Bible Dictionary: A. 1840
, Rom. 8:15, 23; Eph.
- A'ARON, אהרן (mountain of strength, or a
teacher), a prince of the tribe of Levi,
the elder brother of Moses, whom he
assisted, under the divine direction, in
delivering the Israelites from Egypt, and
was consecrated, at 84 years of age, the
first high-priest of Israel, Lev. 8.--
Aaron's ordination was solemnly con-
firmed by an illustrious miracle, Num.
16. 17.; and after exercising his minis-
try 39 years, he died, A.M. 2552, aged 123
years, 33:38, 39. See PRIEST.
- ABAD'DON, Αβαδδων (destruction), king
of the locusts, the angel of the bottomless
pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue
is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue
Apollyon (the destroyer), Rev. 9:3-11.
Commentators differ in expounding this
prophetical passage: they regard it as
signifying a destructive chief and his
followers; but some refer the locusts to
the barbarous Saracens, and their king
to Mah_mm_d and his successors; others,
and more generally, to the various orders
of the Romish clergy, forming that anti-
christian hierarchy, and their king to the
usurped authority of the popes.
- ABAGTH'A, [h] (father of the wine-
press), a chamberlain of king Ahasuerus,
of Persia, Esth. 1:10.
- ABA'NA, [h] (stony), and Pharpar,
Syrian rivers. Abana is probably the
Baraddy, rising in mount Lebanon and
flowing round Damascus; and Pharpar
the Orontes, whose source is near that
metropolis, and passing Antioch in a
course of about 200 miles NW., falls
into the Mediterranean, 2 Kings 5:12.
- ABA'RIM, [h] (passage), a range of
mountains in the land of Moab; on
which were Nebo, Hor, Pisgah, &c., ren-
dered famous by the encampments of the
Israelites, Num. 27:12; 33:47, 48.
- ABASE, to humble, or bring down, Job
40:11; Dan. 4:37.
- ABATED, lessened in quantity, Gen.
8:3; Lev. 27:18; reduced in power,
Deut. 34:7; moderated, Judg. 8:3.
- AB'BA, [h] (Syriac, endeared father).
True Christians are inspired with filial
affection towards God, so as to use this ex-
pression in the manner of their peculiar
privilege: this delightful frame of mind
is the fruit of the Holy Spirit, Rom. 8:
15; Gal. 4:6. Jesus used this term in
enduring His mysterious agony in the
garden, Mark 14:36.
- ABED'NEGO, [h] (servant of light), the
Chaldean name given to Azariah, one
of the three companions of Daniel in
captivity at Babylon, on occasion of his
being promoted in the court of Nebu-
chadnezzar, Dan. 1:7. The integrity of
these pious youths was rewarded by their
miraculous deliverance from the king's
fiery furnace. An angel, probably the
Son of God (see Josh. 5:13, 15; 6:2),
appearing as their deliverer, and thus
leading the proud monarch to do homage
to Jehovah of Israel, Dan. 3:12, 25.
- A'BEL, הבל (vanity or mourning), the
second son of Adam and Eve, born in [an
early] year of the world. Abel
worshipped God by sacrifice in faith of
the Messiah, and died the first martyr
for Christ, by the hands of his infidel
brother Cain, about A.M. 129, Gen. 4.
Heb. 11:4; 1 John 3:12.
- ABEL, a noted place near Bethshe-
mesh, 1 Sam. 6:18: a city supposed to
be in the north-west of Canaan, 2 Sam.
20:14, 18; 1 Kings 15:20.
- A'BEL-MISRA'IM, [h]- הבל (the mourn-
ing of the Egyptians), a place where the
Egyptians mourned with Joseph and his
brethren, on entering Canaan with the
corpse of Jacob, Gen. 50:11.
- A'BEL-SHIT'TIM, [h]- הבל (the mourn-
ing of the thorns), a city opposite Jericho,
beyond Jordan in the land of Moab,
Num. 33:49; 25:1.
- ABHOR, to hate, Lev. 26:[11, 15], 30: to
detest, Deut. 7:26; Rom. 12:9.
- ABHORRED, loathed, Exod. 5:21; Zech.
11:8: rejected, Lev. 20:23.
- A'BI, [h] (my father), the wife of Ahaz,
king of Judah, and mother of king He-
zekiah, 2 Kings 18:2: she is called
ABIJAH, 2 Chron. 29:1.
- ABI'AH, [h], ABIAH or ABIJAH (the
Lord my father), the name of one of the
twenty-four courses of the priests,  Chron.
24:10; Neh. 12:4, 17; Luke 1:.
- ABI'ATHAR, [h] (father of abundance),
the son of Ahimelech, the high-priest,
whom Saul ordered to be murdered with
his family and the priests of Nob, 1 Sam.
22:16-20. Abiathar appears to have
assisted his father in the sacred office,
and to have aided David, Ma[rk] 2:26;
but, escaping the sword, he fled to David,
who retained him as priest, 1 Sam. 23:
6-9, while Saul appointed Zadok; so
that, when David ascended the throne,
both were continued in office, 2 Sam.
8:7; 1 Chron. 18:16; but Abiathar,
uniting with the party of Adonijah, was
deprived of the priesthood by Solomon,
1 Kings 2:26, 27.
- A'BIB, [h] (ears of corn), the month of
the Jewish year when the corn was ripe:
this month, called also Nisan, was made
the beginning of the year in sacred cal-
culations, because on the fourteenth of
it the Hebrews ate the passover and
were delivered from Egypt, Exod. 12.
- ABIDE, to stay or remain, Gen. 19:2;
John 14:16: to endure, Jer. 10:10: to
wait for, Acts 20:23.
- ABIDING, dwelling, Num. 24:2.
- AB'IGAIL, [h] (my father's joy), the
discreet wife of churlish Nabal, after
whose death she became married to
David, 1 Sam. 25.
- ABI'HU, [h] (my father himself), a son
of Aaron, and who was consumed by fire
from God, with his brother Nadab, only
eight days after their consecration as
priests: their sin is thought to have been
excessive drinking, Lev. :1-10.
- ABI'JAH, [h] (the Lord my father), the
pious son of Jeroboam, the first king of
the ten tribes, and the only one of his
wicked father's family who was buried
with funeral honours, 1 Kings 14:1, 18.
- ABI'JAH, called also ABIJAM, the son
and successor of Rehoboam on the throne
of Judah, 1 Kings 15:1;  Chron. 13.
- ABI'JAH, the wife of king Ahaz, and
mother of Hezekiah, 2 Chron. 29:1:
she is called also ABI, 2 Kings 18:.
- ABIJAH, a chief of a company of
priests, 1 Chron. 24:10.
- ABILE'NE, Αβιληνη (the father of the
apartment), a small province of Syria,
west of Damascus, and near Lebanon,
- ABILITY, property, Lev. 27:8; Acts
11:29: talents for business, Dan 1:4;
- ABIMELECH, [h] (my father the
king), a title of the Philistine kings, as
Pharaoh was of those in Egypt, Gen 20:
- ABIM'ELECH, a son of Gideon, who
assumed royalty in Israel, Judges 9.
- ABIN'ADAB, [h] (father of nobility),
a Levite, with whom the ark of God was
deposited at Kirjathjearim, 1 Sam. 7:1.
- ABINADAB, a son of Jesse and brother
of David, 1 Sam. 16:8.
- ABINADAB, a son of king Saul, 2 Sam.
- ABIN'ADAB, a principal officer of king
Solomon, 1 Kings 4:11.
- ABIN'OAM, [h] (father of delight),
the father of Barak, Judg. 4:6; 5:1.
- ABI'RAM, [h] (father of loftiness), a
prince of the tribe of Reuben, who, with
others, conspired against Moses and
Aaron; but who was fearfully punished
by the miraculous visitation of God, Num.
16.; Psal. 106:17.
- ABI'RAM, the eldest son of Hiel of
Bethel, 1 Kings 16:34; Josh. 6:26.
- ABI'SHAG, [h] (ignorance of the father),
the wife of king David, married in his
old age for the purpose of being his
nurse, 1 Kings 1:24.
- ABISH'AI, [h] (father of a gift), a son
of David's sister Zeruiah, and a famous
general in the army of the king his
uncle, with his brother Joab, 1 Sam.
26:6; 2 Sam. 10:10.
- ABJECTS, worthless or base persons,
- ABLE, qualified, Exod. 18:21:
powerful, Dan. 3:17: commissioned,
Heb. 7:25: experienced, 2:18.
- AB'NER, [h] (father of the light), a
famous general in the army of king Saul:
he was cousin to the king, being the son
of Ner, Saul's uncle, 1 Sam. 14:51.
Abner was basely murdered by Joab, in
revenge for the death of his brother
Asahel, 2 Sam. 3:25, 37.
- ABOARD, in a ship, Acts 21:2.
- ABODE, a habitation, 2 Kings 19:27;
- ABOLISH, to destroy, Isa. 2:18.
- ABOMINABLE, detestable or hateful,
Lev. 11:43; Tit. :16.
- ABOMINABLY, wickedly, or shamefully,
1 Kings 21:26.
- ABOMINATION, a detestable thing, as
all sin, especially idolatry, Deut. 7:25,
26; 1 Kings 11:5, 7: the unclean prac-
tices of the heathen, Deut. 12:31; 18:
9, 12: hypocrisy in religion, Prov. 27:
9; Isa. 1:13.
- ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION, the
idolatrous standards[?] of the Roman army
which destroyed Jerusalem, Matt. 24:
15; Dan. 9:27.
- ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION.
Paper: Daniel's Prophecy.
- ABOUND, to be in great plenty, Prov.
28:20: to surpass, Rom. 5:15, 20: to
increase, Phil. 1:9.
- ABOVE, higher in place, Gen. 1:7:
superior in station, Matt. 10:24: heavenly,
Col. 3:1, 2: heaven, Jam. 1:17; 3:15.
- ABRAM, אברם (the father of elevation), the
original name of Abraham, Gen. 17:5.
- ABRAHAM, אברהם (the father of a great
multitude), a Syrian patriarch of such
eminent piety as to be called by Jehovah
"Abraham my friend[,]" and to be con-
stituted the founder of the church of
God in the Hebrew nation. Abraham
was born A.M. 2008, only two years after
the death of Noah. His call from Chal-
dean idolatry--his sojourning in Canaan
--God's covenant with him--his being
appointed the father of the church--his
offering up of his son Isaac--and indeed
the whole of his most instructive history,
deserve the deepest attention of every
reader, Gen. 11:27; 12.; 25.; Isa. 41:
8; Gal. 3.; 4.; Heb. 11:8-19. Abraham
died at the age of 175 years, and was
buried by his sons Isaac and Ishmael,
Gen. 25:7-9. See ISAAC.
- ABRAHAM, the first Jew. "the church"
in the wilderness, Acts 7:38.
- ABROAD, out of the house, Exod. 12:
46: public, Esth. 1:17.
- AB'SALOM, [h] (father of peace), a
son of David by Maachah, daughter of
Talmai king of Geshur, was a young man
of elegant person, great talents, and in-
satiable ambition: he was slain in rebel-
lion against his father, 2 Sam. 13.; 19.
Absalom's pillar, erected to perpetuate
his memory after his sons had died, 2
Sam. 14:27; 18:18, is mentioned by
Josephus as a marble column; but our
engraving represents the monument
shown to modern travellers as bearing
the name of Absalom.
- ABSENCE, a state of separation or dis-
tance, Luke 22:6; Phil. 2:12.
- ABSENT, separated or at a distance,
Gen. 21:49; Phil. 1:27.
- ABSTAIN, to forbear or refrain from,
as evil practices, Acts 15:20, or lawful
enjoyments, 1 Tim. 4:3.
- ABUNDANCE, great plenty, 1 Kings 10:10.
- ABUNDANT, plentiful, Jer. 51:13; 1 Pet.
- ABUNDANTLY, numerously, Gen. 1:20;
Exod. 1:7: powerfully, Eph. 3:20; 2 Pet. 1:4.
- ABUSE, to injure, 1 Sam. 31:4; 1
- ABUSERS, corrupters, 1 Cor. 6:9.
- ACCEPT, to approve, 2 Sam. 24:23.
- ACCEPTED, approved, Gen. 4:9: to
be received with favour, as repenting
sinners are "accepted in the beloved"
Son of God, by faith in the gospel, which
testifies his atonement, Eph. 1:6. The
gospel dispensation is "the accepted
time[,]" and "the day of salvation" to man-
kind, 2 Cor. 6:2.
- ACCEPTABLE, pleasing, Eccles. 12:10;
Rom. 15:16; 1 Pet. 2:5.
- ACCEPTATION, reception, 1 Tim. 1:15.
- ACCESS, free admission: this privilege
believers of all nations enjoy by the
mediation of Christ into the presence of
God as their covenant Father, Rom. 5:2;
- AC'CAD, [h] (a vessel or pitcher), one of
the cities of Nimrod, supposed to be the
modern Akkerkoof, situated about nine
miles west of the Tigris, where that river
makes its nearest approach to the Eu-
phrates, Gen. 10:10. There is found here
a vast mound surmounted by a mass of
brick-work resembling a tower or irre-
gular pyramid, about 300 feet in circum-
ference at the bottom, and rising 125 or
130 feet above the greatly inclined eleva-
tion on which it stands. The layers of
brick are cemented with bitumen, and
the mound is formed of rubbish from the
decayed superstructure, as represented
in the engraving. The tower indicates
the site of an ancient town, and its iden-
tity with Accad is confirmed by this
primitive monument, which the Arabs
call Tel Nimrood, and the Turks Nemrood
Tepassé, both of which signify the Hill of
Nimrod. It is supposed to have been
consecrated as a temple and observatory
for the worship of the celestial lumi-
naries, and piles of this kind seem to
have been erected in many of the prin-
cipal cities of this region, built after the
model of that of the metropolitan city of
Babel. See BABEL.
- AC'CHO, [h] (enclosed), a sea-port of
Galilee on the Mediterranean, near
mount Carmel: it fell to the tribe of
Asher, Judg. 1:31. It was called Ptole-
mais, Acts 21:7, from Ptolemy king of
Egypt. The Crusaders [RCC] took it and ren-
dered it famous in their wars: the
knights of St. John called it St. Jean
d'Acre; and it is still called Acre, and
contains about 10,000 inhabitants, many
of whom are Jews.
- ACCOMPANIED, attended as a compa-
nion, Acts 10:23.
- ACCOMPLISH, to fulfil, Lev. 22:21.
- ACCOMPLISHMENT, fulfilment, Acts
- ACCORD, agreement, Josh. 9:2; Acts
1:14: union of mind, 7:57.
- ACCORDING, in a manner suitable,
Gen. 41:54; Phil. 3:21.
- ACCOUNT, a reckoning, Exod. 12:4.
- ACCOUNT, to regard, Deut. 2:11, 20;
1 Cor. 4:1: to impute, Gal. 3:6.
- ACCURSED, devoted to destruction,
Josh. 6:17, 18. "Calling Jesus ac-
cursed," was maliciously slandering Him
as a deceiver, 1 Cor. 12:3. Paul, ac-
cording to the Greek of Rom. 9:3, did
formerly wish himself accursed or sepa-
rated from Christ like other infidel Jews.
- ACCUSATION, a criminal charge, Ezra
4:6; Matt. 27:37.
- ACCUSE, to charge with crime, Prov.
30:10; Josh. 5:45.
- ACCUSER, he that brings a charge,
John 8:10: Satan is so called, on
account of his active malice against the
godly, Rev. 12:10.
- ACEL'DAMA, Ακελδαμα (the field of
blood), was a small plot of ground where
clay was dug for fullers and potters;
but so called after the Jews had pur-
chased it with the money for which
Judas betrayed his Master, Jesus, Matt.
27:8; Acts 1:18, 19; Zech. 9:12, 13.
It is now a grave-yard for the Arme-
nians, about 100 feet by 40, and called
Campo Sancto; and it is said by some
that it will consume a corpse in two or
- ACHA'IA, Αχαια (grief), sometimes
denotes all Greece, 2 Cor. 11:10: pro-
perly it was a small canton of Greece,
of which Corinth was the capital, Acts
18:1, 12; 2 Cor. 1:1. See CORINTH.
- ACHA'ICUS, Αχαικος (a native of Achaia),
an eminent Christian of the church at
Corinth, 1 Cor. 16:17.
- A'CHAN, [h] (troubler), a transgressor
in the tribe of Judah, by whose sin, in
secreting a Babylonish garment, a wedge
of gold, and a quantity of silver, at the
taking of Jericho, he brought trouble
upon the people of Israel, Josh. 7.
- ACH'BOR, [h] (a rat, bruising, or en-
closing a wall), the father of Baal-haman,
king of Edom, Gen. 36:38, 39.
- ACHBOR, a nobleman in the court of
king Josiah, 2 Kings 22:12, 14.
- A'CHISH, [h] (how is this?), a king of
Gath, by whom David was sheltered
when pursued by king Saul, 1 Sam. 21.;
- ACH'METHA, [h] (a box, or summer-
house), supposed to be the ancient and
celebrated city of Ecbatana, in Media,
the summer residence of the kings of
Persia, Ezra 6:2.
- A'CHOR, [h] (trouble), a valley near Jeri-
cho, where the Israelites were distressed
through the sin of Achan, Josh. 7:26.
Pious persons now find "a door of hope"
and succour in the valley of trouble, Hos.
- ACH'SAH, [h] (adorned, or bursting the
veil), the daughter of Caleb, Josh. 15:16, 18.
- ACH'SHAPH, [h] (poison, trick, or one
that breaks), a city of Asher on the Medi-
terranean coast near Tyre; the same
or near to Achzib, now called Zib by the
Arabs, Josh. 11:1; 19:25, 29.
- ACKNOWLEDGE, to confess, Gen.
38:26: to approve, 2 Cor. 1:13: to
worship, Dan. 11:39.
- ACKNOWLEDGEMENT, intelligent con-
fession, Col. 2:2.
- ACQUAINT, to get a familiar know-
ledge of, Job 22:21; Eccles. 2:3.
- ACQUAINTANCE, a familiar friend or
companion, Job 19:13; Psal. 55:1-3.
- ACQUIT, to release from a criminal
charge, Nah. 1:3
- ACRE, a plot of ground, as much as a
yoke of oxen could plough in a day.
Ten acres yielding one bath indicates ex-
treme barrenness, as threatened by the
prophet, Isa. 5:10. The English acre
contains 4,840 square yards; the Roman,
3,200; the Egyptian, about 3,698.
- ACTS, memorable deeds or achieve-
ments, Deut. 11:3; 1 Kings 10:6.
- ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, Book of, the
inspired history of the church of Christ,
in the promulgation of Christianity, con-
tinued by Luke, from the ascension of
our Lord, to the year 64. It relates only
part of the labours of the apostles: prin-
cipally those of Peter in establishing
churches among the Jews, and in the
admission of the Gentiles, Acts 1. to 12.
The latter part of the book chiefly details
the various missionary labours of Paul,
especially in gathering churches among
the Gentiles, until he was carried a pri-
soner to Rome. This book of the Acts
is invaluable as recording the practices
of the [early] churches, and of the
first preachers of the gospel, and as con-
taining a vast body of evidence of the
divinity and excellency of Christianity.
- A'DAH, [h] (an assembly), one of the
two wives of Lamech, mother of Jabal
and Jubal, Gen. 4:19.
- A'DAH, a wife of Esau, Gen. 36:4.
- AD'AM, אדם (earthy), the name given by
their Creator to the first human pair,
Gen. 5:2; though afterwards it was
applied exclusively to the first man,
Gen. 2.; 3. His creation in perfection,--
his mysterious nature, formed in the
image and likeness of God his Maker,--
his intellectual powers and his character
as the lord of the world, the head of
mankind,--his transgression and fall
from holiness and happiness,--his being
a type of Christ the "second Adam,"--
all deserve the most attentive and devout
consideration of every Christian, Gen. 3.;
Rom. 5:12-19; 1 Cor. 15:21, 22, 45-49.
- ADAM, a real person created by God.
- AD'AM, a city on the eastern bank of
Jordan, in Perea, Josh. 3:16.
- ADAMANT, the diamond; the hardest,
the most beautiful, and most precious of
all gems. See DIAMOND. Impenitent
sinners are spoken of as hardening their
foreheads and their hearts, as the ada-
mant, Ezek. 3:9; Zech. 7:12.
- A'DAR, (a cloak or power), a Hebrew
month, Esth. 3:7. See MONTH.
- ADD, to join by increasing the number,
Gen. 30:24; or quantity, Lev. 5:16;
or quality, 1 Pet. 1:5.
- ADDED, joined, Dan. 4:36; as an
increase of numbers, Acts 2:41; 5:14.
- ADDER, a venomous serpent, usually
called VIPER: the word occurs five times
in the Bible: Gen. 49:17, [h] (SHE-
PHIPHON), probably the Cerastes: Psal.
58:4; 91:13, [h] (PETHEN), the Asp:
Psal. 140:3, [h] (ACHSUB), rendered
ASP, Rom. 3:13: Prov. 23:32, [h]
(TZIPHONI), the Basilik. See COCKA-
- ADDICTED, devoted or employed, 1 Cor.
- ADJURE, a solemn charge under a
curse, Judg. 6:26; or solemnly to re-
quire a declaration of the truth in the
name of God: thus our Saviour made
confession of His Messiahship in the
council of the Jews, Matt. 26:63, 64.
- AD'MAH, [h] (red earth, or bloody), one
of the four cities destroyed by fire from
heaven, on account of the wickedness
of the inhabitants, Gen. 14:2; Deut.
29:23. See SODOM.
- ADMINISTRATION, the execution of an
office, 1 Cor. 11:5; 2 Cor. 9:12.
- ADMINISTRATION. List: Church Business /
Sunday School Administration.
- ADMIRATION, wonder, Rev. 17:6:
professed esteem, Jude 16.
- ADMIRED, regarded with esteem and
wonder, 2 Thess. 1:10.
- ADMONISH, to reprove and instruct
with kindness, 2 Thess. 3:15.
- ADMONITION, kind reproof, Eph. 6:4;
- ADO, trouble or bustle, Mark 5:39.
- Adon-Adonai - Jehovah Our Ruler--p. 15: HL.
- ADONIBE'ZEK, [h] (the Lord of
lightning), a cruel king of Bezek, in
Canaan, mutilated when taken captive
by the tribe of Judah, Judg. 1:1-7.
- ADONI'JAH, [h] (the Lord my master),
the fourth son of David, who, having
never been corrected by his father,
usurped the throne and thus fell into
ruin, 1 Kings 1.; 2.
- ADONIZE'DEK, [h] (lord of justice),
the king of Jerusalem, when the Israelites
entered Canaan: he was conquered by
Joshua, Josh. 10:1, 23.
- ADOPTION, the taking of a child into
a family as a son or daughter: as
Pharaoh's daughter adopted the outcast
infant Moses, Exod. 2:1, 10; and Mor-
decai the orphan Esther, Esth. 2:7.
- ADOPTION, as a Christian privilege, is
a sovereign act of the Divine favour, in
which the sinful and unworthy children
of men are received, by faith in Christ
and true repentance, as the children of
God, and thus become entitled to all
needful blessings on earth, and to the
glory of immortality, as their sure inhe-
ritance in Heaven
1:5; 2 Cor. 6:18.
ADO'RAM, [h] (their beauty, or their
power), called also Adoniram, and Hado-
ram, the chief treasurer, or receiver-
general of the revenue, under David,
Solomon, and Rehoboam, or with his
son, as some suppose, of the same name.
He fell a victim to the fury of the popu-
lace, when the Israelites were provoked
by the haughty despotism of king Reho-
boam, 2 Sam. 20:2; 1 Kings 4:6; 12:
13; 2 Chron. 10:18.
ADORN, to decorate with ornaments,
ADORNING, decorations or ornaments,
1 Pet. 3:3.
ADRAM'MELECH, [h] (the cloak of the
king, or the grandeur of the king), an idol-
deity, to which children were sacrificed
by the Sepharvites, the new Assyrian
settlers in Samaria, 2 Kings 17:31.
ADRAM'MELECH, a son of Sennacherib,
king of Assyria, who, with his brother
Sharezer, murdered his father in the
temple of his idol-god Nisroch, 2 Kings
ADRAMYTTIUM, [g] (the court
of death), a maritime town of Assyria, in
Asia Minor, Acts 27:2.
A'DRIA, [g], the sea at the entrance
of the modern gulf of Venice, Acts
A'DRIEL, [h] (the flock of God), the
husband of Merab, the eldest daughter
of King Saul, 1 Sam. 18:19; 2 Sam.
ADUL'LAM, [h] (their testimony, or
their ornament), a town of Judah, near
the sea of Sodom, Josh. 12:35; 1 Sam.
ADULTERER, a man guilty of violating
the marriage vow, Lev. 20:10.
ADULTERESS, a woman guilty of vio-
lating the marriage vow, Rom. 7:3.
ADULTEROUS, guilty of adultery, Prov.
30:20; Matt. 12:.
ADULTERY, conjugal infidelity, Mark
10:11: idolatry, as the aggravated crime
of infidelity against God, Jer. 3:8, 9.
ADVENTURE, to put in hazard, Judg.
9:17; Acts 19:31.
ADVERSARY, an opponent, or enemy,
Num. 22:22; Josh. 5:13; Est. 7:6.
ADVERSITY, calamity or trouble,
1 Sam. 10:19; Eccles. 7:14.
ADVERTISE, to inform beforehand,
ADVICE, counsel, Judg. 19:30; 2 Cor.
ADVISE, to counsel, 2 Sam. 24:13;
ADVOCATE, a patron, comforter, or
instructor; one who pleads the cause
of another: this is an appropriate title
of Christ, 1 John 2:1; and also of the
Holy Spirit, who is called by the same
Greek word, in John 14:16, 26; 15:26;
16:7, Παρακλητος (Parakletos). See COM-
ADUM'MIM, [h] (bloody ones), moun-
tain passes near Jericho, notoriously
infested with robbers, Josh. 15:7; 18:
17: it is referred to by Christ, Luke 10:
AFAR, at a distance, Gen. 22:4;
AFFAIRS, matters of business, Dan. 2:
AFFECT, to act upon, or influence,
Gal. 4:17, 18.
AFFECTION, the disposition of the
heart, Col. 3:2, 3.
AFFECTIONATELY, cordially, or kindly,
1 Thess. 2:8.
AFFECTIONED, disposed in heart, Rom.
AFFINITY, a relationship constituted
by marriage, 1 Kings 3:1.
AFFIRM, to declare, Rom. 3:8: to
teach, Tit. 3:8.
AFFLICT, to oppress, Gen. 15:13;
Exod. 1:11, 12.
AFFLICTION, distress, Exod. 3:7;
persecution, 2 Tim. 1:8; 3:11.
AFFORDING, yielding, or containing,
AFFRIGHT, to terrify, 2 Chron. 32:18. AFOOT, walking on foot, Acts 20:13. AFORE, before, 2 Kings 20:4: earlier,
AFORETIME, in time past, Job 17:6;
AFRAID, terrified, Gen. 42:35; Gal.
AFTER, in subsequent time, Josh. 10:
14: following, Deut. 6:14.
AFTERNOON, the decline of the day,
AG'ABUS, [g] (a locust), a Christian
prophet in the church at Antioch, Acts
11:28. See PROPHET.
A'GAG, [h] (roof, or floor), a king of
the wicked Amalekites, slain by Samuel,
1 Sam. 15:28, 32. Agag seems to have
been a common name of the kings of
Amalek, Num. 24:7.
AGAIN, a second time, Gen. 8:21:
also Heb. 1:5.
AGAINST, in opposition, Gen. 16:12:
waiting for, Exod. 7:15.
AGATE, [g] (Achates), a gem of
variegated colour, Exod. 28:19; Ezek.
27:16. Those now called Scotch and
Egyptian pebbles are beautiful.
AGE, a limited duration of human life,
Gen. 47:28; or of the Divine dis-
pensations, Eph. 2:7. See CHRONO-
AGED, old, or advanced in life, 2 Sam.
AGO, past time, 1 Sam. 9:20; 2 Cor.
AGONY, extreme pain, Luke 22:44. AGREE, to be of one mind, Matt. 18:
18: to bargain, 20:2, 13.
AGREEMENT, concord, 2 Cor. 6:16:
a bargain, or stipulation, 2 Kings
AGRIP'PA, [g] (who causes pain at
the birth), the name of several kings of
Judea, Acts 25:13. See HEROD.
AGROUND, on the sand in shallow
water near the shore, Acts 27:41.
AGUE, an intermitting fever, Lev.
A'GUR, [h] (a stranger or gathering), the
son of Jakeh, an ancient Hebrew sage,
and writer of the thirtieth chapter of the
book of Proverbs, Prov. 30:1.
AH, a term of contempt, Psa. 35:25;
Mark 15:29: and of lamentation, Isa. 1:
6; Jer. 34:5.
AHA, a term intimating contempt and
triumph, Psa. 70:3.
A'HAB, [h] (uncle of the father, or
brother of the father), one of the kings of
Israel, notorius for his idolatries and
crimes, in which he was confirmed by
his wicked wife Jezebel, notwithstanding
the zealous ministry of the faithful pro-
phet Elijah, 1 Kings 16:28; [ch.] 22.
A'HAB, a false prophet, who, with his
wicked colleague Zedekiah, seduced the
Jews to rebellion, for which they were
put to a dreadful death by Nebuchad-
nezzar, Jer. 29:21, 22.
AHASUE'RUS, [h] (prince or chief),
the king of Persia, and husband of
Esther. This mighty prince is made
famous by Divine providence employing
him to favour the Jews, making Esther
his queen; and, having defeated the
bloody stratagems of Haman, granting
liberty to her people dispersed through
various provinces of the Persian empire.
Dr. Prideaux holds that he was Arta-
xerxes Longimanus, following Josephus
and others, Ezr. 4:6; Esth. 1. See ESTHER,
ARTAXERXES, and MORDECAI.
AHA'VA, [h] (essence or generation), a
river of Assyria, at which Ezra as-
sembled the Israelites, who went up
from Babylon to Jerusalem on the de-
cree of Artaxerxes, Ezr. 7:6, 7; 8:
15, 21, 31.
A'HAZ, [h] (one that possesses), a wicked
king of Judah, and father of Hezekiah;
his short history is a record of his
crimes, idolatries, and miseries, 2 Kings
16:2; 2 Chron. 28.
AHAZI'AH, [h] (possession of the Lord,
or vision of the Lord), the wicked son and
successor of Ahab on the throne of
Israel, 1 Kings 22:51, 53; 2 Kings 1:
AHI'JAH, [h] (brother of the Lord), a
prophet of God, whose ministry was ex-
ercised in the reign of Solomon. He re-
proved him for his idolatries, 1 Kings 11:
9-11; called Jeroboam to reign over the
ten tribes, ver. 29, and wrote the annals
of the reign of Solomon, 2 Chron. 9:29.
AHI'KAM, [h] (brother of an enemy), a
nobleman in the court of king Josiah,
and friendly to Jeremiah, 2 Kings 22:
12; Jer. 26:24.
AHIM'AAZ, [h] (brother of anger), the
son and successor of Zadok, the high-
priest in the reign of David, 2 Sam. 15:
27; 18:19, 20.
AHIM'ELECH, [h] (brother of the king),
the high-priest of Israel, murdered with
his family, and the inhabitants and
priests of the city of Nob, by the atrocious
order of king Saul, 1 Sam. 21:1; 22:
AHIT'HOPHEL, [h] (brother of folly),
chief counseller to David, but a traitor:
having been rejected, he closed his guilty
course by the act of suicide, 2 Sam. 17:
AHI'TUB, [h] (brother of goodness), a
high-priest, and father of Ahimelech, 1
Sam. 22:9, 12; 1 Chron. 6:8.
AHITUB, a high-priest, father of Zadok,
2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chron. 6:12; 24:3.
AHO'LAH, [h] (his tabernacle), and AHO'LIBAH, [h] (my tabernacle is in
her): these were two symbolical names,
under which the prophet reproves the
idolatry of Israel and Judah. Aholah
denoted Samaria, and Aholibah signified
Jerusalem, Ezek. 23:4.
AHO'LIAB, [h] (the tabernacle of the
father), an inspired artificer, filled with
wisdom to construct the tabernacle and
its furniture with his colleague Bezaleel,
Exod. 35:30, 35. See BEZALEEL.
A'I, [h], or HAI, Gen. 12:8 (mass or
heap), a city of Canaan near to Jericho,
taken by Joshua, Josh. 7:2; 8:1.
AIDED, helped or assisted, Judg. 9:24. AILED, affected, pained, or troubled,
Gen. 21:17; Judg. 18:23; 1 Sam. 11:5.
AIR, that transparent elastic fluid in
which we breathe, and which is essential
to the life of all creatures both on land
and in the waters. Our Creator has en-
wrapped the earth in this wonderful ele-
ment to the height of about fifty miles:
it is nearly the thousandth part of the
weight of water, yet the column of it
which presses on a square foot is about
2160 lbs.; and, allowing fifteen square
feet for a human body, the pressure of air
on it amounts to 32,400 pounds weight.
AJ'ALON, [h], or AIJALON, (strength, or
an oak), the name of several small towns
in Canaan, and of a valley famous for the
miracle of the sun and moon standing still
in favour of Joshua, Josh. 10:12; 21:24;
Judg. 1:35; 12:12.
ALABASTER, a white stone, a genus
of fossils nearly allied to marble: this
name was given to boxes or urns of
stone, glass, gold, or silver, holding ten
ounces of ointment of rich perfume,
Mark 14:3. Breaking the seal is in-
tended by the evangelist saying the
woman "brake the box."
ALARM, a notice of danger, or call to
war, Num. 10:5-9.
ALAS, a term of lamenting, Num.
12:11; Josh. 7:7; Rev. 18:10.
ALBEIT, although, or notwithstanding,
ALEXAN'DER, Αλεξανδρος (one that as-
sists men, or turns away evil), a son of
Simon, who was compelled to carry the
cross of our Saviour, Mark 15:21.
ALEXANDER, one of the Jewish coun-
cil who threatened Peter and John,
for preaching Jesus Christ, Acts 4:
ALEXANDER, a Jew of Ephesus, who
endeavoured to quell the commotion of
the excited populace after the preaching
of Paul, Acts 19:33.
ALEXANDER, a coppersmith who
apostatized from Christianity, 1 Tim. 1:
20; 2 Tim. 4:14.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT, king of
Macedon and conqueror of the East; he
overthrew the Persian, and set up the
Grecian, monarchy, as the third kingdom
of brass, described by Daniel 2:39: he is
represented as the leopard, 7:6, and
the he-goat, 8:4, 7, 20, 21. He died
about the year 323 B.C.
ALEXAN'DRIA, a famous city of Egypt,
so named after its founder Alexander the
Great, who peopled it with colonies of
Greeks and Jews, Acts 18:24; 27:6.
Alexandria was situated on the western
branch of the Nile, near the Mediterra-
nean: and being enlarged and made the
royal residence of Alexander's suc-
cessors, it became very populous, having
about 300,000 inhabitants; and, next to
Rome, the chief mart of commerce in the
world, embracing the whole trade of
India with Europe. Ptolemy Philadel-
phus established here a library, which is
said to have increased so as to contain
700,000 volumes; to enrich which, he
procured or encouraged the first transla-
tion of the law of Moses into Greek,
about 280 years before the birth of Christ.
Soon after this good work, the whole of
the Old Testament was translated into
the same language, and thus the Holy
Scriptures became known, not only to
the Jews who used the Greek tongue,
but to the learned among the Gentiles,
preparing the way for the preaching of
the gospel after the advent of Christ.
Christianity was early planted at Alex-
andria, of which city Apollos was a
native, and the evangelist Mark is said
to have been chosen bishop of its first
Christian church. Modern Alexandria
is built on the east of its ancient city,
some of the ruins of which are repre-
sented in our engraving. The city con-
tains about 15,000 inhabitants, and forms
the port of Cairo.
ALEXANDRIANS, Jews of Alexandria
having a synagogue at Jerusalem, Acts
ALGUM. See ALMUG. ALIEN, foreign, not of the same family
or country, Exod. 18:3; Deut. 14:21.
ALIENATED, averse from: thus the
heart of man being naturally depraved
and alienated from holiness, is enmity
against God, Eph. 4:18; Col. 1:21.
ALIKE, similar, Psal. 33:15: with-
out any difference, Rom. 14:5.
ALIVE, living, Gen. 7:23; Deut. 4:4:
active in holiness, Luke 15:24, 32: pre-
sumptuous and careless in self-righteous-
ness, Rom. 7:9.
ALL, the whole, Gen. 48:15: every
thing, Exod. 20:11; Acts 14:15: every
class, 1 Tim. 2:4; Tit. 2:11: many of
every class, Matt. 3:5; Phil. 2:21; John
ALLEDGING, declaring, Acts 17:3. ALLEGORY, a symbolical discourse,
nearly resembling a parable or fab.,
commonly used in the East to teach or
illustrate some principle or doctrine;
such is our Saviour's discourse con-
cerning Himself as the Shepherd, John 10:
1-28; and the Vine, 15:1-8.
ALLELU'IA, Αλληλουια (praise ye the
Lord): the Hebrew word הללו-יה HAL-
LELUJAH, is so rendered in many psalms,
111. 112. &c. as the expression of uni-
versal praise to God from all nations,
Jews and gentiles, Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6.
ALLIED, related, by family, or mar-
riage, Neh. 13:4
ALLOW, to admit or approve, Luke 11:
48; Rom. 7:15.
ALLOWANCE, a sum or portion, as for
daily use, 2 Kings 25:30.
ALLURE, to attract, Hos. 2:14: to
entice, 2 Pet. 2:18.
ALMIGHTY (Heb. שדי Shaddai), omni-
potent, all-sufficient, or all-bountiful, one
of the Divine titles, indicating His glorious
attributes, which inspires hope and con-
fidence in Him as the Creator and Pre-
server of the world: this title was espe-
cially used in the early ages, Gen. 17:1;
Exod. 6:3; 2 Cor. 6:18.
ALMONDS, nuts of the almond-tree,
and which still form a considerable
article of European commerce with the
East, Gen. 43:11.
ALMOND-TREE, Amygdalus communis, a
beautiful nut tree, resembling the peach-
tree in its leaves and blossoms, as repre-
sented in our engraving, Exod. 25:33,34.
Our second engraving represents the nuts
of the almond on the centre branch;
that on the left its flower, and that on
the right the flowers of the Caucasian
species. Almond-flowers being beautiful,
were limited in various ornaments,
Exod. 37:19, 20; and they are alluded
to as indicating a flourishing condition,
Num. 17:8; Jer. 1:11.
ALMS, gifts of charity to the poor,
Matt. 6:1; Acts 3:2; 9:36.
ALMUG, or ALGUM TREE, it was
valuable for building and furniture,
and Dr. Shaw thinks it was the cypress,
1 Kings 10:11, 12; 2 Chron. 2:8; 9:
ALOES, a perfume prepared from the
aloe plant, which grows about two feet
high, with broad leaves nearly two inches
thick: the gum extracted from which is
so antiseptic, that it was used for em-
balming, John 19:39, and in the com-
position of various perfumes, Psal. 14:
8; Prov. 7:17; Song 4:14. The drug,
which is still valuable, as a medicine, is
formed from the juice of the leaves
hardened in the sun. Several species
are enumerated; among which, the
American aloe is regarded as most
remarkable for its fine flowers. Our
engraving represents the Aloe socotrina.
ALONE, single, or solitary, Gen. 2:8:
only, Dan. 10:7.
ALONG, forward, Num. 21:22. AL'PHA, the first letter of the Greek
alphabet (Α α) as Omega (Ω ω) is the last:
they are both used to indicate the divi-
nity and eternity of our blessed Saviour,
Rev. 1:8, 11.
ALPHE'US, Αλφαιος (a thousand), the
father of James the Less, Matt. 10:3;
Luke 6:15: he was the husband of
Mary, Mark 15:40; John 19:25, sup-
posed to have been sister to Mary the
mother of Jesus. Many suppose him to
have been Cleopas, that being his name
in Hebrew or Syriac, as Alpheus was in
ALPHEUS, the father of Levi, or
Matthew, Mark 2:14.
ALREADY, at this present time, Exod.
1:5; Matt. 17:12.
ALTAR, an elevated sacred hearth on
which sacrifices and offerings were pre-
sented to God, Gen. 8:20; 12:7; Exod.
17:15. Until after the deliverance of
Noah from the deluge we do not find
the word altar, although, before that
event, the pious patriarchs offered sacri-
fice by faith in the promised Messiah.
Altars were at first heaps of earth or
stones: but for tabernacle services, two
with metal coverings were made by the
direction of Moses, Exod. 30:27; 40:
ALTAR (of burnt offering): this was about
nine feet square, and five feet high, made
of precious wood, and encased with brass,
having a grate of the same metal: on
this were offered the various sacrifices
according to the law of Moses, Exod.
27:1-8; 29:36-39. Solomon made
one much larger, it being nearly thirty-
seven feet square, and half as much in
height, with an easy ascent on each side,
2 Chron. 4:1. Our engraving represents
the probable form of it, with an ordinary
ALTAR (of incense): this was also made
of precious wood, overlaid with gold,
Exod. 30:1-9: it was about twenty-two
inches square, and three feet eight inches
in height. Our engraving represent the
probable form of it, with the high-priest
Both of these altars prefigured the
work of redemption by Jesus Christ; the
altar of burnt offering denoted the sacri-
fice of His death, and the altar of incense
His sacerdotal prevailing intercession in
Heaven, Heb. 9.
ALTAR (of Christians): "We have an
altar," Heb. 13:10, which is Christ, on
whose infinitely excellent Person, and
perfect righteousness alone, all our offer-
ings are presented acceptably to God.
Ceremonial figures and types having been
abolished by the sacrifice of Christ, there
is no material altar allowed by Christi-
anity, nor can there be any official priest,
except our exalted Redeemer.
ALTAR (TO THE UNKNOWN GOD): this was
observed by the apostle Paul at Athens;
from which he preached to the judges
and people in the court of Areopagus:
to what divinity this altar was raised is
not known; but many learned men sup-
pose that it was designed for the only
living God, Jehovah, of whom some of
their sages had gained considerable infor-
mation from [connection] with the people
of Israel, Acts 17:23.
ALTER, to change, Lev. 27:10, Ezr.
ALTHOUGH, notwithstanding, Exod.
13:17; Mark 14:29.
ALTOGETHER, in all respects, Num.
ALWAYS, perpetually, Deut. 5:29. AM'ALEK, [h], or OMELEK (a people
that licks up, or a people that harasses), a
grandson of Esau, Gen. 36:12.
AMALEK, or AMALEKITES, a very
ancient people, supposed to have de-
scended from Ham, Gen. 14:7; Num.
24:20; but especially the posterity of
Esau's grandson: they were powerful in
Arabia, and cherishing the hatred of Esau
against Jacob, they endeavored to cut
off Israel in the desert, but they were
defeated by Joshua, Exod. 17:8-16.
For this wickedness God doomed them
to be extirpated, Num. 24:20; 1 Sam.
AMA'SA, [h], or OMESHA (a forgiving
people, or the burden of the people), a nephew
of David, son of his sister Abigail: he
was made general by his cousin Absalom,
whom he joined in the rebellion, 2 Sam.
17:25; he was pardoned and promoted
by David, 19:13; but murdered by
AMAS'AI, [h], or OMESHI (the present
of the people), the chief of the captains of
Judah and Benjamin, who joined David
during the life of Saul, 1 Chron. 12:16-
18. Some commentators have supposed
him to have been the Levite, son of
AMAZED, astonished, Job 32:15;
AMAZEMENT, astonishment, Acts 3:
10: horror, 1 Pet. 3:6.
AMAZI'AH, [h] (the strength of the
Lord), the eighth king of Judah; his reign
was eventful, and his calamities many,
as his heart was not perfect with God,
2 Kings 14:1-20; 2 Chron. 25:1-28.
AMAZIAH, an idolatrous priest of
Bethel of great influence under king
Jeroboam II., Amos 7:10-17.
AMBASSADOR, a messenger of a king,
or sovereign state, to another king or
state, 2 Chron. 32:31. The apostles
were ambassadors of the King Messiah,
offering by proclamation the blessings of
pardon and eternal life to rebellious
sinners against God, 2 Cor. 5:20.
AMBASSAGE, a message from a king or
state; including the public messenger
and his communication, Luke 14:32.
AMBER, Heb. CHASMAL, a yellow semi-
transparent hard bitumen: it is found in
many parts, especially in Germany; but
that mentioned in Scripture is thought
to have been a metal, a mixture of silver
and copper, Ezek. 1:4, 27; 8:2
AMBUSH, a party of soldiers, concealed
to surprise an enemy, Josh. 8:2.
AMBUSHMENT, a party prepared to
fall on an enemy by surprise, 2 Chron.
A'MEN', אמן, Gr. Αμην, true, certain,
faithful, so be it, 1 Kings 1:36; Matt. 6:
13: it is rendered verily in John 3:3-5;
10:1; and is used to denote the certainty
of a thing, 2 Cor. 1:20. Christ is called
"the Amen, the faithful and true wit-
ness" of God's mercy to mankind, as
revealed in the gospel, Rev. 3:14.
AMEND, to correct, or reform, Jer. 7:
3: to recover health, John 4:52.
AMENDS, full reparation for injury
done, Lev. 5:16.
AMERCE, to punish with a fine or
penalty, Deut. 22:19.
AMETHYST, a precious stone, of a
purple or violet colour, though some are
nearly colourless, Exod. 28:19; Ezek.
27:16; Rev. 21:12. This gem is
found chiefly in the East, in Spain, Ger-
many and Russia.
AMIABLE, lovely, attractive, or delight-
ful, Psal. 84:1.
AMISS, faultily, criminally, Dan. 3:
29; Luke 23:41.
AM'MI, [h] (my people), a name given
to Israel to indicate God's mercy to the
people, and their final restoration, Hos.
AMMIN'ADAB, [h] (my people is liberal,
or prince of my people), father of Elisheba,
wife of Aaron, Exod. 6:23.
AM'MON, [h] (son of my people), a name
of Ben-ammi, the son of Lot's younger
daughter by her father, Gen. 19:38.
AMMON, or AMMONITES, descendants
of Benammi: they dwelt on the east of
Jordan, where it formed the sea of
Sodom, Gen. 19:30-38; Deut. 2:19-22.
The Ammonites were enemies of the
Israelites, Judg. 10:11; 11:4-35; 1 Sam.
11:11; and they were exceeding cor-
rupt and guilty, worshipping the idol
Molech, 1 Kings 11:7, 33; Zeph. 2:9.
AM'NON, [h] (faithful), the eldest son
of David, 1 Chron. 3:1: his base cruelty
to his sister Tamar procured his own
murder, and occasioned dreadful guilt to
his brother, and much calamity in the
whole nation, 1 Sam. 13.
A'MON, [h] (faithful), as Amnon, a king
of Judah, son of Manasseh, and father of
Josiah: he was a wicked man, and his
crimes provoked his own servants to
murder him, 2 Kings 21:18-26.
AMONG, mingled with others, Jer. 5:
26: in the midst, Num. 14:14.
AM'ORITES, [h], AMORI (rebels or bab-
blers), a tribe of Canaanites, all of whom
are sometimes comprehended under this
name, Gen. 10:16; 15:16: they dwelt
around the south of the sea of Sodom,
Num. 13:29; 21:21, 30: they were
idolaters, a corrupt people, doomed to
extirpation on account of their abomina-
tions, Deut. 20:17; Judg. 11:23.
A'MOS, [h], or OMOS (loading, or
weighty), a prophet of Israel, originally a
herdsman of Tekoah, Amos 1:1; 7:14.
He flourished with Hosea.
A'MOS (the Book): this book was de-
signed to reclaim the Israelites from
idolatry, denouncing the Divine judg-
ments upon them and the surrounding
nations, on account of their iniquities,
calling to repentance with evangelical
promises: the style of Amos is regarded
as rural, but beautiful.
A'MOS, father of Mattathias in the
genealogy of Christ, Luke 3:25.
A'MOZ, [h] (strong, or robust), the father
of the prophet Isaiah: he is believed to
have been a son of king Joash, and
brother of king Amaziah, 2 Kings 19:
2-20; Isa. 1:1. See ISAIAH.
AMPHIP'OLIS, [g] (a city encom-
passed), a city of Macedonia between
Philippi and Thessalonica, Acts 17:1.
It is now called Emboli by the Turks.
AM'PLIAS, [g] (large, or extensive), a
Christian of note at Rome, Rom. 16:8;
some say that he was one of the seventy dis-
ciples, and at length bishop [pastor] of the Christian
church at Odyssopolis in Mœsia.
AM'RAM, [h] (exalted people), a Levite
in Egypt, father of Aaron, Miriam, and
Moses, Exod. 6:20.
AM'RAPHEL, [h] (one that speaks
hidden things), the ancient king of Shinar,
conquered by Abraham in recovering his
nephew Lot, Gen. 14:17.
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