Bible Dictionary: E. 1840
- EACH, either of two, Gen. 34:25;
Isa. 6:2: every one of many, Judg. 21:
22; Acts 2:3.
- EAGLE, the chief of the birds of prey,
including the vulture, hawk, kite, &c.:
it is regarded as the king of birds, on
account of its power, rapidity, and eleva-
tion of flight, and the terror it inspires
into its fellows of the air. Its strength,
Exod. 19:4, voracity, Matt. 24:28;
and regard for its young, Deut. 28:
, have served as the occasion of many
striking illustrations by the sacred wri-
ters. The eagle moults yearly, becoming
almost bald, and then renews the vigour
of its youth with a new set of feathers,
Psal. 103:5. The eagle of Scripture is
supposed in most cases to signify the
bearded vulture (vultur gryphus) shown
in our cut, and still common in Egypt and
- EAR, the organ of hearing, Exod. 21:
6; Rev. 2:7. Frequent allusions are
made to the ear by the sacred penmen,
in calling attention to their messages,
and in securing obedience to the will of
God, Rev. 2:11, 17, 19; Jer. 7:24.
God inclines His ear, when He regards
and answers our prayers, Psal. 116:1, 2.
- EAR, the spike or head of corn on the
stalk enclosing the grain, Exod. 9:31;
- EAR, to plough, sow, or plant the
ground, 1 Sam. 8:12.
- EARED, ploughed or prepared for seed,
- EARING, the season of ploughing the
ground and sowing the corn, Gen. 45:6.
- EARLY, soon in the morning, Gen. 19:
2: in the season of youth, Prov. 8:17.
- EARN, to gain, as wages for work or
labour, Hag. 1:6.
- EARNEST, part of the whole possession
to be enjoyed at a future time, Eph. 1:
14. The first fruits of the Spirit in the
graces of a Christian, are, the earnest of
the happiness and glory of heaven, and
the preparation for its enjoyment, 2 Cor.
1:22; 5:5; Gal. 5:22.
- EARNEST, eager, fervent, or diligent,
Heb. 2:1, 2; 2 Cor. 7:7.
- EARNESTLY, zealously or eagerly, Num.
22:37; 1 Cor. 12:31.
- EAR-RING, a ring of gold or silver, in
some cases set with precious stones, to
be worn in the ear, Gen. 24:22; 35:
4; Judg. 8:24; Hos. 2:13. Various
forms and patterns of this jewel were
worn at different times by the nations
around Palestine: our cut represents
those of Egypt, as probably resembling
those referred to in Scripture.
- EARTH, the globe of this world, Gen.
1:1: the dry land, ver. 10: part of the
globe, as a country or province, Psal.
48:2; Jer. 51:7, 25: the inhabitants
of the earth, Gen. 6:11; 11:9: a debased
condition, Rev. 12:13: merely human
or earthly policy, John 7:31.
- EARTHEN, made of earth or of clay,
Lev. 6:28; Jer. 19:1.
- EARTHLY, belonging to the policy of
this world, John 3:12; Jam. 3:15.
- EARTHY, originally made of earth,
mortal, 1 Cor. 15:47-49.
- EARTHQUAKE, a trembling, shaking,
or convulsion of the earth, 1 Kings 19:
11, 12. Earthquakes have sometimes
been miraculous, Matt. 27:54; 28:
2. National or ecclesiastical convulsions
are foretold under the impressive idea of
earthquakes, Rev. :12; 16:18.
- EASE, quiet, rest, Deut. 28:65: in-
dolent repose, Luke 12:19.
- EASE, to relieve from pain or labour,
Job 7:13; or from enemies, Isa. 1:24.
- EASED, relieved, as from pain, Job
16:6; or from expense, 2 Cor. 8:13.
- EASIER, more easy or less burdensome,
Exod. 18:22: less difficult, Matt. 19:
24; Luke 16:17.
- EASILY, quickly, 1 Cor. 13:5: with-
out difficulty, Heb. 12:1.
- EAST, towards the point of the heavens
in which the sun rises. Arabia, Assyria,
Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Persia, and other
countries, lay eastward of the country of
Canaan; and Balaam, Cyrus, and the
wise men, were said, therefore, to have
come out of the east, Num. 23:7; Isa.
46:11; Matt. 2:1, 2.
- EASTER: this word occurs only once,
Acts 12:4: it is [suitably] so rendered
from Eostre, a Saxon idol goddess, whose
festival was held in April: the Greek
word properly means passover, which is
its translation in all other places of the
New Testament. See ASTAROTH.
- Easter. "after Easter" refers to king Herod's intention towards Peter.
- EASTWARD, towards the east or sun-
rising, Gen. 13:14.
- EASY, not difficult, Prov. 14:6: plain,
1 Cor. 14:9: affording peace, Matt. 11:37.
- EAT, to take as food, Gen. 2:16; Acts
11:3; 2 Kings 6:28: to devour, Exod.
10:5: to consume, Job 31:8.
- EATER, he who eats, Isa. 55:10: a
devourer, Judg. 14:14.
- EATING, taking food, 1 Kings 1:41;
1 Cor. 8:4. The mode of eating among
the Jews is still common in eastern
nations; the guests reclined on couches
or mattresses, resting on the left elbow,
using only the right hand. This con-
sidered, will render the scene described,
Luke 8:36-50, intelligible and interest-
ing, showing how one of the guests could
repose his head on the bosom of another,
John 13:23. Women were never pre-
sent as guests at the meals of the Jews.
Several passages in the New Testament
may be strikingly illustrated by a refer-
ence to the present mode of eating in the
East. In Syria the guests use their
fingers, without knife, spoon, or plate,
which are allowed to foreigners as a pe-
culiar privilege. The bread, which is
very thin, is dipped in the soup; and it
there is a very dainty morsel at table, the
master of the house takes it in his fingers,
and presents it to the mouth of his guest.
We presume, that Judas was so near to
our Lord, as to use the same dish, Matt.
26:23; and that, according to the
custom described, he received the sop
from our Lord's hand, John 13:26-27.
How far the table posture of the ancients
was different from the manner of Euro-
peans, may be understood in a tolerable
degree from our two engravings.
- E'BAL, [h] (a heap), a barren hill of
Samaria, separated from the fertile hill
Gerizim by a narrow valley of about
200 paces wide: on these two hills, 700
feet high, the Israelites were commanded
to assemble, to pronounce blessings on
obedience to the laws of God, and curses
on disobedience. Blessings were to sound
from the delightful Gerizim, and curses
from barren Ebal, Deut. 27:5. Joshua,
with the Israelites, obeyed this command
of Moses, Josh. 8:30-33.
- EBED'-MELECH, [h] (servant of the
king), a pious Ethiopian, and officer of
king Zedekiah, who humanely delivered
and relieved the persecuted prophet
Jeremiah, Jer. 38:7-13; 39:16-
- EBEN-E'ZER, [h] (the stone of help),
the name of a field, as taken from the
stone set up by Samuel, for a memorial
of the overthrow of the Philistines, by
the Divine interposition delivering the
Israelites after they had been defeated
in the same place, when their enemies
had captured the ark of God, 1 Sam. 4:
1, 22; 7:12.
- E'BER, [h] (one that passes a passenger),
a great-grandson of Shem, the son of
Noah, Gen. 10:21-25. See HEBER.
- ECCLESIAS'TES, [h], Koheleth, (a
preacher), the title given to the Book of
Ecclesiastes, on account of its having
been written by Solomon in that cha-
racter, after his repentance and recovery
from backsliding and idolatry. In the
former part he testifies the vanity of all
worldly possessions as a satisfying por-
tion to an intelligent mind; in the latter
he urges the fear of God and practical
religion, as the only way to happiness in
time, and the only means to security for
the judgment day and eternity.
- E'DEN, [h] (pleasure or delight), the
country in which God Himself planted
a garden, to be the delightful residence
of Adam and Eve, Gen. 2:8-15. This
country is believed to have been situated
on the banks of the river Euphrates,
near the Persian gulf, and it is still said
to be by travellers the richest in soil of
any part of the Turkish empire, 2 Kings
19:12; Ezek. 28:13.
- EDGE, the sharp blade of a cutting
instrument, Eccles. 10:10; especially the
cutting part of a sword, Exod. 17:13:
the border, as of a curtain, 26:10, or
of a country, 13:20.
- EDGED, sharp, as some swords with
two edges, Jude 3:16; Rev. 1:16.
- EDIFICATION, instruction, 1 Cor. 14:
3: improvement in holiness, Rom. 15:2.
- EDIFIED, instructed and established
in the belief of Divine truth, Acts 9:31.
- EDIFYING, edification by doctrine, 1
Cor. 14:5, 12: improvement in holiness,
- EDIFYING, instructing or improving,
- E'DOM, [h] (red), a name given to
Esau, because of his being refreshed by
Jacob's red soup, for which he sold the
privilege of his birthright, Gen. 25:30;
36:1. See ESAU.
- EDOM, the country of the descendants
of Esau, Gen. 36:1, 8, 17, 31: it was
part of Arabia, lying south and south-
east of Judea, around the eastern or
Elanitic gulf of the Red sea: its princi-
pal known cities were, Teman, Bozrah,
Elath, and Eziongeber, the latter of
which was a port of the Red sea, Num.
20:14, 21. Edom is called Idumea, Isa.
34:5. See IDUMEA.
- EDOMITES, the people of Edom, de-
scendants of Esau, Gen. 36:9; Deut.
23:7. Though descended from Abra-
ham and Isaac, the Edomites were ene-
mies of the Israelites, Num. 20:14-21;
Psal. 137:7; but they were made
tributary to David, 2 Sam. 8:14: they
again became independent, 2 Chron. 21:
8-10; but on account of their wickedness,
their country was devastated; and it
now lies a vast field of ruins and deserts,
as described by the prophets of God, Jer.
49:13, 16, 18; Joel 3:19.
- ED'REI, [h] (a very great mass or
cloud), a chief city of Og, king of Bashan,
Deut. 1:4; Josh. 13:31.
- EFFECT, force, Matt. 15:6; Rom. 4:
14: influence, Isa. 22:17.
- EFFECT, to produce or cause, Jer.
- EFFECTED, accomplished or completed,
2 Chron. 7:11.
- EFFECTUAL, having [great] energy,
Eph. 3:7; 4:16; 1 Thess. 2:13.
- EFFECTUALLY, efficaciously or com-
pletely, Gal. 2:8; 1 Thess. 2:13.
- EFFEMINATE, womanish, voluptuous,
excessively tender, 1 Cor. 6:9.
- Effeminate. See Tract.
- EGG, that which is laid by feathered
animals, from which their young is pro-
duced, Deut. 22:6; Job 39:14; some
insects and serpents also propagated by
laying eggs, Isa 59:5.
- EG'LON, [h] (heifer or chariot), a king
of Moab, who for eighteen years op-
pressed Israel, but was slain by the judge
Ehud, Judg. 12:17.
- E'GYPT, [h] Mitzraim (that binds
or troubles), an ancient country of Africa,
peopled by Mizraim, a son of Ham, the
son of Noah, from whom it received its
name; and the Arabs still call it Mesr.
Egypt is about 600 miles long, and from
100 to 300 broad: it lies at the north-
east corner of Africa, bounded on the
north by the Mediterranean sea, on the
east by the isthmus of Suez and the Red
sea, which divide it from Asia, on the
south by Abyssinia, and on the west by
Libya. A correct idea of the geography
of Egypt may be best obtained from our
map. Egypt was divided into two dis-
tricts, Upper Egypt, or Thebais, and
Lower Egypt, or the Delta. The river
Nile, running through the whole length
of the land, from north to south, abounds
with fish, crocodiles, and hippopotami;
and, by its annual overflowings, the
country became one of the most fruitful
in the world, so that its majestic waters
formed the glory of the king of Egypt,
Ezek. 29:3-5. Egypt was, at an early
period, famous above every other country,
for its progress in the arts and sciences,
Acts 7:22; 1 Kings 4:29, 30, attract-
ing thither the most celebrated philo-
sophers and historians of Greece, to
complete their studies. Pythagoras,
Herodotus, Plato, and many others,
sought instruction in Egypt, among its
celebrated sages; yet idolatry was car-
ried to such a height, by the wisest
instructors of that country, that the
Egyptians made gods for their religious
worship, not only of the sun and moon,
but of their various beasts, oxen, sheep,
goats, and cats, and even of leeks, onions,
and diseases, and of monsters having no
existence, except in their own disordered
imaginations. Divine prophecy has been
strikingly illustrated in the history of
Egypt, Ezek. 29:8-15; 30:10-13.
Nebuchadnezzar conquered it, as fore-
told by the prophet; then it became
subject to Persia; and in succession to
the Greeks, Romans, Saracens, Mama-
luke-slaves, and Turks. Napolean Bona-
parte conquered it in 1798, in the hope
of acquiring India; but the French were
expelled by the British, who delivered
it up to the Turks, against whom it is
now in a state of rebellion. It has,
therefore, had no prince of its own; and
it has been "the basest of kingdoms:"
the decrees of heaven have been accom-
plished, and they will yet be fulfilled, in
the triumphs of Christianity, Isa. 11:9-16.
Egypt still abounds with vast monuments
of its former grandeur: the ruins of
its ancient cities and temples attest its
magnificence, riches, and populousness.
The tombs of its kings, the stupendous
pyramids alone, evince these things: the
largest of three of them, situated a few
leagues from Cairo, the site of the cele-
brated Memphis, according to the recent
measurement of a French engineer, forms
a square, each side of whose base is 746
feet, covering more than thirteen acres
of land: the perpendicular height of it
is 546 feet; and it contains 6,000,000 of
tons of stone, sufficient to build a wall
ten feet high, and one foot thick, 1800
miles in length! These prodigious monu-
ments of the ancient glory of Egypt, at
once confirm and illustrate the truth and
divinity of the Holy Scriptures.
- Egyptian. See Coptic Ministry.
- E'HUD, [h] (he that praises), a judge of
Israel, who delivered his country from
its oppression under the Moabites, Judg.
- EIGHT, a number of twice four, Gen.
- EIGHTEENTH, the next in order to
the seventeenth, 1 Kings 15:1.
- EITHER, each, Num. 10:1: one or the
other, Gen. 31:24: or, Luke 6:42;
15:8: both, Rev. 22:2.
- EK'RON, [h] (barreness), a chief city
of the Philistines, celebrated as the seat
of their idol divinity Baalzebub, 2 Kings
1:2; 1 Sam. 7:14.
- El, אל. Gen. 14:18. See ELOHIM.
- El - The Strong One
This short title (from which some
scholars assert Elohim is derived) is the
most primitive Semitic name; and its
root meaning is probably "to be strong."--HL, p. 7.
- E'LAH, אלה (an oak, or a curse), a king
of Israel, murdered by one of the generals
of his army, 1 Kings 16:8-14.
- ELAH, the place at, or near to which,
David slew the giant Goliath, 1 Sam.
- E'LAM, עילם (a young man, or a virgin),
a son of Shem, the son of Noah, believed
to have been the founder of a province
in the Persian empire, Gen. 10:22.
- ELAM, a province in the kingdom of
Persia, Dan. 7. 8.
- ELAM, the name of two who returned,
or their descendants, from captivity in
Babylon, Ezra 2:7, 31.
- ELAMITES, the natives of the province
of Elam, Ezra 4:9; Acts 2:9.
- E'LATH, [h] (a hind, strength, or an oak),
a town on the eastern gulf of the Red
sea, Deut. 2:8. See EZION-GABER.
- EL-BETH'EL, [h] אל (God of Bethel),
Jacob's altar at Bethel, Gen. 35:7.
- EL'DAD, אלדד (loved of God): Eldad and
Medad were two of the registered elders
of Israel, who modestly declined the
destined honour, but who yet were in-
spired to prophesy among the people in
the camp, Num. 11:26.
- ELDER, a senior or church officer, as
bishop [pastor] or deacon, 1 Tim. 5:1, 19.
- ELDER, older, as a senior brother or
sister, 1 Sam. 18:17; 1 Kings 2:22.
- ELDERS: among the Israelites, they
were the heads of the chief families,
reputed for experience and wisdom,
Exod. 3:16: six were chosen out of
each tribe, who, with Moses and Aaron,
made seventy-two senators, 24:1; Deut.
31:28: they were the chief rulers and
judges of the people, Num. 11:25. Such
were chosen for the government of the
several cities and towns, 2 Kings 10:1;
Ezra 10:14. The elders of the people
were the expounders of the law of Moses,
- ELDERS, officers in Christian churches:
thus the apostles and officers of the
church at Jerusalem are so called, Acts
15:4, 6, 23; 16:4; 1 Pet. 5:1: bishops
were elders, 20:17, 28, the two words
being used interchangeably by the sacred
writers. Pastors, as bishops, and deacons
also, are thus called, as men of approved
experience and spiritual gifts, Tit. 1:5;
Acts 6:3; Jam. 5:14. See BISHOP.
- ELDEST, the oldest, Gen. 24:2; Job
- ELEA'LEH, אלעלא (ascension of God),
a city erected by the Reubenites, Num.
- ELEA'ZAR, אלעזר (the help of God), the
son and successor of Aaron, as high-priest
of Israel, Exod. 6:25; 28:1
- ELEAZAR, a son of Aminadab, a Levite,
to whose care the ark of God was com-
mitted when returned by the Philistines,
1 Sam. 7:1.
- ELEAZAR, one of the mighty captains
of king David, 2 Sam. 23:9-16; 1
- ELECT or ELECTA, a Christian lady of
eminent piety, to whom John wrote his
second inspired epistle, 2 John.
- ELECT, chosen, Ma[rk] 13:20. Christ
was the elect Mediator between God
and man, Isa. 42:1: the Israelites were
the elect nation, whom God chose to be
the keepers of His oracles, to observe His
ordinances, and to enjoy the blessings
of his covenant, Isa. 45:4; Deut. 8:
6, 7: true believers are the elect people
of God, chosen in Christ to salvation,
through sanctification and obedience, to
practise holiness on earth, and to enjoy
glory in Heaven, Eph. 1:4; 2 Thess. 2:13;
2 Tim. 2:10. Angels who have main-
tained their integrity in holy obedience
to God are called elect angels, 1 Tim. 5:
21. See CHOOSE, CHOSEN.
- ELECTED, chosen, 1 Pet. 5:13. See
- ELECTION, the gracious act of God in
choosing [repentant] sinners to salvation by Jesus
Christ, Rom. 11:5; 1 Thess. 1:4. The
evidence of personal election is conse-
cration of heart and life to the service
and glory of God, in a state of [general]
holiness in conformity and active obedi-
ence to His revealed will, 2 Pet. 1:5-11.
- Election. See List.
- ELEMENTS, the various kinds of
matter of which the universe was
formed, 2 Pet. 3:10: religious cere-
monies, especially those of the Israelites
established by Moses, Gal. 4:3, 9.
- Elements. See Creation.
- ELEVEN, ten and one, Gen. 32:22;
37:9; Acts 1:26.
- ELEVENTH, the next in order after
the tenth, 1 Kings 6:38; Matt. 20:6.
- ELHA'NAN, אלחנן (the grace of God), one
of the mighty captains of king David,
2 Sam. 21:19.
- E'LI, עלי (my God), a judge and high-
priest of Israel, of the family of Ithamar,
according to Josephus, 1 Chron. 4:3:
he was an upright man, but his sons,
Hophni and Phinesas, were extremely
wicked, though their father suffered
them to officiate as priests, 1 Sam. 1:3;
2:12-17. Eli was faulty in being thus
indulgent to his sons, whose evil doings
he ought, as judge especially, to have
restrained or punished: he was there-
fore threatened by means of Samuel;
and about twenty years after Hophni
and Phinehas were slain by the Philis-
tines, when the ark of God was captured,
on hearing of which their father fell down
and died, aged ninety-eight years, 4:11-18.
- ELI'AB, אליאב (God my father), the elder
brother of David, 1 Sam. 17:28.
- ELIAB, a brave man in the army of
David, 1 Chron. 12:9, or ELIAHBA,
2 Sam. 23:32.
- ELI'AKIM, אליקים (God of the resurrec-
tion), the treasurer to king Hezekiah,
- ELIAKIM, a king of Judah, surnamed
Jehoiakim, and successor of his brother
Jehoahaz, 2 Kings 23:34, 35.
- ELI'AS, Ήλιας, the Greek name of
Elijah, Matt. 11:14; 17:12. See
- ELI'ASHIB, אלישיב (God of conversion),
a high-priest of the Jews after their
return from captivity in Babylon, Neh.
- ELIE'ZER, אליעזר (God is my help), the
steward of Abraham, a native of Da-
mascus: his integrity and piety are
finely illustrated in the manner of his
executing his commission to procure a
wife for Isaac, Gen. 15:2; 24.
- ELIEZER, a son of Moses, born in
Midian, of his wife Zipporah, Exod. 4:
- ELIEZER, son of Dodavah, a prophet
who reproved king Jehoshaphat for his
alliance with the wicked king Ahaziah,
2 Chron. 20:35-37.
- ELI'HU, אליהוא (he is my God himself),
the youngest of the four friends of Job,
but the most eminent for wisdom: he
was a kind of moderator in the dispute
between Job and his other friends, vindi-
cating the dispensation of God as wise
and righteous, even in the afflictions of
good men. Elihu is believed to have
been a descendant of Nahor, the brother
of Abraham, Job 32:2; Gen. 11:26;
- ELI'JAH, אליהו (God the Lord), called
Elias in the New Testament, one of the
most illustrious of the Hebrew prophets,
and the great reformer [revival] of religion in
Israel, when the bulk of the nation had
fallen into idolatry. The whole history
of his public ministry is instructive, but
especially his contest with the prophets
of Baal, 1 Kings 18:19-43; his reproof
of king Ahab for the murder of Naboth,
21:17-24; and his translation to heaven
without dying by the favour and power
of God, 2 Kings 2:1-12.
- ELIJAH, John the Baptist, the herald
prophet of Messiah, as predicted by
Malachi: John came "in the spirit and
power of Elijah," declaring the truth of
God before a corrupt people, and there-
fore his ministry was foretold as that of
the ancient courageous prophet, Mal. 4:
5; Luke 1:17; Matt. 11:14.
- E'LIM, אילם (the rams), a place east of
the Red sea, in Arabia, Exod. 16:1.
- ELIM'ELECH, אלימלך (my God is king),
the father-in-law of Ruth, Ruth 1:2; 2:1.
- ELI'PHAZ, אליפז (the endeavour of God),
a son of Esau, Gen. 35:10.
- ELIPHAZ, the senior friend of Job;
and, being a Temanite, supposed by
many to have been a descendant of
Esau, whose son Teman is thought to
have given name to a province in Arabia,
- ELIZ'ABETH, Έλισαβετ (God hath sworn),
the wife of Zacharias, and mother of
John the Baptist. She was a person of
[great] piety; and the extraordinary
circumstances connected with the birth
of John, and the [link] of Elizabeth
with the virgin Mary, require special
consideration, Luke 1.
- ELISHE'BA, אלשבע, the same as Eliza-
beth, the wife of Aaron, and mother of
Nadab, Abihu, Eleazer, and Ithamar,
- ELISE'US, Έλισσαος, the name of Elisha,
rendered from the Greek, Luke 4:27.
- ELI'SHA, אלישע (salvation of God), the
disciple and follower of Elijah, and his
successor as extraordinary prophet of
Jehovah to Israel: his miracles proved
his commission as a messenger of God,
1 Kings 19:16-19; 2 Kings 2.; 13:20.
- EL'KANAH, אלקנה (God the jealous), the
husband of Hannah, and father of the
prophet Samuel, 1 Sam. 1:1.
- EL'NATHAN, אלנחן (God has given), a
nobleman of Jerusalem, father-in-law of
king Jehoiakim, 2 Kings 24:8; Jer.
- ELOHIM, אלהים, the one true God. Gen. 1:1. See GOD.
- Elohim - Plurality in Unity
In over 2,300 of these references the
term is applied to God.--HL, p. 5.
him, "the title of the Creator and Ruler
of the world, as such, and indicating the
power and majesty of that Being to
whom every creature owes his existence,
his daily life, and his habitation," p. 93.
Elohim - the One worshipped and
adored, p. 191.
- El Elyon - God Most High--HL, p. 9. Gen. 14:18-22.
- El-Elohe-Israel - God of Israel--HL, p. 11. Gen. 33:20.
- El Olam - God of Eternity--HL, p. 11. Gen. 20:13.
- El-Roi, The Lord That Seeth--HL, p. 10. Gen. 16:13, 14.
- El Shaddai - The Almighty, All-Sufficient God--HL, p. 12. Gen. 17:1.
- Elah, Eloah - The Adorable One--HL, p. 8. Ezra 4:24. Deu. 32:15-17.
- E'LON, [h] (oak or grove), a judge of
Israel, Judg. 12:11, 12.
- ELOQUENT, having the faculty of
speaking fluently, forcibly, and agree-
ably, Exod. 4:10; Acts 18:24.
- ELSE, otherwise, Gen. 30:1; John
14:11; Rev. 2:5.
- E'LUL, [h] (outcry), a Hebrew month,
- EL'YMAS, [g] (a magician), a sorcerer
at Paphos in the isle of Cyprus, an apos-
tate Jew, Acts 13:6.
- EMBALM, to preserve the bodies of
the dead by astringent drugs and odori-
ferous spices, chiefly practised by the
Egyptians, Gen. 50:2, 3, 26. Embalming
among the wealthy was effected thus :--
The dissector, having made an incisionJacob and
in the side, drew out the intestines,
except the heart and kidneys, and the
brain was drawn through the nostrils
with a hooked iron. The body was then
washed with palm-wine, anointed with
oil of cedar, and filled with drugs and
spices for thirty days, by which means
it was preserved from putrefaction, and
without losing its hair: it was then laid
in salt for forty days; and, being taken
out, it was washed, wrapped round with
cloth bandages, sometimes of above 1000
yards, dipped in myrrh, and rubbed with
a gum peculiar to Egypt, when it was
restored to the family, who placed it in
a coffin made suitable to the rank and
condition of the dead person, a figure of
the deceased being carved on the out-
side, with corresponding embellishments
and paintings. The cost of embalming
was according to the manner in which
it was done; the most expensive mode
was about £300; some cost only about
£100: but the ordinary custom with the
poor was the injection of an astringent
liquor into the body, and laying it in
nitre for seventy days, which was done
at a comparatively small expense. Mum-
mies, as these preserved bodies are
called, have been kept for a long period;
and several brought from Egypt, that
have been recently opened in England
and France, are supposed to have been
more than 2000 years old!
Joseph are believed to have been thus
embalmed, Gen. 50:2, 26. King Asa
appears to have been embalmed, 2 Chron.
16:13, 14; and preparations were made
for an expensive embalming of the body
of Christ, Mark 16:1; John 19:39.
Our engraving will convey a correct idea
of the mode of embalming in Egypt, and
the figures will be found good resem-
blances of cased mummies, many of which
are to be seen in the British Museum.
- EMBALMED, did embalm the body,
Gen. 50:2, 26.
- EMBOLDEN, to make bold, Job 16:3.
- EMBOLDENED, made bold or daring,
1 Cor. 8:10.
- EMBRACE, to fold within the arms, as
an infant, 2 Kings 4:16. To embrace
the rock, is to take shelter in a cave,
Job 24:8: to embrace dunghills, is to
seek lodgings in the meanest stall for
beasts, Lam. 4:5: to embrace wisdom,
is to receive the doctrine of God into the
heart, Prov. 4:8.
- EMBRACED, did embrace, or infold
affectionately within the arms, Gen. 29:
13; 48:10: did cordially receive, as
the promises of life and salvation by
Christ, Heb. 11:13.
- EMBRACING, infolding in the arms
affectionately, Eccles. 3:5; Acts 20:10.
- EMBROIDER, to work cloth in various
colours and figures with the needle, Exod.
- EMBROIDERER, one that decorates
clothes with needle-work, Exod. 35:
- EMERALD, a gem of a deep green
colour: it is seldom found larger than a
pea, and clear ones are very rare and
precious: those of the East Indies are
esteemed the most beautiful of all the
gems. This stone was the fourth in the
sacred breastplate of Aaron, Exod.
28:18; Rev. 4:3.
- EMERODS, bloody tumors, the piles,
Deut. 28:27; 1 Sam. 5:6; 6:4, 5.
- E'MIMS, [h] (fear of terrors), native
tribes of the north-eastern Canaanites
in the time of Abraham, Gen. 14:5.
- EMINENT, elevated or distinguished,
- EMMAN'UEL, ΈΜΜΑΝΟΥΗΛ (God with
us), a title of our Saviour, indicating the
mystery and reality of His incarnation, as
"God was manifest in the flesh" to be capable
of suffering as our Redeemer, Isa. 7:14;
8:8; Matt. 1:23; 1 Tim. 3:16.
- EM'MAUS, [g] (people despised), a
village about seven miles from Jeru-
salem, Luke 24:13.
- EM'MOR, [g], or Hamor (an ass), a
prince of Shechem, Acts 7:16; Gen.
- EMPIRE, a dominion including several
countries or kingdoms, Est. 1:20.
- EMPLOY, to work or use, Deut. 20:19.
- EMPLOYED, occupied, as at work or
in duty, 1 Chron. 9:33; Ezra 10:15.
- EMPLOYMENT, work or occupation,
- EMPTIED, did empty, as a filled
pitcher, Gen. 24:20; or a loaded
sack, 42:35; or a full chest, 2 Chron.
24:11: by pouring or lifting out their
- EMPTIERS, those who empty or make
void, as the soldiers or ravagers of a cap-
tured city, Nah. 2:2.
- EMPTINESS, void space: "the stones
of emptiness" indicate desolated build-
ings, Isa. 34:11.
- EMPTY, void or destitute, as a pit or
pitcher void of water, Gen. 37:24;
a person destitute of property or means
of support, 31:42; Deut. 15:13; or a
city of inhabitants, Nah. 2:10.
- EMPTY, to discharge or pour out the
things contained, as clouds pour out
their waters, Eccles. 11:3, and vessels
their oil, Zech. 4:12.
- EMULATION, endeavour to do more
than others, or to excel them in action,
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