Bible Dictionary: Rn.   1840

  1. ROAD, an incursion, 1 Sam. 27:10.
  2. ROAR, to make a loud noise, as the
    raging sea, Psal. 46:3: to cry as a
    furious lion or bear, Isa. 5:29; 59:11.
    "The LORD roars" in giving calamitous
    manifestations of his anger against wick-
    edness, Jer. 25:30; Joel 3:16.
  3. ROARED, did roar, as a lion, Judg. 14:
    5; as the sea, Isa. 51:15; as a person in
    great pain, Psal. 38:8.
  4. ROARING, a loud noise, as of the agi-
    tated sea, Isa. 5:30; or the cry of a lion,
    29: the sorrowful cries of one in deep
    distress, Psal. 31:3.
  5. ROARING, making a noise, as the sea,
    Luke 21:25; or as a lion, Prov. 28:
  6. ROAST, to dress meat for food at the
    fire without water, Isa. 44:16-19.
  7. ROASTED, dressed with fire, Exod. 12:
    8: killed by burning, Jer. 29:22.
  8. ROB, to steal or plunder, Lev. 19:13:
    to withhold what is due to the service
    of God, as the Jews withheld the pay-
    ment of tithes, which formed the living
    of the Levites, and the appointed offerings
    for sacrifices, Mal. 3:8, 9.
  9. ROBBED, did plunder, Judg. 9:25: did
    receive support or aid from, 2 Cor. 11:8.
  10. ROBBED, plundered, Isa. 42:22; Jer.
    50:37: deprived, Prov. 17:12.
  11. ROBBER, a plunderer, a thief, Job 5:5;
    Ezek. 18:10.
  12. ROBBERY, theft perpetrated by night
    or with force, Nah. 1:7: what is procured
    by plunder, Isa. 61:8.   Christ "thought
    it not robbery to be equal with God,"

    while He humbled Himself to death for
    our redemption, as in His Divine nature
    He was the Son of God, Phil. 2:6; John
  13. ROBE, a gown of state, denoting office
    or honour, as the priests' ephod, Exod.
    28:4, 34; or the upper garment of
    the king, 1 Sam. 24:4, 11.
  14. ROBE OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, the righte-
    ousness and grace of Christ, by which
    the saints are justified, Isa. 61:10; Phil.
    3:9; Rev. 19:8.   "[W]hite robes" of
    the blessed, indicate their holiness, hap-
    piness, and honour, in Heaven, Rev. 6:
    11; 7:9-14.
  15. ROCK, a vast mass of stone, as the
    famous rock of Horeb, Exod. 17:6.
    God, as the author and source of all
    blessings, is called the rock of the pious
    Deut. 32:4, 15, 31, 37.   Christ, as the
    only Saviour, the foundation of human
    hope, is represented as a rock to afford
    spiritual support and supplies to the [N. T.]
    , Rom. 9:33; 1 Cor. 10:4.
    • Rock, God in His Strength and Permanency--HL, p. 75.
      Isa. 26:4. Deu. 32:18.
  16. ROD, a long stick, Gen. 30:37; Exod.
    4:17; 21:20: an official staff or sceptre,
    Num. 17:2-8.   God's word, as consola-
    tory in affliction
    , Psal. 23:4; or as the
    means of threatening for correction
    , Isa.
    11:4: affliction, as the means of correc-
    tion, Psal. 89:32.
  17. RODE, did ride, Gen. 24:61; Judg.
  18. ROE, a beautiful species of deer or
    antelope, with small horns: it was ex-
    ceedingly swift of foot, 2 Sam. 2:18;
    1 Chron. 12:18, living, not in flocks,
    but families, and caught wild by nets,
    Prov. 6:5.   See HART.
  19. ROEBUCK, the male of the roe, Deut.
    12:15; 1 Kings 4:23.
  20. ROLL, a volume or book, Ezra 6:2;
    Isa. 8:1; Jer. 36:2-6.   Anciently
    books were of parchment rolled upon a
    stick, as the Hebrew Scriptures still are
    in synagogues of the Jews.   See BOOK.
    • Roll, the Hebrew Scriptures.
      See left picture at the top of this page.   See Ministry.
  21. ROLL, to move circularly, as a stone,
    Prov. 26:27; Gen. 29:3-10: to fold
    up, as garments, Isa. 9:5: to whirl, as
    the clouds driven by the wind, 34:4:
    to remove, humble, and degrade, as a
    wicked tyrant, Jer. 51:25.
  22. ROLLED, did roll, Gen. 29:3-10:
    did remove, Josh. 5:9.
  23. ROLLER, a bandage, as for a weak arm,
    Ezek. 30:21.
  24. ROLLING, revolving, moving, as a
    wheel, Isa. 17:13.
  25. ROMAMTI-E'ZER, [h] (exaltation
    or help), one of the sons of the musician
    Heman, 1 Chron. 25:4, 31.
  26. ROMAN, ΄Ρωμαιον, a native or free citi-
    zen of Rome, Acts 22:25, 29.   See
    • Romanian Bible, Română.   See Ministry.
  27. ROMANS, natives or free citizens of
    Rome, Acts 12:21, 37: soldiers or civil
    officers of Rome, 28:17: the power
    of the Roman government or army,
    John 11:48: Christians at Rome, Rom.
  28. ROMANS, EPISTLE TO THE.   Christian
    converts were numerous at Rome, in the
    days of the apostles, and some connected
    with the imperial palace.   Paul, having
    heard of their spiritual prosperity, wrote
    to them this epistle, to show that Jews
    and Gentiles were equally interested in
    the salvation of Christ, and equally the
    subjects of sovereign grace; it is esteemed
    therefore, the most comprehensive, full,
    and rich, in its exhibition of the gospel,
    of any book in the New Testament.
    After introducing the doctrine of the
    gospel as the great subject of the epistle,
    Paul proves from the corrupt state of the
    Gentiles, and then from the depraved
    condition of the Jews, their equal need
    of Christ as a Redeemer and Saviour
    ; he
    shows the perfect work of redemption
    by Christ, through which all believers
    are fully justified
    , and by the knowledge
    of which, through the grace of the Spirit,
    they are sanctified, so as to enjoy peace
    with God as His adopted children in the
    ways of holiness.   Various points of
    sacred doctrine are then illustrated, and
    Divine Providence, in its relation to the
    Jews, vindicated; and the latter part of
    the epistle is filled with exhortations to
    every necessary duty, moral, civil, and
    ecclesiastical, becoming the character of
    a Christian.   Every Christian should
    make himself familiar with the whole
    language and design of this epistle, as an
    acquaintance with it will be the most
    effectual means of his establishment in
    the belief and enjoyment of all doctrines
    of Christ.
  29. ROME, ΄Ρωμη (strength or power), a city
    of Italy; the most celebrated upon earth,
    and for several centuries the mistress of
    the world: it had been a station of the
    Etrurians, but it was founded by Romu-
    lus at the head of a banditti, in the reign
    of king Hezekiah, about A.M. 3251, and
    B.C. 753.   It gradually increased until it
    extended over seven hills, and ultimately
    to cover thirteen; and at the advent of
    Christ, its inhabitants were supposed to
    amount to about 2,000,000.   Christianity
    triumphed at Rome in the apostolic age,
    when a flourishing church was formed
    in that city, whose pastor was regarded
    with great respect by other churches, on
    account of the importance of his station,
    the metropolis of the world, and so near
    to the palace of the Cæsars.   And such
    was the enmity of the idolatrous priests
    against the gospel, that many of the early
    pastors of the Christian church at Rome
    suffered martyrdom for the faith of
    Christ.   Constantine, the emperor, about
    A.D. 313, professed his belief in Christi-
    anity, and afterwards showed his zeal,
    by building many churches, granting
    large honours to their ministers, especially
    dignifying the senior pastor at Rome.
    Multitudes now embraced the religion of
    the emperor; and ungodly men, for the
    sake of emolument, aspired to be its
    ministers: ceremonies were multiplied,
    to be performed by prayerless ministers,
    who thus daily corrupted its doctrines.
    removing the seat of his
    government to his new city, Constanti-
    nople, a path was opened for the ambition
    of the Roman bishop, who, by progressive
    steps, advanced to the predicted eleva-
    tion, on which he claimed to be the head
    of a hierarchy, as Pope or Father of the
    church on earth, and vicar of Christ
    but in the expressive language of apos-
    tolic prophecy--the MAN OF SIN, the
    2 Thess. 2:3-8; Rev. 13:1-18.   Rome
    has greatly declined from its former
    glory, having now only about 150,000
    inhabitants: but it abounds with vast
    monuments of its former grandeur.   St.
    Peter's cathedral, far larger than St.
    Paul's cathedral, London, is believed to
    be the most magnificent place of worship
    in the world; and the Vatican, or winter
    palace of the pope, is reckoned to con-
    tain 12,500 chambers, halls, and closets.
    Roman Catholics regard the pope or
    bishop of Rome, as the visible head of
    the whole [RC] church, and his deci-
    sions in religion as infallible
    : but every
    succeeding pope has been an enemy to
    the circulation of the Bible, scarcely
    anything of pure scriptural Christianity
    can be discovered among the mass of
    superstitions observed in public worship
    at Rome; and, as the consequence, the
    morals of the people are the grossest
    opprobrium to the name of Christ.
  30. ROOF, the covering of a house, Gen.
    19:8; Matt. 8:8.   Roofs of the houses
    in Palestine were generally flat, on which
    persons might walk, Josh. 2:6; 2 Sam.
    11:2; Neh. 8:16; the ascent to the roof
    was by a trap-door, Mark 2:4; or by
    steps on the outside, 13:15: the upper
    part of the mouth, Job 29:10.
  31. ROOM, an apartment, Gen. 6:14; Mark
    14:15: a seat at a table, Luke 14:8-10:
    accommodation, Gen. 24:23-25: con-
    venience, as a store-room, Luke 12:17;
    or a space of land, Gen. 26:22: or place
    of comfort, Psal. 31:8: stead or office,
    1 Kings 2:35; 5:1-5.
  32. ROOT, the bottom part of a tree or
    plant, which grows in the ground, Mark
    11:20.   By a figure of speech the chief,
    or distinguished founder of a family, is
    called a root: hence
    Messiah is called a
    "Branch" from "the stem" and "root of Jesse,"
    the father of David
    , Isa. 11:1-10; Ruth
    4:17-22.   Christ, by reason of His divinity
    and humanity, is both
    "the root and the
    offspring of David,"
    Rev. 22:16; Matt.
    22:42-45.   By "root and blossom,"
    parents and children are intended, Isa.
  33. ROOT, to dig or pull, so as to destroy,
    Matt. 13:29: to exterminate, 1 Kings
  34. ROOTED, firmly settled in mind, Eph.
    5:17; Col. 2:7.   Rooted out, is being
    exiled or destroyed, Deut. 29:28.
  35. ROPES, thick cords or strings, Judg.
    16:11; Acts 27:32.   To put ropes on
    their heads, is to show the utmost degra-
    dation, as if fearing execution, 1 Kings
  36. ROSE, a flower celebrated in Arabia,
    Persia, Greece, and Rome, for its elegance
    of form, glow of colour, and fragrance of
    smell, and called the queen of flowers.
    There are upwards of two hundred
    varieties of the rose, Isa. 35:1; Sol.
    Song 2:1.   Otto of roses is a very rich
    perfume of this flower from India.
  37. ROSE, did rise, Gen. 4:8; 19:1; 22:
    3; 1 Cor. 15:4-12.
  38. ROSH, [h] (head, toss, or beginning), a
    son of Benjamin, Gen. 46:21.
  39. ROT, to decay, as a tree, Isa. 40:20:
    to putrify, as with disease, Num. 5:21:
    to be abhorred, Prov. 10:7.
  40. ROTTEN, putrid, Joel 1:17: worn to
    decay, Jer. 38:11, 12: decayed, Job
  41. ROTTENESS, decay or putrefaction,
    Isa. 5:24: distressing pain, Hab. 3:16:
    grief of heart, Prov. 12:4; 14:30.
  42. ROVERS, marauders or banditti, 1
    Chron. 12:21.
  43. ROUGH, stony, thorny, or difficult, as a
    road, Deut. 21:4; Isa. 40:4: coarse, as
    cloth, Zech. 13:4, or the skin of a beast,
    Dan. 8:21: cold and piercing, as the
    wind, Isa. 27:8.
  44. ROUGHLY, harshly, Gen. 42:7; Prov.
    18:23: rudely, 1 Kings 12:13.
  45. ROUND, globular, Exod. 16:14: cir-
    cular, Isa. 3:18: in a circuit, Luke 19:
  46. ROUND, to shave round, Lev. 19:27.
  47. ROUNDABOUT, on every side, Exod.
  48. ROUSE, to wake from repose, Gen. 49:
  49. ROW, a line, a number of things ranged
    in a line, Exod. 28:17-19; Ezra 6:4.
  50. ROWED, impelled by oars, as a ship or
    boat, Jon. 1:13; John 6:19; Mark 6:48.
  51. ROWERS, seamen who labour with oars,
    Ezek. 27:26.
  52. ROWING, impelling a boat by means of
    oars, Mark 6:48.
  53. ROYAL, kingly, belonging to a king, as
    his children, 2 Kings 11:11; a city, Josh.
    10:2; 2 Sam. 12:26; treasure, 1 Kings 10:
    13: splendid, fit for a king, as apparel,
    Est. 5:1; 6:8; Acts 12:21: rich food,
    Gen. 49:20.   God's law is royal, as He
    is King of kings
    , Jam. 2:8.  
    Saints are a
    royal priesthood, as they serve God, to
    whom they are kings and priests, destined
    for the kingdom of Heaven, 1 Pet. 2:9.
  54. RUBBING, bruising, Luke 6:1.
  55. RUBBISH, ruins of buildings, Neh. 4:
  56. RUBIES, very precious gems, Prov. 3:
  57. RUBY, a very precious gem, of a red
    colour, Lam. 4:7; Job 28:18; Prov.
    3:15; 31:10.   A perfect ruby above
    3½ carats, or 14 grains in weight, exceeds
    in value a diamond of the same size: a
    large ruby is called carbuncle.
  58. RUDDER-BANDS: the rudder was the
    instrument of steering a ship at sea, and
    the bands were rope fastenings of it to
    the helm, Acts 27:40.
  59. RUDDY, reddish, as a bloom on the
    cheek, indicative of health, 1 Sam. 16:
    12; Sol. Song 5:10; Lam. 4:7.
  60. RUDE, artless or inelegant, 2 Cor. 11:6.
  61. RUDIMENTS, first elements, as the
    Jewish ceremonies, from which Christians
    were delivered by the perfect system of
    the gospel, Col. 2:8-20.
  62. RUE, a little herb, of great medicinal
    value, Luke 11:42.
  63. RU'FUS, ΄Ρουφος (red), a son of Simon
    the Cyrenian, Mark 15:21: he is thought
    to have been the Christian at Rome
    saluted by Paul, Rom. 16:13.
  64. RUIN, overthrow, Prov. 26:28: de-
    struction, Ezek. 18:30.
  65. RUINED, demolished, as buildings,
    Ezek. 36:35, 36.
  66. RUINOUS, fallen to ruin or heaps, 2
    Kings 19:25.
  67. RULE, the charge and direction, 1
    Kings 22:31: authority, Prov. 17:2:
    power, Est. 9:1: control, Prov. 25:28:
    pastoral superintendence, Heb. 13:7,
    17, 24: a builder's measure, Isa. 44:13:
    a law or precept, Gal. 6:16.
  68. RULE, to govern, Gen. 1:16-18.   God
    rules throughout the universe
    , Dan. 4:
    26; 5:21.   A king rules in a nation, Isa.
    19:4: a father rules in his family, 1
    Tim. 3:5: divine grace rules in the
    heart, Col. 3:15.
  69. RULED, did rule, Gen. 24:2: governed
    as supreme, Dan. 5:21.
  70. RULER, one who rules, as a king, 2
    Sam. 7:8; 1 Kings 1:35: a viceroy, or
    chief governor, Gen. 41:43: a steward
    in a great house, 43:14: a Jewish
    senator, John 3:1: an elder in the
    synagogue, Luke 13:14.
  71. RULING, governing, as a kingdom, 2
    Sam. 23:3: or a family, 1 Tim. 3:12.
  72. RUMBLING, a hoarse noise, as of car-
    riage wheels, Jer. 47:3.
  73. RUMOUR, popular report, 2 Kings 19:
    7; Mark 13:7: fame, Luke 7:17.
  74. RUMP, the end of the back of an
    animal, Lev. 3:9.   The rump of the
    sacrifice was the enormous tail which, in
    a Syrian fatted sheep, is one-fourth, or
    in some one-third, of the total weight of
    the carcase.   Eating unmingled fat, was
    therefore prohibited, with blood also,
    Exod. 29:22; Lev. 3:9-17.   See
  75. RUN, to move with a swift pace, 2 Sam.
    15:1; 18:19: to contend in a race,
    1 Cor. 9:24: to pursue a course of life,
    Phil. 2:16; Heb. 12:1: to flow, as rivers,
    Eccles. 1:7, or tears, Lam. 2:18.
  76. RUNNING, travelling hastily, 2 Sam.
    18:24: swift sailing, Acts 27:16.
    Running water, means spring or river
    water, Lev. 14:5, 51, 52.
  77. RUSH, a plant growing in marshy
    grounds, and by the sides of rivers, Job
    8:11; Isa. 35:7.   See BULRUSH.
    "[B]ranch and rush," means ruler and
    people, the aged and the young, Isa. 9:
    14; 19:15.
  78. RUSH, to move with violence, Isa. 17:
  79. RUSHED, did rush, Judg. 9:44; Acts
  80. RUSHING, a violent movement, Isa.
    17:12, 13; Ezek. 3:1; Acts 2:2.
  81. RUST, a drossy concretion upon dirted
    or wetted metals, Matt. 6:19; Jam. 5:3.
  82. RUTH, [h] (satisfied), the Moabitess,
    who, being converted to God, and having
    accompanied her mother-in-law to Beth-
    lehem, became the wife of
    Boaz, and the
    mother of Obed, who was the father of
    Jesse, and grandfather of David, and
    hence a progenitor of the great Messiah,
    Ruth 1:4-22; 4:13-17; Matt. 1:5.
  83. RUTH, THE BOOK OF: this is regarded
    as an appendix to the book of
    relating to about the time of Gideon, and
    is so named as recording the history of
    Ruth, the Moabitess, illustrating the
    overruling providence of God.   Influenced
    by affection to her mother-in-law, and
    attachment to the religion and people of
    Israel, she left her country and became
    an honourable personage among the pro-
    genitors of Messiah.   See Commentary.
  84. RYE, a coarse kind of bread corn,
    resembling wheat: some have supposed
    that rue is intended, Exod. 9:32; Isa.
    28:[25]: the Hebrew word is rendered
    fitches, Ezek. 4:9.

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