Bible Dictionary: Jn.   1840

  1. JO'AB, [h] (paternity, or who has a
    ), a son of Zeruiah a sister of
    David, who made him one of his chief
    generals.   Joab was a bold soldier and
    a great statesman, but a vindictive and
    cruel man, as is evident from his history,
    2 Sam. 2:18; 24:4; 1 Kings 2:5, 33.

    Others bore this name, Ezra 2:6; Neh.

  2. JO'AH, [h] (who has a brother, or brother
    of the Lord
    ), a Levite, 1 Chron. 6:21.
  3. JOAH, a son of Asaph, secretary to
    king Hezekiah, 2 Kings 18:18.
  4. JOAH, secretary to king Josiah, 2
    Chron. 34:8.
  5. JOAN'NA, Ίωαννα (the gift or mercy of the
    ), the wife of Chuza, Herod's steward,
    one who aided in supporting the ministry
    of Christ, Luke 8:3.
  6. JO'ASH, [h] (who despairs, or burns), the
    father of Gideon, Judg. 6:11, 30, 31.
  7. JOASH.   See JEHOASH.
  8. JOB, איוב (he that weeps), a celebrated
    patriarch of Arabia Deserta, Job 1:1.
    Many suppose him to be Jobab, a great-
    grandson of Esau, Gen. 36:31-34;
    1 Chron. 1:64, and king of Uz in Idumea
    Several particulars of the extraordinary
    history of the patriarch are given in the
    first two and the last chapters of his
    book, Job 1.; 2.; 44.   See UZ, LAND OF.
  9. JOB, THE BOOK OF: this is the most
    ancient book in existence, if we except
    Genesis; but it is most remarkable for
    the discourses of Job and his friends, as
    they express with clearness and sound-
    ness the chief doctrines of Christianity
    and the purity of its morality, while the
    sentiments and style are equally sublime
    with those of the writers of the other
    inspired prophets.   Job is exhibited as an
    example of faith and
    patience under
    affliction: he is believed to have written
    the poem of the book himself, but the
    historical parts of it are ascribed to
    Moses, added during his exile in Midian,
    Exod. 2:15-25; 3:1, 2.   See Commentary.
  10. JO'BAB, [h] (deserts), a descendant of
    Abraham by Isaac and Esau, Gen. 36:
    1, 8, 9, 33, 34; 1 Chron. 1:35, 37, 44; sup-
    posed to be the patriarch Job.   See JOB.
  11. JOBAB, a son of Joktan, Gen. 10:29.
  12. JOBAB, a king of Madon, Josh. 11:1.
  13. JOCH'EBED, [h] (glorious, or a person of
    ), the pious and faithful mother of
    Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, Exod. 2:1-9;
  14. JO'EL, [h] (he that wills, or commands),
    a prophet of Judah: he prophesied in
    the reign of Uzziah, and was contempo-
    rary with
    Isaiah, Joel 1:1; 3:1.
  15. JOEL, THE BOOK OF.   Joel in this book
    calls in solemn terms to immediate re-
    , and it contains some remark-
    able predictions delivered in a lofty
    style, especially that of the [immer]sion of
    the Holy Spirit by the Redeemer at
    Pentecost, Joel 2:28; Acts 2:16-21.
  16. JOEL, a son of Samuel, 1 Sam. 8:1, 2.
  17. JOEL, a chief musician of David, 1
    Chron. 15:7.
  18. JOHA'NAN, [h] (who is liberal, or grants
    ), a high-priest in the reign of
    David, 1 Chron. 6:9, 10.
  19. JOHANAN, the name of two descend-
    ants of David, 1 Chron. 6:9, 10.
  20. JOHANAN, a famous captain in Judea
    at the overthrow of Jerusalem, and who
    led a party into Egypt, carrying Jeremiah
    with them, all of which was done in
    opposition to the counsel of the prophet,
    Jer. 41:11; 42.; 43.
  21. JOHN, Ίωαννης (the grace, gift, or mercy of
    the Lord
    ).   John the Baptist was the son
    of Zechariah, a priest, and his wife
    Elizabeth: his birth was foretold by the
    angel Gabriel, as a miraculous favour
    from God, Luke 1:5, 20.   John was sent
    to be the herald prophet of Christ to
    proclaim Him to Israel as the promised
    Messiah: his character and ministry,
    therefore, were extraordinary.   John,
    having finished his work, was murdered
    by the wicked order of king Herod,
    gratifying the malignity of his brother
    Philip's wife Herodias, Mark 6:14-29.
  22. JOHN, the apostle, was brought up a
    fisherman at Bethsaida, in Galilee: he
    was brother of James, and on account
    of their zeal the Saviour called them
    "Boanerges," or "sons of thunder."   John
    is believed to have outlived all the
    apostles; and, though banished to Patmos
    by the emperor Domitian, to have been
    preserved to complete the canon of the
    New Testament, dying about A.D. 100 at
    Ephesus, Mark 3:17; John 21:21-24.
    • John, a true prophet.
  23. JOHN, THE GOSPEL OF: this is be-
    lieved to have been the last written of
    the sacred books, about A.D.
    98, de-
    signed to record several of Christ's dis-
    courses,--to destroy the errors of some
    corrupt teachers,--and to confirm the
    churches in the belief of the true divinity
    and the real humanity of Christ.   John
    is said to have composed it after special
    public prayer for the gracious aid of the
    Holy Spirit.
  24. JOHN, THE EPISTLES OF: the first
    was written about A.D.
    96, on account
    of certain heretics, or antichrists, cor-
    rupting the gospel, to establish believers
    in their regard to the essential doctrines
    of Christianity, and to guide their prac-
    tice in holiness.   The second and third
    Epistles were written about the same
    time to two [important] Christians, Lady
    Electa, and Gaius.
  25. JOHN, "whose surname was Mark[,]" an
    evangelist, who was the nephew of Barna-
    bas, and son of a woman of some note at
    Jerusalem for her piety and hospitality,
    Acts 12:12, 25.   See
  26. JOIN, to unite with, as persons to aid
    each other, Exod. 1:10; in marriage,
    Ezra 9:14; in plots, Prov. 11:21; or
    religious association, Acts 9:26.
  27. JOINED, did join, as in battle, Gen.
    14:8; 1 Sam. 4:2; or in marriage, 2
    Chron. 18:1.
  28. JOINED, united with, as for battle,
    Gen. 14:3; as things close upon each
    other, Job 41:17; or in idolatry, Hos.
    4:17; or in marriage, Eph. 5:31; or in
    affection, 1 Cor. 1:10.
  29. JOININGS, hinges or links, 1 Chron.
  30. JOINTS, hinges, 1 Kings 22:34;
    uniting bones of the body, Col. 2:19.
  31. JOK'SHAN, [h] (hard or scandalous), the
    second son of Abraham by Keturah,
    Gen. 25:2.
  32. JOK'TAN, [h] (small, weariness, or con-
    ), the eldest son of Eber an ancestor
    Abraham, and father of a tribe of the
    Arabs, Gen. 10:25.
  33. JON'ADAB, [h] (who acts in good earnest,
    or as a prince), a wicked young man, a
    son of a nephew of David, 2 Sam. 13:3.
  34. JONADAB, a famous Rechabite, Jer.
    35:3, 6.   See JEHONADAB.
  35. JO'NAH, [h] (a dove, or he that oppresses),
    a prophet of Israel, famous for his mis-
    sion to
    Nineveh, 2 Kings 14:25, Jon. 1:
    1: Jonah's disobedience, punishment,
    and deliverance, and his subsequent ful-
    filment of his ministry, illustrate the
    imperfections attaching to the character
    of that distinguished prophet of God,
    and the severity mingled with mercy
    of the Divine dispensations; while the
    various references to the magnitude and
    populousness of Nineveh, confirm the
    representations of history relating to
    that exceeding great city.   Jonah flour-
    ished between the years 856 and 784 B.C.
  36. JONAH, THE BOOK OF: this book, nar-
    rating the circumstances of the mission
    of the prophet to Nineveh: it is most
    instructive, and designed especially to
    show that
    repentance is acceptable to
    God.   The "great fish" which swallowed
    Jonah is supposed to have been of the
    shark kind, which abounds in the Medi-
    terranean, but it was "prepared by the
    Jon. 1:17.   This miraculous inci-
    dent in the life of Jonah was alluded to
    by our Saviour, in His discourse with the
    Pharisees, Matt. 12:39-41, in which He
    signified that He should in like manner
    lie "three days and three nights" in the
    bowels of the earth, and that the repent-
    ance of the Ninevites at the preaching
    of Jonah, would aggravate the guilt of
    their infidelity in disbelieving his resur-
    rection.   This miracle was known to the
    Greeks, and a similar adventure is fabled
    of their Hercules.
      See Commentary.
  37. JON'ATHAN, [h] (given of God), an
    apostate from true religion, and chief
    priest of idolatry in the tribe of Dan,
    Judg. 18:30.
  38. JONATHAN, an amiable and pious
    prince, son of king Saul.   Several par-
    ticulars in the life of this prince are
    peculiarly instructive, especially his put-
    ting to flight the garrison of the Philis-
    tines, through an intimation from God,
    and his danger in violating the rash de-
    cree of his father, and his deliverance by
    the generosity of the people; but especi-
    ally the covenant of affection between
    him and David.   Jonathan and David's
    cordial friendship became proverbial,
    especially by David's lamentation over his
    death, 1 Sam. 18:1; 2 Sam. 1:22-26.
  39. JONATHAN, a son of Abiathar the high-
    priest, 1 Kings 1:42, 43: a son of David's
    nephew, 1 Chron. 20:7: an enemy of
    Jeremiah, Jer. 37:15, 20: a high-
    priest of the Jews, Neh. 12:11.   Several
    others bore this name in Israel.
  40. JOP'PA, [h] (beauty or comeliness, called
    Japho and Jaffa), a very ancient sea-port
    in Canaan, seated on a fine plain, and
    about thirty-four miles north-west of
    Jerusalem.   Some suppose it was esta-
    blished by Japhet a son of Noah.   Solo-
    mon used it as his receiving port on the
    Mediterranean, 2 Chron. 2:16.   Jonah
    took ship at it, Jon. 1:3.   Here Peter
    restored Dorcas to life, Acts 9:36, 43.
    Joppa has been the scene of slaughter
    and murder by the
    Saracens, crusaders
    of Europe, Turks, and French, especially
    the latter under Bonaparte.   The modern
    city is surrounded by a wall about four
    teen feet high; and it contains about
    5000 inhabitants, Turks and Arabs, with
    a few professors of Christianity.
  41. JO'RAM, [h] (descent, or elevated), a son
    of Ahab king of Israel, and a son of
    Jehoshaphat king of Judah; both these
    ascended the thrones of their fathers,
    and are also called Jehoram, 2 Kings 8:
    16, 21.   See
  42. JOR'DAN, [h] (river of judgment), the
    chief river of Canaan; it rises in mount
    Lebanon, about twenty miles north of
    Cesarea Philippi, thence running about
    twelve miles it receives a stream from
    the lake Phiala, and about fifteen miles
    farther it forms the lake Merom, nearly
    four miles broad and about seven and a
    half miles long; about twenty-eight miles
    farther it forms the lake of Gennesareth,
    or sea of Tiberias, which is sixteen miles
    long and five miles broad; thence about
    sixty miles, or 160 in its whole course, it
    falls into the Dead Sea, formed by the
    overthrow of
    Sodom and the other three
    cities, Gen. 13:11; 14:3; Num. 34:
    12.   Jordan overflows its banks in March
    and April, from the melting of the snows
    on Lebanon and Hermon, when it is
    above a mile broad, though its ordinary
    width is not more than about eighty or
    ninety feet, and about twelve feet deep.
    Beasts of prey, wild boars, ounces, jackals,
    hares, and even lions, abound in the
    thickets along the banks of the Jordan,
    the overflowing of which drives them
    for a season over the country.   Jordan
    is celebrated in history on account of the
    dividing of its waters for the passage of
    Israel, Josh. 3:8-15; and of Elijah, 2
    Kings 2:6, 7; and for the baptizing at
    its ford by the prophet John, Matt. 3:
    6, 13.
  43. JORDAN, the vale or plain on the banks
    of the river, called also "the region
    round about Jordan,"
    2 Chron. 4:17;
    Matt. 3:5; John 1:28.
  44. JO'SEPH, [h] (increase or addition), the
    favourite son of Jacob by Rachel, Gen.
    30:24.   His youth was characterized
    by sincere piety, and God honoured him
    with some remarkable prophetic dreams,
    which occasioned the envy of his brethren
    to seek his ruin; but God overruled all
    his afflictions, granting him spiritual con-
    solations in his trials, and making his
    elevation to the government of Egypt
    under king Pharaoh.   Thus he became
    the preserver of the nation, a father to
    his own family, and one of the most
    illustrious benefactors of mankind, while
    his history is one of the most affecting
    and instructive pieces of biography in
    the Old Testament, Gen. 37.-50.
  45. JOSEPH (the carpenter), the husband
    of the virgin Mary, and, therefore,
    among the Jews, the reputed father of
    Jesus.   Joseph was "a just man," evi-
    dently a man of piety and uprightness;
    he is believed to have died before the
    crucifixion of Christ, as Jesus com-
    mended his mother to the care of the
    beloved disciple John, Matt. 1:18; 2:
    13-23; John 19:25, 27.
  46. JOSEPH (of Arimathea), a Jewish
    ruler, who appears to have secretly been
    a true believer in Jesus as the
    His candour towards Jesus in the Jewish
    council, and his burying the corpse of
    the Saviour, illustrate his convictions
    and sincerity, Mark 15:42, 46.
  47. JOSEPH BARSA'BAS, a disciple of Christ,
    eminent for his piety and gifts in the
    apostolic church, Acts 1:23.
  48. JO'SES, Ίωσης (who exists, or who pardons,
    or a Saviour), a son of Mary, the wife of
    Cleophas, brother of James, Matt. 13:
    55; 27:56.
  49. JOSH'UA, [h] (the Lord the Saviour),
    called in the New Testament, according
    to the Greek pronunciation, Jesus, Ίησους,
    Acts 7:45; Heb. 4:8.   Joshua was the
    minister or assistant of Moses, as the
    deliverer of Israel from Egypt; and he
    became, by the appointment of God, his
    successor, who led them into Canaan.
    Moses changed his name from
    His whole history is peculiarly instruc-
    tive, affording a most illustrious example
    of uprightness, integrity, and pious zeal,
    in his responsible station, Exod. 17:
    9-14; Num. 13:8-16; 27:18-23; Deut.
    34:9.   Joshua appears to have been
    about seven years in settling the Israelites
    in Canaan, and to have continued their
    governor about twenty years more, dying
    at the age of one hundred and ten years,
    Josh. 24:29.   Procopius, who flou-
    rished in the middle of the sixth century,
    says that he saw two pillars in Numidia,
    bearing this inscription in Phenician cha-
    racters, "We flee from the face of Jesus
    the robber, the son of Nave;"
    from which
    it was inferred, that these were monu-
    ments raised, about two thousand years
    before, by the expelled Canaanites.
  50. JOSHUA, THE BOOK OF: this book is a
    narrative of about twenty-six years, from
    the death of Moses to that of Joshua.
    It relates to the conquest of Canaan, and
    the settlement of the Israelites, and bears
    the same relation to the five books of
    Moses, as the Acts of the Apostles does
    to the four Gospels: it illustrates the
    faithfulness of
    God in the fulfilment of
    his promise to Abraham, and his avenging
    justice in destroying the guilty and cor-
    Canaanites, Lev. 18:24-28.   Joshua
    is believed to have written the whole
    of this book, except the last few verses,
    Josh. 24:29-33.   See Commentary.
  51. JOSHUA, the high-priest of the Jews,
    at the building of the second temple of
    Jerusalem, Hag. 1:1; Zech. 3:1-9.
  52. JOSI'AH, [h] (the Lord burns, or the fire
    of the Lord
    ), the son of Amon, and grand-
    son of Manasseh, kings of Judah; he
    came to the throne at the age of eight
    years, and evinced sincere piety.   In his
    sixteenth year,
    Jeremiah the prophet
    arose, and aided this pious prince in
    making great reforms in the temple ser-
    vice, and in the nation; but he fell in
    battle at the age of thirty-nine years, in
    opposing Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who
    attempted to force a passage through
    Judea, to besiege Carchemish, a city of
    Syria, on the Euphrates, 2 Kings 22.;
    23.; 2 Chron. 34.; 35.
  53. JOT, the smallest part, alluding to the
    Hebrew letter, jod or yod י, or
    the Greek iota ι.   Jot or tittle, is a
    proverbial expression among the Jews,
    Matt. 5:18.
  54. JO'THAM, [h] (perfection of the Lord),
    the youngest son of Gideon, famous for
    his beautiful parable, Judg. 9:5, 8, 15.
  55. JOTHAM, a king of Judah, son and
    successor of Uzziah, in whose reign
    Isaiah prophesied, 2 Kings 15:5; Isa.
  56. JOURNEY, the course of a traveller
    Gen. 24:21; Num. 9:10-13; Luke 11:6.
    A day's journey was about fifteen or
    twenty miles, Num. 11:31; Jon. 3:4.
    A sabbath day's journey was about a
    mile, Acts 1:12.
  57. JOURNEYED, did travel, as on a jour-
    ney, Gen. 11:2; 12:9; Acts 9:3.
  58. JOURNEYING, travelling, Num. 10:2, 28;
    Luke 13:22.
  59. JOY, pleasure of mind, Psal. 16:11.
    Joy may be natural, arising from the
    abundance of worldly good, or animal [carnal]
    gratifications, Eccles. 2:10; or spiritual,
    arising from the influence of the Spirit of
    , Gal. 5:22.
  60. JOY, to rejoice, or be full of joy, Isa.
    9:3; Phil. 2:17, 18.
  61. JOYFUL, full of joy, Isa. 56:7; delight-
    ful, Psal. 89:15.
  62. JOYFULLY, happily, Eccles. 9:9:
    patiently rejoicing in God, Heb. 10:34.
  63. JOYING, rejoicing, Col. 2:15.
  64. JOYOUS, pleasurable, Isa. 22:2; Heb.
  65. JU'BAL, [h] (he that runs, or a trumpet),
    a descendant of Cain, and the inventor
    of musical instruments, Gen. 4:21.
  66. JU'BILEE, a grand national festival of
    Israel, held every fiftieth year: it was
    the year of release, when all debts were
    cancelled, and all prisoners and slaves
    were liberated, and when all lands and
    estates, whether they had been sold or
    mortgaged, were restored to their original
    possessors, Lev. 25:8, 9.   This joyful
    event was proclaimed, by the sound of
    trumpet, in the evening of the day of
    atonement; that the rich might not be
    unwilling to surrender the property of
    others, nor the injured to forgive those
    who had offended, while they all had
    been imploring the pardoning mercy of
    God.   The Jubilee had a twofold design :--
    Political, to prevent oppression of the
    poor and perpetual servitude, that a kind
    of equality might be preserved in the
    families, while the tribal distinctions
    were known, and it might be ascertained
    that the
    Messiah descended from the
    tribe of Judah.--Typical, to predict the
    blessings of the new covenant, by which
    the liberty of the gospel from sin and
    Satan, and the salvation of Jesus Christ,
    might be enjoyed with eternal glory.
    Isaiah alludes to the Jubilee of Israel
    in foretelling the ministry of the Mes-
    siah, as his words were interpreted by
    our Saviour, Isa. 61:1, 2; Luke 4:17,
  67. JU'DAH, [h] (the praise of the Lord),
    the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, Gen.
    29:35.   He contracted acquaintance
    with Hirah, through whom he was led to
    grievous misconduct, though he exhibited
    generally a nobleness of character, and
    he appears to have been regarded as the
    chief of the twelve sons of Israel.   Jacob
    thus distinguished him in his prophetic
    blessing, Gen. 38.; 43.; 44:14-34;
    49:8-12; 1 Chron. 5:2.
  68. JUDAH, THE TRIBE OF.   Jacob, when
    dying, predicted the tribal superiority of
    Judah, that "the sceptre," or govern-
    ment, "should not depart from it" until
    the coming of "Shiloh" or Messiah; and
    this was fulfilled: for while the kingdom
    of Israel or the ten tribes was destroyed
    and scattered, Judah remained distinct,
    even in Babylon, and under the Persians,
    Grecians, Egyptians, and Romans, until
    the purposes of God, in the redemption
    of the world, were perfectly accomplished
    by Christ.   After this event, the Jews
    were scattered, yet a peculiar people,
    among all nations, a living monument
    of the divinity of Christianity.   Still
    the Jews are designed to be restored,
    and brought into the [kingdom] of [God],
    Hos. 3:4, 5 [Israel]; Rom. 11:25, 26 [Israel & Jacob].   See
  70. JU'DAS, Ίουδας, the Greek form of Judah.
    Judas Iscariot, the infamous betrayer of
    Jesus Christ, was manifestly an artful
    hypocrite, whose object was solely selfish:
    his shrewdness, diligence, and talents for
    business, gained him the confidence of
    his fellow apostles, while he was influ-
    enced by the most detestable motives, all
    of which were known to his Lord.   In-
    gratitude and perfidy completed his cha-
    racter for wickedness; and therefore the
    Saviour pronounced him a "devil," under
    circumstances of solemn admonition,
    John 6:70.   But his remorse, after
    betraying his Master, hurried him to
    desperation and self-murder, while his
    guilty spirit went "to his own place,"
    Matt. 26:47, 50; Luke 22:3, 6, 21,
    23, 47, 49; Acts 1:16-25.
  71. JUDAS or JUDE, called also Lebbeus
    and Thaddeus, the son of Alpheus, and
    brother of James, who wrote the Epistle.
    We are informed but little concerning
    Jude, though it is said that he prosecuted
    his apostolic labours until he was mar-
    tyred in Persia
    , Mark 3:18; Matt. 10:3;
    Luke 6:15, 16.
  72. JUDAS, surnamed Barsabas, a distin-
    guished Christian minister at Antioch,
    Acts 15:22.   See BARSABAS.
  73. JUDAS, the Galilean, a factious Jew,
    who opposed the Roman enrolment under
    Cyrenius, the governor, Acts 5:37, 39;
    Luke 2:1, 2.
  74. JUDAS, Paul's host at Damascus, Acts
    9:9, 11.
  75. JUDE.   See JUDAS.
  76. JUDE, THE EPISTLE OF.   Jude wrote
    his epistle to guard believers against
    false teachers, whose corrupt principles
    and base practices were injuring the
    churches.   His illustrations show the in-
    dignation of the man of God against vice,
    and his exhortations evince his ardent
    charity to the souls of sinners.
  77. JUDE'A, the district of Canaan belong-
    ing to the tribe of Judah, the capital of
    which was Jerusalem, Deut. 34:2;
    Ezra 5:8.   Judah being the chief tribe,
    Canaan was frequently spoken of as
    Judah and Israel, especially while the
    land was divided between the royal
    houses of Saul and David, 2 Sam. 5:5;
    and after the defection of the ten tribes,
    1 Kings 12:20; 15:9-17, Judah continuing
    a kingdom after the overthrow of Israel,
    2 Kings 17., Judah, or Judea, became
    applied to all the southern part of the
    country, Samaria to the middle, and
    Galilee to the north: and this distinction
    was common in the time of Christ, John
    4:3, 4.   Judea was applied to the whole
    of Canaan; but as a province, it was
    bounded on the north by Samaria, on the
    east by the Jordan, on the south by
    Idumea or Arabia, and on the west by
    the Mediterranean.
  78. JUDGE, a person in authority to try
    causes, and pronounce sentence according
    law, Exod. 2:14; Deut. 17:9-12;
    2 Sam. 15:4.   Moses originally appointed
    judges, at the suggestion of his father-
    in-law Jethro, to relieve him from the
    daily and very burdensome duties of the
    magistracy among the Israelites: they
    were constituted with different degrees
    of authority and power over the people,
    Exod. 18:21-26; Deut. 17:8.   These
    judges formed various courts in towns
    and cities through Israel.   See COUNCIL.
    God is the righteous judge of all the
    , Gen. 18:25; Jesus Christ will
    execute the awful and glorious office of
    judge of all men, rewarding them accord-
    ing to their character and works
    , Matt.
    25:31-46; Acts 10:42; 2 Tim. 4:1-8.
  79. JUDGES, a succession of extraordinary
    persons, whom God raised up, and spe-
    cially endowed with wisdom, courage,
    and patriotism, to deliver and govern the
    Israelites before they had a king, from
    the death of Joshua to the time of
  80. JUDGES, THE BOOK OF: this book is so
    named, as it relates the history of Israel
    under thirteen of the judges, including
    a period of 326 years, from the death of
    Joshua, B.C. 1443, to the death of Samson,
    B.C. 1117, Judg. 1:1; 16:30, 31.   The last
    five chapters relate to the times of the
    earlier judges; but the whole book
    exhibits the dreadful consequences of
    national wickedness and anarchy, illus-
    trating at the same time the Divine long-
    suffering towards the Israelites.   The
    people sinned, and were punished: they
    repented, and found mercy from God.
    See Commentary.
    Mistakes have arisen as to the period of
    the government by judges, from an ex-
    pression of Paul, "about the space of
    four hundred and fifty years,"
    Acts 13:
    20.   The exodus from Egypt was but
    four hundred and eighty years before
    the building of the temple by Solomon,
    as we are assured, 1 Kings 6:1: our
    best commentators, therefore, understand
    the apostle to mean from the "choice of
    the fathers"
    to the settlement in Canaan;
    reckoning from the ratification of the
    covenant with Abraham by circumcision,
    and the promise of a son by Sarah, Gen.
    18., B.C. 1898, to the death of Joshua,
    the first of the judges after Moses, and
    who led Israel to Canaan, B.C. 1443.   Chro-
    nological accuracy cannot be obtained
    in relation to the government of the
    judges, several of whom are believed to
    have been contemporaries in different
    parts of Canaan; but the following table
    is given from the best authorities :--

    Othniel, B.C. about 1400 . . 40
       Israel served Moab . . . 18
    Ehud, &c. . . . . 80[?]
       Israel served the Philistines, unknown
    Shamgar . . . . . do.
       Israel served Jabin . . . 20[?]
    Deborah and Barak . . . 40
       Israel served Midian . . . 7
    Gideon . . . . . 40
    Abimelech . . . . . 3
    Tola . . . . . . 23
    Jair . . . . . . 22
       Israel served the Ammonites . 18
    Jephthah . . . . . 6
    Ibzan . . . . . 7
    Ebon . . . . . . 10[?]
    Abdon . . . . . 8

       Israel served the Philistines . 40
    Samson . . . . . 20
    Eli . . . . . . 40
       Israel served the Philistines . 20
    Samuel . . . . . . 20

  81. JUDGE, to try and determine a cause,
    Gen. 31:37-53; Exod. 18:13-16: to
    condemn, John 7:5: to examine, 1 Cor.
    11:31: to censure, Matt. 7:1.
  82. JUDGED, did judge, did determine
    causes as a judge, Exod. 18:26: did
    govern, Judg. 3:10: did esteem, Heb.
  83. JUDGED, tried, as by a judge, Ezek.
    16:38; Acts 25:10: condemned, 1 Cor.
    4:3: considered, Acts 16:15.
  84. JUDGING, trying, as a judge, Isa. 15:
    5: attending at a trial, Matt. 19:28.
  85. JUDGMENT, the sentence of a judge,
    1 Kings 3:28: sentiment or opinion,
    1 Cor. 1:10: advice, 1 Cor. 7:25: the
    practice of righteousness, Luke 11:42:
    the doctrine of the gospel, Matt. 12:18:
    the triumph of the gospel, ver. 20: de-
    liverance of mankind from the tyranny
    of the devil, John 12:31: the govern-
    ment of the world, John 5:22: the solemn
    trial of the world at the last day, Eccles.
    12:14; Matt. 12:41, 42: the sentence of
    Christ at the last day, Jude 15.
  86. JUDGMENT, punishments on men for
    their sins, Exod. 6:6; Prov. 19:29:
    the statutes and ordinances of God,
    Exod. 21:1; Psal. 19:9: the purposes
    of God, Rom. 11:33.
  87. JUDGMENT-HALL, the place of the ad-
    ministration of justice at Jerusalem,
    under the Roman governor, John 18:
    28; 19:9.
  88. JUDGMENT-SEAT, the seat of justice
    or magistracy, Matt. 27:19.
  89. JU'LIA, [g] (downy), a friend of Paul
    at Rome, perhaps the wife of Philologus,
    Rom. 16:15.
  90. JU'LIUS, Ίουλιος (downy), a Roman cen-
    turion of the Augustan band, who treated
    Paul courteously when he conveyed him
    a prisoner to Rome, Acts 27:1, 3, 43.
  91. JU'NIA, [g] (youthful), an early Chris-
    tian convert, a kinsman of Paul, if not
    the wife of Andronicus, Rom. 16:7.
  92. JUNIPER, an evergreen shrub, sup-
    posed to be the plant genista, or Spanish
    broom, with yellow flowers and bitter
    roots, abounding in Arabia, 1 Kings 19:
    4-5; Job 30:4.
  93. JU'PITER, Ζευς (helping father), a fabu-
    lous divinity: but the chief deity of the
    Greeks and Romans, Acts 14:12, 13;
    19:35.   Some suppose that his name
    Jove is derived from the Hebrew JAH,
    or JEHOVAH:
    there are several of this
    name celebrated, but the chief was the
    son of Saturn and Ops, and king of Crete.
    The character attributed to him in the
    heathen mythology, was a compound of
    all that is wicked, obscene, and beastly,
    in the list of human crimes.
  94. JURISDICTION, the local limits of the
    authority of a ruler, Luke 23:7.
  95. JUST, righteous; that which is right
    or good: as, in dealings among men, Lev.
    19:35, 36.   God is essentially just, ren-
    dering to every creature what is right
    Deut. 32:4; Rev. 15:6.   Christ was
    just, as He was "holy, harmless, and un-
    perfectly obeying the law of
    , Acts 3:14; 1 Pet. 3:18.   Pious
    men are just; as, though not perfect in
    holiness, they, in the fear of God, walk
    in His commandments, Gen. 6:9; Acts
    10:22.   Pretenders to righteousness,
    because of their profession, though insin-
    cere and vain, Luke 15:7.
  96. JUSTICE, practical righteousness or
    goodness, by which any one renders to
    another his due.   God being essentially
    just, all His dealings with His creatures
    are governed by perfect justice
    , Psal.
    89:14; Job 8:3; 37:23.   Kings
    and magistrates acting uprightly in their
    government and decisions is called, in
    modern language, political justice, Prov.
    8:15; Ezek. 45:9.
  97. JUSTIFICATION is a gracious act of
    God, in which He pardons and accepts
    penitent [repentant] sinners on account of the right-
    eousness and atonement of Jesus Christ
    the gospel record being received by faith
    Rom. 1:16, 17; 3:22, 26; 5:16, 18.   This
    great article of Christian doctrine is,
    next to the divinty and incarnation of
    the Son of God, the most important in
    practical and experimental religion, on
    which account it is so frequently incul-
    cated in various forms of speech through-
    out the Scriptures, especially in the
    Epistle to the Romans, Isa. 45:21-25;
    53:10-12; Rom. 4:1, 13, 20, 25; 5:1,
    19; 2 Cor. 5:18-24; Gal. 2:16; 3:6-14.
  98. JUSTIFIED, declared blameless, Job
    11:2: this is the privileged state of
    believers in the gospel, considered in
    their relation to God;
    this state cannot,
    however, be attained by works of per-
    sonal obedience to the law, because all
    mankind are sinners, Rom. 3:20-23;
    Gal. 2:16, but through the abounding of
    Divine grace; by which all believers are
    justified in the sight of God
    , through the
    infinitely meritorious life and death of
    Christ, as revealed in the gospel
    , Rom.
    3:21-26; 5:10, 11, 15, 21.
  99. JUSTIFY, to declare and treat as
    righteous, Prov. 17:15: hence God
    will not justify
    the wicked, Exod. 23:
    7.   Unjust magistrates justify the wicked
    through the influence of bribes, Isa. 5:
    23.   God will justify every one who
    repents of sin and believes in Christ,
    Rom. 3:26-30; Gal. 3:8.   Christ will
    justify His true disciples by granting them
    an interest in His meritorious obedience,
    Isa. 53:10, 11; Rom. 5:17, 19.
  100. JUSTLY, righteously: as the wicked
    are punished for their crimes
    , Luke
    23:41; and as the righteous adorn
    their profession of religion by a holy life,
    Mic. 6:8.
  101. JUS'TUS, Ίουστος (just), a devout man
    at Corinth, who received the apostle
    Paul, Acts 18:7.
  102. JUSTUS, called Jesus, a fellow minister
    of the gospel with the apostle Paul, Col.
  103. JUSTUS, the surname of Joseph Bar-
    sabas, one of the earliest and most es-
    teemed of the disciples of Christ, Acts 1:
    23.   See

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