devote a priest and
things pertaining to the priesthood to
the service of God. Various ceremonies,
under the Levitical dispensation, which
was a shadow of good things to come,
were used in consecrating the priests to
their office; but these were all abolished
with the priesthood by the mediation of
Christ, Exod. 28:3, 41; 29:9; Ezek.
43:26; Heb. 7:28.
- CONSECRATED, sacredly devoted, as
priests to serve God, Num. 3:3; Josh.
6:19; 2 Chron. 29:33. Christianity
admits no such ceremony as the Leviti-
cal consecration: and the term is never
used in the New Testament, except in
relation to the priesthood of Christ, Heb.
7:12-28; and in that office, consecrat-
ing a new and living way for all be-
lievers to officiate as spiritual priests
unto God, Heb. 10:19, 20.
- CONSECRATION, the ceremonial of de-
voting the priests and sacrifices to the
service of God, Exod. 29:22; Lev. 7:
37; Num. 6:7-9.
- CONSENT, purpose, 1 Sam. 11:7:
agreement, 1 Cor. 7:5.
- CONSENT, to agree, Deut. 13:8: to
yield, 1 Kings 20:8.
- CONSENTING, aiding and abetting,
- CONSIDER, to seriously think of, Deut.
32:29: to carefully examine, Lev.
13:13: to survey, Psal. 8:3: to at-
tentively regard, Heb. 3:1.
- CONSIST, to depend upon, Luke 12:
15: to be held together and supported,
- CONSOLATION, comfort, Jer. 16:7:
enjoyment, Luke 6:24: spiritual re-
freshment and strength of soul, 2 Cor. 1:
5; Heb. 6:18.
- CONSOLATION OF ISRAEL, a title of
Christ, indicating His merciful and be-
nevolent mission as the promised and
expected Saviour, Luke 2:25.
- CONSORTED, did associate, Acts 17:4.
- CONSPIRACY, a traitorous plot, as that
of Absalom, to dethrone his father, 2
Sam. 15:12: an infidel association, Ezek.
22:25: a murderous union, as of the
forty Jews to kill Paul, Acts 23:13.
- CONSPIRATORS, traitors in association,
2 Sam. 15:31.
- CONSPIRED, did contrive a crime, Gen.
37:18; Amos 7:10: did plot or
contrive, as against a king or govern-
ment, 1 Kings 15:27.
- CONSTANT, steady or persevering, 1
- CONSTANTLY, perseveringly, Acts 12:
13; Tit. 3:8.
- CONSTELLATION, a cluster or system
of stars, Isa. 13:10. Ancient astrono-
mers reckoned about 1000 fixed stars,
which they classed into 59 constella-
tions; 23 in the north part of the firma-
ment, 24 in the south, and 12 in the
middle, or Zodiac[?]. Modern astronomers
reckon more than 3000 stars visible, and
about 74 constellations are marked on
our celestial globes.
- CONSTRAIN, to forcibly urge, Gal. 6:
12; 2 Cor. 5:14.
- CONSTRAINED, did urge or persuade,
2 Kings 4:8; Matt. 14:22.
- CONSTRAINED, necessitated, Acts
- CONSTRAINT, force or persuasion, 1
- CONSULT, to advise with others, Psal.
62:4; Luke 14:31.
- CONSULTATION, a conference, Mark
- CONSULTED, did advise with, 1 Kings
12:6: did deliberate, Matt. 26:4; John
- CONSULTER, one who confers or pre-
tends to confer, Deut. 18:11.
- CONSUME, to destroy, Exod. 32:10:
to burn up, Luke 9:54: to squander
away, James 4:3.
- CONSUMED, did destroy, Num. 16:35:
did waste, 2 Sam. 21:5.
- CONSUMED, destroyed, Gen. 19:15-17;
2 Kings 1:10; Gal. 5:15.
- CONSUMING, destroying, Deut. 9:3.
God being infinite in holiness and justice
will be to the wicked a consuming fire,
Heb. 12:29; Deut. 4:24.
- CONSUMMATION, the final period or
completion, Dan. 9:27.
See Bible Prophecy.
- CONSUMPTION, a mortal disease, Lev.
26:16: a wasting calamity, Isa. 10:22.
- CONTAIN, to hold, Ezek. 45:11: to
limit, 1 Kings 8:27: to receive, John
21:25: to restrain, 1 Cor. 7:9.
- CONTAINED, included, Rom. 2:14;
Eph. 2:15: recorded, 1 Pet. 2:6.
- CONTAINING, holding, John 2:6.
- CONTEMN, to neglect, despise, or in-
sult, Psal. 10:13; 107:11.
- CONTEMPT, degradation or shame, Job
12:21: dishonour, Dan. 12:2.
- CONTEMPTIBLE, mean, Mal. 1:7: in-
elegant, 2 Cor. 10:10.
- CONTEMPTUOUSLY, scornfully, Psal.
- CONTEND, to strive in opposition, Deut.
2:9: to debate or plead, Job 9:3: to
[__]our by argument and instruction,
- CONTENDED, did dispute, Neh. 13:11:
did urge a complaint, Job 31:13: did
cavil, Acts 11:2.
- CONTENDING, striving, Jude 9.
- CONTENT, to conciliate, Mark 15:15.
- CONTENT, satisfied, Exod. 2:21:
piously happy, Phil. 4:11.
- CONTENTION, strife, Prov. 13:10:
opposition, 1 Thess. 2:2: disputation,
- CONTENTMENT, satisfaction of mind,
1 Tim. 6:6.
- CONTINUAL, constant or appointed,
Exod. 29:42: habitual, Prov. 15:15:
incessant, or persevering for a long
period, Luke 18:15.
- CONTINUALLY, constantly, Gen. 6:5;
Exod. 29:38: perpetually, Heb. 8:
3: daily, Luke 24:53.
- CONTINUANCE, duration, Deut. 28:
59: perseverance, Rom. 2:7.
- CONTINUE, to remain, Exod. 21:21:
to persevere, Acts 13:43: to abide
constantly, John 8:31: to manifest as
aforetime, Psal. 36:10.
- CONTINUED, remained, Gen. 40:4; Dan.
1:21: persevered, 1 John 2:19: pro-
longed, Acts 20:7.
- CONTINUING, persevering, Acts 2:4:
enduring, Heb. 13:14.
- CONTRADICTING, speaking in opposi-
tion, Acts 13:45.
- CONTRADICTION, opposing testimony,
Heb. 7:7: opposition, 11:3
- CONTRARIWISE, on the contrary, 2 Cor.
2:7; 1 Pet. 3:9
- CONTRARY, opposite, Lev. 26:21-
24; Ezek. 16:34: adverse, Matt. 14:
- CONTRIBUTION, money that is given,
- CONTRITE, bruised, deeply affected
in mind with the evil of sin, Psal. 51:17;
- CONTROVERSY, a dispute, Deut. 19:
17; 1 Tim. 3:16: a cause of complaint,
Hos. 4:1; Mic. 6:2.
- CONVENIENT, suitable, Prov. 30:8:
distinguished, Mark 6:21: agreeable to
holiness, Eph. 5:4.
- CONVENIENTLY, fitly, opportunely, or
quietly, Mark 14:11.
- CONVERSANT, walking with, Josh. 8:
35: dealing with, 1 Sam. 25:15.
- CONVERSATION, behaviour in common
life, Gal. 1:13; Phil. 1:27; 1 Pet. 1:15:
Christian conduct as expectants of Hea-
ven, Phil. 3:20.
- CONVERSION, a change of life from
error and sin to truth and the service
of God, Acts 15:3. Christian conversion
results from regeneration, in which the
heart is renewed in divine knowledge
and true holiness, through the ministry
of the gospel by the power of the Holy
Spirit, Acts 15:3, 8, 9; 1 Thess. 1:5, 6.
Conversion is the principal work of the
gospel ministry, which is designed to
bring men from darkness to light, and
from sin to holiness and God, Acts 3:
19; Psal. 19:7; 1 Cor. 4:15.
- Conversion. Spiritual transformation.
- CONVERT, to turn, as from sin to holi-
ness and God, Isa. 6:10; Jam. 5:19.
- CONVERTED, turned, as sinners may
be turned to God, Psal. 51:13; or reco-
vered to holy obedience, Luke 22:32.
- CONVERTING, turning, as the mind by
the light and power of divine truth, Psal.
- CONVERTS, those who have been
turned to the knowledge and love of
God, Isa. 1:27.
- CONVEY, to carry to a distance, as
timber by sea, 1 Kings 5:9, or as an
officer to a distant country, Neh. 2:7.
- CONVICTED, detected in guilt, John
- CONVINCE, to force the belief of a fact
or truth, Tit. 1:9; John 8:46.
- CONVINCED, persuaded by the force of
evidence, 1 Cor. 14:24.
- CONVOCATION, an assembly solemnly
called together for the worship of God,
Exod. 12:16; Lev. 23:2-4.
- COOK, a domestic servant who dresses
the food, 1 Sam. 8:13; 9:23.
- COOL, the evening, the decline of the
day, Gen. 3:8.
- COOL, to allay heat: to cool the tongue
is to allay thirst, which in hot countries
is tormenting: hence the language of
the parable, Luke 16:24.
- COOS, Κως (a fleece of wool), a small
island off the south-west coast of Asia
Minor, in the Mediterranean sea, Acts
21:1: it is now called Stanco.
- COPIED, transcribed, as writing in a
book, Prov. 25:1.
- COPING, the top or covering of a wall,
1 Kings 7:9.
- COPPER, one of the [early] metals:
its colour is reddish, and it is the most
ductile next to gold and silver, Ezra 8:
27.   See BRASS.
- COPPERSMITH, a maker of copper ves-
sels, 2 Tim. 4:14.
- COPY, a transcript made from the ori-
ginal book or writing, Deut. 17:18;
- COR, a homer, a liquid measure of
about seventy-five gallons, Ezek. 45:14.
- CORAL, a submarine cretaceous pro-
duction resembling a plant: there are
three kinds, white, black, and red: the
latter colour is most highly esteemed; and
it formed an article of trade at Tyre,
- CORBAN, a gift of property to God or
to his temple, Mark 7:11. Young per-
sons were encouraged by the priests to
offer such gifts, as meritorious acts of
religion, even to the injury of their
parents, and in violation of the law of
God, Matt. 15:3-5. They sometimes,
under this influence, made themselves
corban, or dedicated; from which they
could be released only by paying a fine
to the priest of fifty shekels for a man,
and thirty for a woman.
- CORD, a rope, Josh. 2:15; Exod. 35:
18: the spinal marrow is so called, it
being in the form of a delicate cord from
the brain to the lowest part of the back-
bone, Eccles. 12:6; Job 30:11.
- CORDS, ropes, Judg. 15:13; Ezek.
27:24: bonds, Prov. 5:22; Psal. 2:
3: boundaries, Isa. 54:2. Persuasive
arguments addressed to the heart are the
cords of a man, Hos. 11:4
- CORIANDER, an aromatic spice plant,
- COR'INTH, Κορινθος (an ornament), the
capital of Achaia, a province of ancient
Greece, about twenty-five miles west of
Athens, Acts 18:1. Corinth being
situated on the isthmus which separated
Attica from the Peloponnesus, it had the
advantage of two sea-ports: on the east
Cenchrea, which received the merchan-
dise of Asia, and on the west Lechæum,
which received that of Italy, Gaul, and
Spain. Learning was so cultivated at Co-
rinth, that is was called "The light of
all Greece," and "The ornament of all
Greece," but its inhabitants were grossly
corrupt in their manners, licentiousness
being sanctioned and required by the
impure worship of Venus. Christianity
triumphed here by the ministry of the
apostle Paul, A.D. 52, 53, in the conver-
sion of many of these depraved citizens,
so that there was a flourishing church at
Corinth, 1 Cor. 6:9-11. Our engraving
represents the present city as viewed
from the bay of Corinth.
- CORINTHIANS, the inhabitants of the
city of Corinth, Acts 18:8: the be-
lievers at Corinth, 2 Cor. 6:11.
- CORINTHIANS, I. EPISTLE TO THE:
this first letter was written by the apos-
tle Paul, A.D. 59, about three years after
he had completed his eighteen months'
ministry at Corinth, Acts 18:11. This
church had greatly prospered in the
number of its members, and the splen-
dour of their endowments; but, through
the corrupt manners of the citizens, some
of the communicants had fallen into vari-
ous disorders: this epistle was therefore
intended to correct these, to direct them
in the ways of holiness, and to instruct
them respecting marriage, the use of
meats offered to idols, and the design of
spiritual gifts, and to establish them in the
belief of the doctrine of the resurrection.
- CORINTHIANS, II. EPISTLE TO THE:
this second epistle, written about a year
after the former, was intended to perfect
the [improvement] which had been pro-
duced by that divinely instructive letter,
and to vindicate the claims of the writer
as an apostle of Christ. See Commentary.
- CORMORANT, an unclean water-fowl
nearly the size of a goose: some suppose
that Moses intends the sea-gull, Lev. 11:
17. Isaiah uses a different word signify-
ing the pelican, Isa. 34:11.
- CORN, the generic name for all kinds
of grain, as wheat, rye, barley, &c., which
abounded in Canaan, Gen. 26:12; 27:
28-37; 2 Kings 18:32.
- CORNE'LIUS, Κορνηλιος (horny, or beam
of the sun), a captain of the Roman gar-
rison at Cæsarea: he had become a
Jewish proselyte, and a man of divine
piety, and, by the Divine direction and
the ministry of Peter, he became one of
the first Gentile Christians, Acts 10.
- CORNER, an angle, Prov. 8:8: the
extreme boundary, Isa. 11:12; Jer. 48:
45: a secret place, Acts 26:26: a
powerful ruler or leader, Zech. 10:4;
Num. 24:7, 19.
- CORNER STONE, a principal stone in
the foundation of a building, Job 38:
6, or at the front angle, Psal. 118:22.
Christ, as the foundation and represen-
tative of the church's hopes, is called
the chief-corner-stone, Isa. 28:16;
Eph. 2:20. Some corner stones in the
fronts of palaces were polished and en-
graved, so as to become beautiful orna-
ments and to serve as memorials, Psal.
- CORNET, a kind of trumpet, Deut. 3:
5; 2 Sam. 6:5.
- CORPSE, a dead body, Matt. 6:29; 2
- CORRECT, to chastise or afflict for the
purpose of amendment, Prov. 29:17.
- CORRECTED, amended, Prov. 29:19:
chastised, Heb. 12:9.
- CORRECTION, amendment, 2 Tim. 3:
11: chastisement, Prov. 3:11; 22:15.
- CORRUPT, to make rotten, Mal. 2:3:
to make vile or wicked, Deut. 31:29:
to vitiate, 1 Cor. 15:33.
- CORRUPT, diseased, Job 17:1: putrid,
Psal. 38:5: wicked, Gen. :11,
12: vicious, 1 Tim. 6:5: impure, Eph.
- CORRUPTED, diseased, Exod. 8:24:
morally polluted, Gen. 6:12: vitiated
or dishonoured, Mal. 2:8.
- CORRUPTIBLE, liable to corruption, 1
Cor. 15:53: mortal, Rom. 1:23: perish-
able, 1 Pet. 1:18.
- CORRUPTION, putrefication, Acts 2:31;
1 Cor. 15:42: ghastliness, Dan. 10:8:
the infectious nature of sin in the irre-
ligious habits of ungodly men, 2 Pet. 1:
4; Eph. 4:22: shame and misery the
fruit of sin, Gal. 6:8.
- CORRUPTLY, wickedly, 2 Chron. 27:
2; Neh. 1:7.
- COST, expense, 2 Sam. 19:42.
- COST, to be bought for, 2 Sam. 24:
- COSTLINESS, expensiveness, Rev. 18:
- COSTLY, expensive, 1 Kings 5:17; 7:
9-11; 1 Tim. 2:9.
- COTES, huts or sheds to shelter sheep
in bad weather, 2 Chron. 32:28.
- COTTAGE, a small or mean house, Isa.
1:8; Zeph. 2:6.
- COUCH, a small bed, Psal. 6:6; Acts
- COUCH, to lie down, as a beast in his
den, Job 38:40.
- COUCHED, did lie down, as a beast,
- COUCHING, lying down, reposing, Ezek.
- COULD, was able, Gen. 27:1; Mark
- COULTER, the iron blade of a plough,
1 Sam. 13:20.
- COUNCIL, an assembly of rulers, Luke
22:66; Acts 4:5, 6, 15. Among the
Israelites, the Great Council or Sanhe-
drin was divinely appointed, consisting
of seventy-two elders, six from each
tribe, Exod. 21:1, 9; Num. 11:16, 24,
25. This court is seldom noticed in the
records of the kings, but its labours were
considerable after the return of the Jews
from Babylon. Judea having become a
Roman province, the power of this court
was much restricted; and though most
of its members conspired against Jesus
to effect His death, and hired Judas to
betray his Master, they were not per-
mitted by the Romans to inflict capital
punishment; but they prevailed to effect
His ignominious crucifixion by their in-
fluence with the venal governor Pilate,
John 11:47-53; 19:10-16; Luke 22:66.
- COUNSEL, serious advice, Exod. 18:
19: prudent consideration, Deut. 32:
28: a deliberate purpose, Neh. 4:15.
- Counsel. See Biblical Counseling.
- COUNSEL OF GOD, the directions of His
inspired word, and the motions of His
Holy Spirit, Psal. :24: the doctrine
of His salvation by Christ, Luke 7:30:
the revealed will of God, Acts 20:27:
the wise and holy purpose of God, Acts
2:23; Eph. 1:11.
- COUNSELLER, a wise adviser, 2 Sam.
15:12; 16:23: one learned in the law,
Ezra 7:14: a senator, Mark 15:43.
- COUNSELLER, a title of Christ, who is
so called on account of His infinite wis-
dom, grace, and excellency, as our Advo-
cate with the Father and our instructor
Isa. 9:6; Col. 2:3.
COUNT, estimation, Exod. 12:4. COUNT, to reckon, Lev. 25:17: es-
teem or regard, 1 Sam. 1:16; Acts 20:24;
2 Thess. 1:11.
COUNTED, numbered, 1 Kings 3:8:
reckoned, Gen. 15:6; Acts 5:41.
COUNTENANCE, the face, Gen. 4:5:
expression of regard and affection, Gen.
31:5: God's favour, manifested by
the blessing of his Spirit diffused through
the soul, Psal. 4:6; 89:15.
COUNTENANCE, to support with undue
favour, Exod. 23:3.
COUNTERVAIL, to make up the loss,
COUNTRY, a region, Gen. 19:28;
Acts 12:27: the land of one's birth or
habitation, Gen. 24:4: a rural dis-
trict, Mark 5:14: a place of settled
habitation, Heb. 11:14-16.
COUNTRYMEN, natives or inhabitants
of the same country, 2 Cor. 11:26; 1 Thess.
COUPLE, two together, 2 Sam. 16:1;
COUPLE, to join, Exod. 26:6, 11. COUPLED, united, Exod. 26:3, 10:
regulated, 1 Pet. 3:2.
COUPLING, a loop or joining, Exod.
26:4: a strong timber beam, 2 Chron.
COURAGE, active fortitude, Josh. 2:11;
Psal. 27:14; Acts 28:15.
COURAGEOUS, bold, full of confidence,
COURAGEOUSLY, boldly or fearlessly,
2 Chron. 19:11.
COURSE, a class or division, 1 Chron.
23:6; 27:1: a regular order, Ezra
3:11: a changing turn, 1 Cor. 14:27:
progress, 2 Tim. 4:7: the constitution,
Jam. 3:6: a voyage, Acts 21:1: a
commission, Acts 13:25; 2 Tim. 4:7.
COURT, the entrance to a palace, Est.
6:4, 5: an open space within a palace
or temple, 2 Kings 20:4; Jer. 19:14:
the yard of a private house, 2 Sam. 17:
18: the temple or tabernacle of God,
Psal. 65:4: a king's palace, Luke 7:
COURTEOUS, affable, kind, or obliging,
1 Pet. 3:8.
COURTEOUSLY, kindly, generously,
COUSIN, a son or daughter of a father's
or mother's brother or sister, Luke 1:36.
COVENANT, a contract between two
parties, Gen. 21:27-32. Covenant, as
used by the sacred writers, denotes espe-
cially a gracious institution of God made
known to men, for their direction, bene-
fit, and salvation: the principal cove-
nants of Scripture are the following :--
COVENANT OF OBEDIENCE or OF WORKS,
between God and our first parents, thus
embracing all mankind in them: the
condition was perfect obedience; the
reward [fruit], life and happiness on earth and
[was supposed by some]
in heaven; the penalty of disobedience,
misery, and death; and the tokens, the
tree of life and the tree of knowledge
of good and evil, Gen. 2:9, 15, 17; 3:
17; Rom. 5:12; Hos. 6:7.
COVENANT OF SAFETY with Noah,
of which the rainbow was the token:
this secures the continuance of the sea-
sons of the year to the end of the world,
Gen. 8:20-22; 9:9-17.
COVENANT OF PROPERTY with Abra-
ham and his posterity, securing to them
possession of the land of Canaan, Gen.
17:1, 8, 17; Deut. 9:5.
COVENANT OF INHERITANCE with
the people of Israel at Sinai, declaring
obedience to the ordinances of God as
the condition of their inheriting Canaan,
COVENANT OF ROYALTY with David,
securing, as the reward of obedience to
God, the throne of Israel to his family,
2 Sam. 7:8, 29.
COVENANT OF LIFE AND SALVATION:
this has the Son of God for the Mediator
and Surety, through whose incarnation,
obedience, and death, all the blessings
of pardon and eternal life are secured to
believers, 1 Tim. 2:5; Rom. 3:24-26;
2 Tim. 1:9; Heb. 7:22; 8:6-13. This
divine covenant was made known in for-
mer ages by sacrifices, as it is now ex-
hibited to us in the ordinance of the
Lord's supper, Heb. 8. 9. 10.
COVENANTED, stipulated or agreed,
2 Chron. 7:18; Matt. 26:15.
COVER, a lid or covering, Exod. 25:
29; Num. 4:7.
COVER, to overspread, Exod. 10:51;
Isa. 11:9: to hide, Prov. 12:16: to pro-
tect, Psal. 91:4: to pardon, Psal. 32:
1: to excuse, 1 Pet. 4:8. To "cover
the feet" is to retire at noon for sleep,
1 Sam. 24:3.
COVERED, did cover, Gen. 24:65:
did overspread, Exod. 8:6.
COVERED, overspread, Gen. 7:19:
clothed, 1 Sam. 28:14: concealed,
Matt. 10:26: veiled, 1 Cor. 11:6.
COVERING, a lid, Gen. 8:13: a veil,
Isa. 30:22; 1 Cor. 11:15: a garment,
COVERING, overspreading or over-
shadowing, Exod. 25:20.
COVERT, a shady place, 1 Sam. 25:
20: a thicket, as a refuge for wild
beasts, Job 38:40: the state of
happy security of believers in Christ,
- Covert, God as Our Protector and Comforter--HL, p. 76.
COVET, to desire eagerly, Mic. 2:2.
To covet the possessions of another is
sin, Exod. 20:17: to covet spiritual
gifts and blessings is virtue, 1 Cor. 12:
COVETED, did covet, Josh. 7:21;
COVETOUS, eagerly desirous of increas-
ing one's worldly wealth, Luke 16:14; 1
COVETOUSNESS, an inordinate desire
for increasing wealth, Exod. 18:21.
Covetousness is a great sin: it is idol-
atry, the covetous mind, delighting in
riches, being alienated from God, Col.
3:5; and this principle, cherished in
the heart, is the source of innumerable
evils, crimes, and miseries, among man-
kind, Mark 7:22; Eph. 5:3.
COW, the female of oxen, Lev. 22:28;
COZ'BI, [h] (a liar), a Midianitish
princess, a chief seducer of the Israelites
to impurity and idolatry, as directed by
the wicked counsel of Balaam, Num. 25:
1-6; 15; Rev. 2:14.
CRACKLING, a slight noise as of small
sticks burning, Eccles. 7:6.
CRACKNELS, small hard cakes or bis-
cuits, 1 Kings 14:3.
CRAFT, mechanic art, Acts 18:3:
fraud, Dan. 8:25.
CRAFTINESS, cunning, skilful in con-
trivance, Job 5:13; Luke 20:23.
CRAFTSMEN, mechanic artisans, 2
Kings 24:14; Acts 19:24.
CRAFTY, artful, skilful, 2 Cor. 12:16:
fraudulent, Job 5:12.
CRAG, the top of a steep rock, Job
CRANE, a tall slender fowl, measuring
three or four feet in height, remarkable
for its periodical migrations, Jer. 8:7.
CRASHING, a confused noise, as by
falling masses, Zeph. 1:10.
CRAVED, solicited, begged, Mark 15:43. CREATE, to make out of nothing, Gen.
1:1; Heb. 11:3: to form matter into
living beings, Gen. 1:21-27: to reproduce
holy qualities and dispositions in the
mind, Eph. 2:10; Psal. 51:10.
CREATED, did create, Gen. 1:1, 27. CREATED, called into existence, Mal.
2:10; Col. 1:16: formed, 1 Cor. 11:9:
regenerated, Eph. 2:10; Col. 3:10.
CREATION, the glorious works of God
in the existing universe, Rom. 1:20: the
act of making this world, Mark 10:6; 2
- Creation. By God in six literal 24-hour days.
See Creation & the Pentateuch.
CREATOR, the all-wise, almighty, self-
existent, and ever-blessed GOD, who
alone gave existence, usefulness, and
beauty, to the whole universe, Isa. 40:
20; Rom. 1:25. Our blessed Saviour, as
the Son of God, is declared to have been
the Creator, of all things, both material
and intelligent, Col. 1:15, 16.
CREATURE, a thing created, 1 Tim. 4:
4: animal existence, Gen. 1:21: human
beings, Mark 16:15: angelic beings,
Ezek. 1:5; Rev. 5:13. "[A] new creature"
is a human being whose heart is truly
regenerated and sanctified to holy obe-
dience by the Holy Spirit, Gal. 6:15;
- Creature. See Anatomy of a New Creature.
CREDITORS, those to whom money is
owing, Deut. 15:2; Luke 7:41.
CREEK, a small bay of the sea, Acts
CREEP, to crawl, Lev. 11:31: to enter
with fawning subtlety, 2 Tim. 3:6.
CREEPING, crawling, Lev. 11:41; 1
CREPT, did creep, or did enter craftily,
CRES'CENS, [g] (growing), a friend
of the apostle Paul, 2 Tim. 4:10.
CRETE, [g] (carnal, fleshly), a large
island in the Mediterranean sea, about
200 miles long, and from 15 to 30 broad.
This island is famous for its ancient
populousness, in a hundred cities; but
it suffered grievously from the Romans,
who reduced it under their power in the
year 66 B.C. Many Jews were settled
here in the apostolic age, and at an early
period it received the gospel, and several
of its cities were distinguished as having
congregations of Christians, Acts 2:11;
Tit. 1:5. Crete is now called Candia.
CRETES, Jews who were residents at
Crete, Acts 2:11.
CRETIANS, inhabitants of Crete: they
were notorious for lying and other vices;
yet, by the ministry of the apostle Paul,
many were converted to the faith and
service of Christ, Tit. 1:5, 12.
CREW, did crow as a [rooster], Matt. 26:
CRIB, the rack or manger for the food
in a cattle-stall, Prov. 14:4.
CRIED, did cry, Gen. 27:34: did
exclaim, 2 Kings 11:14: did shout, Acts
19:32: did call, Dan. 6:20: did pray,
Matt. 14:30. See CRY.
CRIME, a public offence against the
laws, Ezek. 7:23; Acts 25:16-27.
CRIMSON, a deep scarlet die, Isa. 1:18:
a fine stuff or cloth of this colour, 2 Chron.
3:14; Jer. 4:30.
CRIPPLE, a lame person, Acts 14:8. CRISPING-PINS, pegs or clasps for curl-
ing the hair, Isa. 3:22.
CRISPUS, Κρισπος (curled), a Jewish
ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, con-
verted to Christianity by the ministry
of Paul, Acts 18:8; 1 Cor. 1:14.
- Croatian Bible, Hrvatski. See Ministry.
CROOK-BACKED, bent-shouldered, Lev.
CROOKED, bent, serpentine, Job 26:
13: contrary or immoral, Deut. 32:5;
Psal. 125:5; Phil. 2:15: afflictive,
CROP, the craw of a bird, Lev. 1:6. CROP, to cut or break off, Ezek. 17:22. CROPPED, did crop or cut off, Ezek.
CROSS, a kind of gibbet, John 19:17,
19, 31: the doctrine of salvation by
Christ crucified, 1 Cor. 1:17, 18: trouble
or suffering for the sake of religion, Mark
8:34. See CRUCIFY.
- Cross, the. See Life of Christ.
CROSS-WAY, a small path intersecting
the principal road, Obad. 14.
CROUCH, to stoop or bend servilely to
those in office, 1 Sam. 2:36; Psal. 10:10.
CROW, to make a noise as a [rooster], John
CROWING, the noise of a [rooster], espe-
cially before sunrise, Matt. 13:35.
CROWN, the cap of state worn by sove-
reign princes, indicating their imperial
or royal dignity, 1 Chron. 20:2; 2 Kings
11:12; Est. 6:8: the sacred ornament
worn upon the mitre by the high-priest,
Exod. 29:6: the ornamental border
of the ark of the covenant, 25:11-25:
personal honour, Prov. 12:4; 17:6:
the reward of the heavenly glory, 1 Pet.
5:4; 2 Tim. 4:8: the accumulated hon-
ours of the Redeemer, Rev. 19:12.
Anciently the crown or diadem was only
an ornamental headband, Ezek. 16:12,
made of embroidered silk or linen, Exod.
28:36; 29:6: such we find it on
medals. Newly married persons wore
crowns, Sol. Song 3:17; and kings some-
times wore as many crowns as they had
kingdoms, Rev. 19:12. Our engraving re-
presents examples of the ancient crowns
of Egypt and Persia.
CROWNING, the principal, Isa. 23:8. CRUCIFIED, did crucify, Matt. 27:
CRUCIFIED, put to death on a cross,
Matt. 27:22-26; 1 Cor. 2:2: subdued,
weakened, or destroyed, as the power of
sin is in the believer, by motives drawn
from the death of Christ, as our Re-
deemer, Rom. 6:6; Gal. 2:20; 5:24.
CRUCIFY, to put to death by suspend-
ing the body nailed on a wooden cross:
this was a Roman mode of executing
slaves and the most infamous crimi-
nals; and thus the infidel Jewish priests
prevailed on Pilate to order Jesus to be
put to death, Matt. 20:19; 26:26-28.
Among the Romans, the body of the suf-
ferer sometimes remained on the cross
until the bones fell down; but in Judea,
the Jews were allowed to terminate the
life of the criminal before sunset, agree-
ably to the precept of their law, Deut.
21:22, 23. To "crucify...the Son of
God afresh" is to renounce, or abuse,
the doctrine of Christianity, Heb. 6:6.
CRUEL, vindictive, Gen. 49:7: op-
pressive, Exod. 6:9: pernicious, Deut.
32:33: aggravating, Heb. 11:36.
CRUELLY, savagely, inhumanly, Ezek.
CRUELTY, murder, Gen. 49:5; Judg.
9:24: barbarity, savageness, Psal. 74:
20; Ezek. 34:4.
CRUMBS, small pieces or fragments of
bread, Matt. 15:27; Luke 16:21.
CRUSE, a small urn or jar for holding
water, honey, or oil, 1 Sam. 26:11;
1 Kings 14:3; 17:12. Our engraving
represents various forms of the ancient
cruse as used by the Egyptians.
CRUSH, to bruise or break, Job 39:
15: to wound or kill, Lam. 1:15.
CRUSHED, did crush or bruise, Num.
CRUSHED, bruised or injured, Lev.
22:24: oppressed, Deut. 28:33.
CRY, a loud expression of grief, Gen.
27:34; Exod. 12:30: moaning of those
in distress, Exod. 2:23: a call for venge-
ance, Gen. 18:20: a complaint, Job
34:28: prayer, Psal. 5:2; 9:12:
shouting, Isa. 53:14: calling, Ezek.
27:28: a dispute, Acts 23:9.
CRY, to weep aloud, Exod. 32:18:
to complain, 2 Sam. 19:28: to call out,
Jer. 31:6: to pray, Psal. 27:7;
Jon. 3:8: to address with affection,
CRYING, weeping, 1 Sam. 4:14: shout-
ing, Zech. 4:7.
CRYSTAL, a precious stone resembling
ice in the rough mass: the Hebrew
word translated crystal, Ezek. 1:22, is
rendered ice, Job 6:16, and frost, Gen.
31:40. Some crystals are very beauti-
ful, white, and tinged with various shades
of yellow: valuable cups were anciently
made of this stone; and Pliny mentions
one worth L1250.
CUBIT, the measure of a man's arm
from the elbow to the end of the middle
finger: this in a well-proportioned man
is about 19 inches: some have
reckoned it 18 inches; but the
Hebrew cubit is believed to have been
nearly 22 inches, Gen. 6:15,
16; 1 Sam. 18:4; Dan. 3:1.
CUCKOW: this bird is supposed to
have been the sea-mew as intended by
Moses, Lev. 11:16.
CUCUMBERS, the fruit of a species of
vine common in our gardens; they grow
very large and are peculiarly delicious
and wholesome in the rich land of Egypt,
Num. 11:5; Isa. 1:8.
CUD, the food lodged in the stomach
of some animals, for rumination or
chewing a second time, Lev. 11:4.
CUMBER, to be fruitless, as an unfruit-
ful professor of the gospel, Luke 13:7.
- Cumber. See False Professions.
CUMBERED, hindered, embarrassed,
CUMBRANCE, a load of business and
care, Deut. 1:12.
CUMMIN, a plant resembling fennel,
from whose seeds oil was extracted, Isa.
28:25-27: they were also used as a
spice, Matt. 23:23.
CUNNING, skilful, as an ingenious
mechanic, Exod. 38:23, 29: intelli-
gent, Dan. 1:4: artful, Eph. 4:14.
CUNNINGLY, artfully, 2 Pet. 1:16. CUP, a drinking vessel, Gen. 40:11;
42:2: the [fruit of the vine] in the cup, Luke 22:
20; 1 Cor. 11:27: afflictions and punish-
ments, Psal. 75:8: divine blessings,
Psal. 23:5. The sufferings of our
Saviour are represented as a cup, Matt.
20:22. "[T]he cup of trembling" de-
notes the fearful judgments of God
upon the wicked, Isa. 51:17-22: "the
cup of salvation" designs the blessings
of grace and salvation as the gift of God,
Psal. 116:13. Our engraving gives
examples from Egyptian antiquities.
CUPBEARER, an attendant to give
wine to the king and his guests at a
royal feast, Neh. 1:11; 1 Kings 10:5.
CURDLED, coagulated, Job 10:10. CURE, healing, Jer. 33:6. CURE, to heal, Hos. 5:13; Luke 7:21. CURIOUS, made with great art, Exod.
28:8: magical, Acts 19:19.
CURIOUSLY, skilfully, ingeniously,
CURRENT, approved, as money, Gen.
CURSE, the sentence of the displeasure
of God on account of sin, Deut. 11:26-29;
calamity, as a judgment of God, Jer.
26:6: an imprecation, Neh. 10:29;
Acts 23:12: a recorded threatening,
Num. 5:22. Some curses, as that of
Noah, were predictions of evil, inspired
by the Spirit of God, Gen. 9:25-27.
CURSE, to sentence to degradation and
misery, Gen. 12:3: to vitiate or destroy,
Mal. 2:2: to utter imprecations, Jer. 15:
10; Matt. 26:74.
CURSED, did curse, 1 Sam. 17:43:
did execrate, Neh. 13:25. Holy men
were sometimes inspired to denounce an
awful curse on offenders, Gen. 9:25.
CURSED, execrated, Gen. 3:14-17:
under a curse, Gal. 3:10; Matt. 25:41.
CURSING, a curse, Deut. 30:19: an
imprecation, Psal. 10:7.
- Cursing, Christian. See Tract.
CURTAINS, shady hangings, as for
tents, beds, and windows, Exod. 26:1,
2; Jer. 4:20.
CUSH, [h] (black), a son of Ham and
father of Nimrod, Gen. 10:6. His poste-
rity appear to have peopled part of
Arabia, especially a province called
Ethiopia, on the south-east, near the
CUSH, a country, supposed to be Ethi-
opia in Africa, forming the present king-
dom of Abyssinia, Isa. 11:11.
CU'SHAN, [h] (blackness), the Arabian
Ethiopia, including the country of Midian,
Heb. 3:7; Num. 12:1.
CU'SHI, [h] (black), an officer in the
army of king David, 2 Sam. 18:21.
CUSHI, the chief of a Jewish family,
CUSHI, the father of the prophet
Zephaniah, Zeph. 1:1.
CUSTODY, charge, as of persons, Est.
2:3, 8, 14; or of things, Num. 3:36.
CUSTOM, a common practice, Luke 1:
9; 1 Cor. 11:16: a duty or tax on per-
sons and goods paid to the government,
Ezra 4:13; Matt. 9:9.
CUT, to divide in pieces, as by a knife
or saw, 2 Kings 24:13: to separate,
Josh. 3:13; Acts 27:32: to vex or
grieve, Acts 5:33: to destroy by a divine
judgment, Exod. 12:15.
CUTTING, a mark or wound on the
body in token of mourning, Lev. 19:28.
CUTTING, wounding the body, Matt.
5:5: grinding precious stones, as a lapi-
dary, Exod. 31:5.
CYMBALS, hollow metal plates for
music, 2 Sam. 6:5. Knowledge and
eloquence, without divine charity, are
declared vain and useless, as a tinkling
cymbal, 1 Cor. 13:1. Our engraving
is drawn from an Egyptian painting,
representing a musician playing on the
cymbals of Egypt, probably identical
with those of the Jews.
CYPRESS, a large, beautiful, and fra-
grant evergreen, whose aromatic wood
scarcely ever decays; therefore it was
used for making statues of the gods in
the East, Isa. 44:14.
CY'PRUS, [g] (fair, beautiful), a large
island in the Mediterranean, about 200
miles long and 75 broad, abounding with
cypress trees, from which it was named,
Acts 4:36; 11:19, 20; 13:4, 13; 15:
39. Venus was the chief divinty wor-
shipped by the pagans of Cyprus, under
the names of Cypris and Cypria; her
chief temple was at Paphos. Cyprus
has a population at present of about
60,000 Greeks and Turks.
CYRE'NE, [g] (a wall of fire), a city
of Libya in Africa, a region west of
Egypt, bordering on the Mediterranean,
Acts 2:10: the site of this city is in the
territory of the modern Barca, belonging
CYRENIAN, a native of Cyrene, Mark
CYRENIANS, Jews of Cyrene, students
of their college at Jerusalem, Acts 5:9.
CYRE'NIUS, [g] (who governs), a
Roman governor of Syria, Luke 2:2.
CY'RUS, [h] (as miserable, or as heir),
son of Cambyses, king of Persia, by
Mandane, daughter of Astyages, king of
Media. He was an extraordinary youth;
and, having married the daughter of
Darius, his uncle, he became heir to the
crowns of Media and Persia. Directed
by a special providence, he conquered
for his uncle Darius, all the nations of
the East, especially Babylon, as the
appointed instrument to deliver the
captive Jews. Daniel, who appears to
have been regarded as an oracle in
Babylon, seems to have showed the
Divine prophecies to Cyrus, and then
to have procured the decree for the
emancipation of the Jews, and for the
restoration of their sacred vessels, with
a license to re-establish Divine worship,
and to rebuild Jerusalem, Isa. 45:1;
Dan. 1:21; 6:28; Ezra 1:1-8.
- Czech Bible, Česky. See Ministry.
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