- JO'AB, [h] (paternity, or who has
father), a son of Zeruiah a sister of
David, who made him one of his chief
generals. Joab was a bold soldier and
a great statesman, but a vindictive and
cruel man, as is evident from his history,
2 Sam. 2:18; 24:4; 1 Kings 2:5, 33.
Others bore this name, Ezra 2:6; Neh.
- JO'AH, [h] (who has a brother, or
of the Lord), a Levite, 1 Chron. 6:21.
- JOAH, a son of Asaph, secretary to
king Hezekiah, 2 Kings 18:18.
- JOAH, secretary to king Josiah, 2
- JOAN'NA, Ίωαννα
(the gift or mercy of the
Lord), the wife of Chuza, Herod's steward,
one who aided in supporting the ministry
of Christ, Luke 8:3.
- JO'ASH, [h] (who despairs, or
father of Gideon, Judg. 6:11, 30, 31.
- JOASH. See JEHOASH.
- JOB, איוב (he that
weeps), a celebrated
patriarch of Arabia Deserta, Job 1:1.
Many suppose him to be Jobab, a great-
grandson of Esau, Gen. 36:31-34;
1 Chron. 1:64, and king of Uz in Idumea.
Several particulars of the extraordinary
history of the patriarch are given in the
first two and the last chapters of his
book, Job 1.; 2.; 44. See UZ, LAND OF.
- JOB, THE BOOK OF: this is
ancient book in existence, if we except
Genesis; but it is most remarkable for
the discourses of Job and his friends, as
they express with clearness and sound-
ness the chief doctrines of Christianity
and the purity of its morality, while the
sentiments and style are equally sublime
with those of the writers of the other
inspired prophets. Job is exhibited as
example of faith and patience under
affliction: he is believed to have
the poem of the book himself, but the
historical parts of it are ascribed to
Moses, added during his exile in Midian,
Exod. 2:15-25; 3:1, 2. List:
- JO'BAB, [h] (deserts), a descendant
Abraham by Isaac and Esau, Gen. 36:
1, 8, 9, 33, 34; 1 Chron. 1:35, 37, 44; sup-
posed to be the patriarch Job. See JOB.
- JOBAB, a son of Joktan, Gen. 10:29.
- JOBAB, a king of Madon, Josh. 11:1.
- JOCH'EBED, [h] (glorious, or a
merit), the pious and faithful mother of
Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, Exod. 2:1-9;
- JO'EL, [h] (he that wills, or
a prophet of Judah: he prophesied in
the reign of Uzziah, and was contempo-
rary with Isaiah, Joel 1:1; 3:1.
- JOEL, THE BOOK OF.
Joel in this book
calls in solemn terms to immediate re-
pentance, and it contains some remark-
able predictions delivered in a lofty
style, especially that of the [immer]sion of
the Holy Spirit by the Redeemer at
Pentecost, Joel 2:28; Acts 2:16-21.
- JOEL, a son of Samuel, 1 Sam. 8:1, 2.
- JOEL, a chief musician of David, 1
- JOHA'NAN, [h] (who is liberal, or
favours), a high-priest in the reign of
David, 1 Chron. 6:9, 10.
- JOHANAN, the name of two descend-
ants of David, 1 Chron. 6:9, 10.
- JOHANAN, a famous captain in Judea
at the overthrow of Jerusalem, and who
led a party into Egypt, carrying Jeremiah
with them, all of which was done in
opposition to the counsel of the prophet,
Jer. 41:11; 42.; 43.
- JOHN, Ίωαννης
(the grace, gift, or mercy of
the Lord). John the Baptist was the son
of Zechariah, a priest, and his wife
Elizabeth: his birth was foretold by the
angel Gabriel, as a miraculous favour
from God, Luke 1:5, 20. John was sent
to be the herald prophet of Christ to
proclaim Him to Israel as the promised
Messiah: his character and ministry,
therefore, were extraordinary. John,
having finished his work, was murdered
by the wicked order of king Herod,
gratifying the malignity of his brother
Philip's wife Herodias, Mark 6:14-29.
- JOHN, the apostle, was brought up a
fisherman at Bethsaida, in Galilee: he
was brother of James, and on account
of their zeal the Saviour called them
"Boanerges," or "sons of
is believed to have outlived all the
apostles; and, though banished to Patmos
by the emperor Domitian, to have been
preserved to complete the canon of the
New Testament, dying about A.D. 100 at
Ephesus, Mark 3:17; John 21:21-24.
- JOHN, THE GOSPEL OF: this
lieved to have been the last written of
the sacred books, about A.D. 98, de-
signed to record several of Christ's dis-
courses,--to destroy the errors of some
corrupt teachers,--and to confirm the
churches in the belief of the true divinity
and the real humanity of Christ. John
is said to have composed it after special
public prayer for the gracious aid of the
- JOHN, THE EPISTLES OF:
was written about A.D. 96, on
of certain heretics, or antichrists, cor-
rupting the gospel, to establish believers
in their regard to the essential doctrines
of Christianity, and to guide their prac-
tice in holiness. The second and third
Epistles were written about the same
time to two [important] Christians, Lady
Electa, and Gaius.
- JOHN, "whose surname was
evangelist, who was the nephew of Barna-
bas, and son of a woman of some note at
Jerusalem for her piety and hospitality,
Acts 12:12, 25. See MARK.
- JOIN, to unite with, as persons to aid
each other, Exod. 1:10; in marriage,
Ezra 9:14; in plots, Prov. 11:21; or
religious association, Acts 9:26.
- JOINED, did join, as in battle, Gen.
14:8; 1 Sam. 4:2; or in marriage, 2
- JOINED, united with, as for battle,
Gen. 14:3; as things close upon each
other, Job 41:17; or in idolatry, Hos.
4:17; or in marriage, Eph. 5:31; or in
affection, 1 Cor. 1:10.
- JOININGS, hinges or links, 1 Chron.
- JOINTS, hinges, 1 Kings 22:34;
uniting bones of the body, Col. 2:19.
- JOK'SHAN, [h] (hard or
second son of Abraham by Keturah,
- JOK'TAN, [h] (small, weariness,
tempt), the eldest son of Eber an
of Abraham, and father of a tribe of the
Arabs, Gen. 10:25.
- JON'ADAB, [h] (who acts in good
or as a prince), a wicked young man, a
son of a nephew of David, 2 Sam. 13:3.
- JONADAB, a famous Rechabite, Jer.
35:3, 6. See JEHONADAB.
- JO'NAH, [h] (a dove, or he that
a prophet of Israel, famous for his mis-
sion to Nineveh, 2 Kings 14:25, Jon. 1:
1: Jonah's disobedience, punishment,
and deliverance, and his subsequent ful-
filment of his ministry, illustrate the
imperfections attaching to the character
of that distinguished prophet of God,
and the severity mingled with mercy
of the Divine dispensations; while the
various references to the magnitude and
populousness of Nineveh, confirm the
representations of history relating to
that exceeding great city. Jonah flour-
ished between the years 856 and 784 B.C.
- JONAH, THE BOOK OF: this
rating the circumstances of the mission
of the prophet to Nineveh: it is most
instructive, and designed especially to
show that repentance is acceptable
God. The "great fish" which swallowed
Jonah is supposed to have been of the
shark kind, which abounds in the Medi-
terranean, but it was "prepared by the
LORD," Jon. 1:17. This miraculous inci-
dent in the life of Jonah was alluded to
by our Saviour, in His discourse with
Pharisees, Matt. 12:39-41, in which He
signified that He should in like manner
lie "three days and three nights" in the
bowels of the earth, and that the repent-
ance of the Ninevites at the preaching
of Jonah, would aggravate the guilt of
their infidelity in disbelieving his resur-
rection. This miracle was known to the
Greeks, and a similar adventure is fabled
of their Hercules. List:
- JON'ATHAN, [h] (given of God), an
apostate from true religion, and chief
priest of idolatry in the tribe of Dan,
- JONATHAN, an amiable and pious
prince, son of king Saul. Several par-
ticulars in the life of this prince are
peculiarly instructive, especially his put-
ting to flight the garrison of the Philis-
tines, through an intimation from God,
and his danger in violating the rash de-
cree of his father, and his deliverance by
the generosity of the people; but especi-
ally the covenant of affection between
him and David. Jonathan and David's
cordial friendship became proverbial,
especially by David's lamentation over his
death, 1 Sam. 18:1; 2 Sam. 1:22-26.
- JONATHAN, a son of Abiathar the high-
priest, 1 Kings 1:42, 43: a son of David's
nephew, 1 Chron. 20:7: an enemy of
Jeremiah, Jer. 37:15, 20: a high-
priest of the Jews, Neh. 12:11. Several
others bore this name in Israel.
- JOP'PA, [h] (beauty or
Japho and Jaffa), a very ancient sea-port
in Canaan, seated on a fine plain, and
about thirty-four miles north-west of
Jerusalem. Some suppose it was esta-
blished by Japhet a son of Noah. Solo-
mon used it as his receiving port on the
Mediterranean, 2 Chron. 2:16. Jonah
took ship at it, Jon. 1:3. Here Peter
restored Dorcas to life, Acts 9:36, 43.
Joppa has been the scene of slaughter
and murder by the Saracens, crusaders
of Europe, Turks, and French, especially
the latter under Bonaparte. The modern
city is surrounded by a wall about four
teen feet high; and it contains about
5000 inhabitants, Turks and Arabs, with
a few professors of
- JO'RAM, [h] (descent, or
elevated), a son
of Ahab king of Israel, and a son of
Jehoshaphat king of Judah; both these
ascended the thrones of their fathers,
and are also called Jehoram, 2 Kings 8:
16, 21. See JEHORAM.
- JOR'DAN, [h] (river of judgment),
chief river of Canaan; it rises in mount
Lebanon, about twenty miles north of
Cesarea Philippi, thence running about
twelve miles it receives a stream from
the lake Phiala, and about fifteen miles
farther it forms the lake Merom, nearly
four miles broad and about seven and a
half miles long; about twenty-eight miles
farther it forms the lake of Gennesareth,
or sea of Tiberias, which is sixteen miles
long and five miles broad; thence about
sixty miles, or 160 in its whole course, it
falls into the Dead Sea, formed by the
overthrow of Sodom and the other three
cities, Gen. 13:11; 14:3; Num. 34:
12. Jordan overflows its banks in March
and April, from the melting of the snows
on Lebanon and Hermon, when it is
above a mile broad, though its ordinary
width is not more than about eighty or
ninety feet, and about twelve feet deep.
Beasts of prey, wild boars, ounces, jackals,
hares, and even lions, abound in the
thickets along the banks of the Jordan,
the overflowing of which drives them
for a season over the country. Jordan
is celebrated in history on account of the
dividing of its waters for the passage of
Israel, Josh. 3:8-15; and of Elijah, 2
Kings 2:6, 7; and for the baptizing at
its ford by the prophet John, Matt.
- JORDAN, the vale or plain on the banks
of the river, called also "the region
round about Jordan," 2 Chron. 4:17;
Matt. 3:5; John 1:28.
- JO'SEPH, [h] (increase or
favourite son of Jacob by Rachel, Gen.
30:24. His youth was characterized
by sincere piety, and God honoured him
with some remarkable prophetic dreams,
which occasioned the envy of his brethren
to seek his ruin; but God overruled all
his afflictions, granting him spiritual con-
solations in his trials, and making his
elevation to the government of Egypt
under king Pharaoh. Thus he became
the preserver of the nation, a father to
his own family, and one of the most
illustrious benefactors of mankind, while
his history is one of the most affecting
and instructive pieces of biography in
the Old Testament, Gen. 37.-50.
- JOSEPH (the carpenter), the husband
of the virgin Mary, and, therefore,
among the Jews, the reputed father of
Jesus. Joseph was "a just man," evi-
dently a man of piety and uprightness;
he is believed to have died before the
crucifixion of Christ, as Jesus com-
mended his mother to the care of the
beloved disciple John, Matt. 1:18; 2:
13-23; John 19:25, 27.
- JOSEPH (of Arimathea), a Jewish
ruler, who appears to have secretly been
a true believer in Jesus as the Messiah.
His candour towards Jesus in the Jewish
council, and his burying the corpse of
the Saviour, illustrate his convictions
and sincerity, Mark 15:42, 46.
- JOSEPH BARSA'BAS, a
disciple of Christ,
eminent for his piety and gifts in the
apostolic church, Acts 1:23.
- JO'SES, Ίωσης
(who exists, or who pardons,
or a Saviour), a son of Mary, the wife of
Cleophas, brother of James, Matt. 13:
- JOSH'UA, [h] (the Lord the
called in the New Testament, according
to the Greek pronunciation, Jesus,
Acts 7:45; Heb. 4:8. Joshua was the
minister or assistant of Moses, as the
deliverer of Israel from Egypt; and he
became, by the appointment of God, his
successor, who led them into Canaan.
Moses changed his name from Oshea.
His whole history is peculiarly instruc-
tive, affording a most illustrious example
of uprightness, integrity, and pious zeal,
in his responsible station, Exod. 17:
9-14; Num. 13:8-16; 27:18-23; Deut.
34:9. Joshua appears to have been
about seven years in settling the Israelites
in Canaan, and to have continued their
governor about twenty years more, dying
at the age of one hundred and ten years,
Josh. 24:29. Procopius, who flou-
rished in the middle of the sixth century,
says that he saw two pillars in Numidia,
bearing this inscription in Phenician cha-
racters, "We flee from the face of Jesus
the robber, the son of Nave;" from which
it was inferred, that these were monu-
ments raised, about two thousand years
before, by the expelled Canaanites.
- JOSHUA, THE BOOK OF: this
book is a
narrative of about twenty-six years, from
the death of Moses to that of Joshua.
It relates to the conquest of Canaan, and
the settlement of the Israelites, and bears
the same relation to the five books of
Moses, as the Acts of the Apostles does
to the four Gospels: it illustrates the
faithfulness of God in the fulfilment of
his promise to Abraham, and his avenging
justice in destroying the guilty and cor-
rupt Canaanites, Lev. 18:24-28. Joshua
is believed to have written the whole
of this book, except the last few verses,
Josh. 24:29-33. List:
- JOSHUA, the high-priest of the Jews,
at the building of the second temple of
Jerusalem, Hag. 1:1; Zech. 3:1-9.
- JOSI'AH, [h] (the Lord burns, or
of the Lord), the son of Amon, and grand-
son of Manasseh, kings of Judah; he
came to the throne at the age of eight
years, and evinced sincere piety. In his
sixteenth year, Jeremiah the
arose, and aided this pious prince in
making great reforms in the temple ser-
vice, and in the nation; but he fell in
battle at the age of thirty-nine years, in
opposing Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who
attempted to force a passage through
Judea, to besiege Carchemish, a city of
Syria, on the Euphrates, 2 Kings 22.;
23.; 2 Chron. 34.; 35.
- JOT, the smallest part, alluding to the
smallest Hebrew letter, jod or
yod י, or
the Greek iota ι. Jot or tittle, is a
proverbial expression among the Jews,
- JO'THAM, [h] (perfection of the
the youngest son of Gideon, famous for
his beautiful parable, Judg. 9:5, 8, 15.
- JOTHAM, a king of Judah, son and
successor of Uzziah, in whose reign
Isaiah prophesied, 2 Kings 15:5; Isa.
- JOURNEY, the course of a traveller
Gen. 24:21; Num. 9:10-13; Luke 11:6.
A day's journey was about fifteen or
twenty miles, Num. 11:31; Jon. 3:4.
A sabbath day's journey was about a
mile, Acts 1:12.
- JOURNEYED, did travel, as on a jour-
ney, Gen. 11:2; 12:9; Acts 9:3.
- JOURNEYING, travelling, Num. 10:2, 28;
- JOY, pleasure of mind, Psal. 16:11.
Joy may be natural, arising from the
abundance of worldly good, or animal [carnal]
gratifications, Eccles. 2:10; or spiritual,
arising from the influence of the Spirit of
God, Gal. 5:22.
- JOY, to rejoice, or be full of joy, Isa.
9:3; Phil. 2:17, 18.
- JOYFUL, full of joy, Isa. 56:7; delight-
ful, Psal. 89:15.
- JOYFULLY, happily, Eccles. 9:9:
patiently rejoicing in God, Heb. 10:34.
- JOYING, rejoicing, Col. 2:15.
- JOYOUS, pleasurable, Isa. 22:2; Heb.
- JU'BAL, [h] (he that runs, or a
a descendant of Cain, and the inventor
of musical instruments, Gen. 4:21.
- JU'BILEE, a grand national festival of
Israel, held every fiftieth year: it was
the year of release, when all debts were
cancelled, and all prisoners and slaves
were liberated, and when all lands and
estates, whether they had been sold or
mortgaged, were restored to their original
possessors, Lev. 25:8, 9. This joyful
event was proclaimed, by the sound of
trumpet, in the evening of the day of
atonement; that the rich might not be
unwilling to surrender the property of
others, nor the injured to forgive those
who had offended, while they all had
been imploring the pardoning mercy of
God. The Jubilee had a twofold design :--
Political, to prevent oppression of the
poor and perpetual servitude, that a kind
of equality might be preserved in the
families, while the tribal distinctions
were known, and it might be ascertained
that the Messiah descended from the
tribe of Judah.--Typical, to predict the
blessings of the new covenant, by which
the liberty of the gospel from sin and
Satan, and the salvation of Jesus Christ,
might be enjoyed with eternal glory.
Isaiah alludes to the Jubilee of Israel
in foretelling the ministry of the Mes-
siah, as his words were interpreted by
our Saviour, Isa. 61:1, 2; Luke 4:17,
- JU'DAH, [h] (the praise of the
the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, Gen.
29:35. He contracted acquaintance
with Hirah, through whom he was led to
grievous misconduct, though he exhibited
generally a nobleness of character, and
he appears to have been regarded as the
chief of the twelve sons of Israel. Jacob
thus distinguished him in his prophetic
blessing, Gen. 38.; 43.; 44:14-34;
49:8-12; 1 Chron. 5:2.
- JUDAH, THE TRIBE OF. Jacob, when
dying, predicted the tribal superiority of
Judah, that "the sceptre," or govern-
ment, "should not depart from it" until
the coming of "Shiloh" or Messiah; and
this was fulfilled: for while the kingdom
of Israel or the ten tribes was destroyed
and scattered, Judah remained distinct,
even in Babylon, and under the Persians,
Grecians, Egyptians, and Romans, until
the purposes of God, in the redemption
of the world, were perfectly accomplished
by Christ. After this event, the Jews
were scattered, yet a peculiar people,
among all nations, a living monument
of the divinity of Christianity. Still
the Jews are designed to be restored,
and brought into the [kingdom] of [God],
Hos. 3:4, 5 [Israel]; Rom. 11:25, 26 [Israel & Jacob]. See
- JUDAH, THE LAND OF. See JUDEA.
Ίουδας, the Greek form of Judah.
Judas Iscariot, the infamous betrayer of
Jesus Christ, was manifestly an artful
hypocrite, whose object was solely selfish:
his shrewdness, diligence, and talents for
business, gained him the confidence of
his fellow apostles, while he was influ-
enced by the most detestable motives, all
of which were known to his Lord. In-
gratitude and perfidy completed his cha-
racter for wickedness; and therefore the
Saviour pronounced him a "devil," under
circumstances of solemn admonition,
John 6:70. But his remorse, after
betraying his Master, hurried him to
desperation and self-murder, while his
guilty spirit went "to his own place,"
Matt. 26:47, 50; Luke 22:3, 6, 21,
23, 47, 49; Acts 1:16-25.
- JUDAS or JUDE,
called also Lebbeus
and Thaddeus, the son of Alpheus, and
brother of James, who wrote the Epistle.
We are informed but little concerning
Jude, though it is said that he prosecuted
his apostolic labours until he was mar-
tyred in Persia, Mark 3:18; Matt. 10:3;
Luke 6:15, 16.
- JUDAS, surnamed Barsabas, a distin-
guished Christian minister at Antioch,
Acts 15:22. See BARSABAS.
- JUDAS, the Galilean, a factious Jew,
who opposed the Roman enrolment under
Cyrenius, the governor, Acts 5:37, 39;
Luke 2:1, 2.
- JUDAS, Paul's host at Damascus, Acts
- JUDE. See JUDAS.
- JUDE, THE EPISTLE OF.
his epistle to guard believers against
false teachers, whose corrupt principles
and base practices were injuring the
churches. His illustrations show the in-
dignation of the man of God against vice,
and his exhortations evince his ardent
charity to the souls of sinners.
- JUDE'A, the district of Canaan belong-
ing to the tribe of Judah, the capital of
which was Jerusalem, Deut. 34:2;
Ezra 5:8. Judah being the chief tribe,
Canaan was frequently spoken of as
Judah and Israel, especially while the
land was divided between the royal
houses of Saul and David, 2 Sam. 5:5;
and after the defection of the ten tribes,
1 Kings 12:20; 15:9-17, Judah continuing
a kingdom after the overthrow of Israel,
2 Kings 17., Judah, or Judea, became
applied to all the southern part of the
country, Samaria to the middle, and
Galilee to the north: and this
was common in the time of Christ, John
4:3, 4. Judea was applied to the whole
of Canaan; but as a province, it was
bounded on the north by Samaria, on the
east by the Jordan, on the south by
Idumea or Arabia, and on the west by
- JUDGE, a person in authority to try
causes, and pronounce sentence according
to law, Exod. 2:14; Deut. 17:9-12;
2 Sam. 15:4. Moses originally appointed
judges, at the suggestion of his father-
in-law Jethro, to relieve him from the
daily and very burdensome duties of the
magistracy among the Israelites: they
were constituted with different degrees
of authority and power over the people,
Exod. 18:21-26; Deut. 17:8. These
judges formed various courts in towns
and cities through Israel. See COUNCIL.
God is the righteous
judge of all the
earth, Gen. 18:25; Jesus Christ will
execute the awful and glorious office of
judge of all men, rewarding them accord-
ing to their character and works