Bible Dictionary: In. 1840
gives saving wisdom
- INASMUCH, because, or since that,
Deut. 19:6; Matt. 25:40.
- INCENSE, a rich perfume made of
fragrant spices, to be burnt upon the
golden altar at the times of the morning
and evening sacrifices, Exod. 30:7, 9,
34. Perfume of such a kind seems to
have been necessary on those occasions,
to correct the effluvia of the burning
victims, and this incense was designed
as an emblem of acceptable prayer, Psal.
141:2; Rev. 8:3, 4.
- INCENSED, inflamed with anger, Isa.
- INCLINE, to dispose, so as to attend,
- INCLINED, did incline or attend, Psal.
- INCLINED, disposed, Prov. 5:13. The
ear and the heart are inclined when they
listen to and regard, Jer. 7:24; 25:4.
- INCLOSE, to fence, as with boards, Sol.
- INCLOSED, made fast, as a precious
stone in a rim of metal, Exod. 39:
6: surrounded, as with a wall, Lam 3:
9, or an army, Judg. 20:43; secured, as
fish in a net, Luke 5:6.
- INCONTINENCY, unchastity, 1 Cor. 7:
- INCONTINENT, licentious, intemperate,
2 Tim. 3:3.
- INCORRUPTIBLE, incapable of decay-
ing, or being affected with change, 1 Cor.
15:52; 1 Pet. 1:4
- INCORRUPTION, the state of immor-
tality and glory of the resurrection, 1
- INCREASE, the various produce of the
land, Lev. 25:7: profit by various
means, Deut. 7:13; Ezek. 18:8: en-
largement and extension, Isa. 9:7; Eph.
- INCREASE, to grow more numerous,
as a family or people, Deut. 6:3: to
augment, as property, Eccles. 5:11: to
enlarge, as an army, Judg. 9:29: to
advance in fame, honour, and ifluence,
- INCREASED, did increase or augment,
as in quantity, Gen. 7:17; Psal. 4:7;
or in violence, 1 Kings 22:35; or in
stature, Luke 2:52.
- INCREASING, advancing or progressing,
- INCREDIBLE, not to be believed, Acts
26:8. Ungodly infidels say the resur-
rection is incredible, though omnipotence
can easily effect it, and it is fully assured
in the word of God, 1 Cor. 15:35-52.
- INCURABLE, which cannot be healed,
as a disease or wound, 2 Chron. 21:18:
which cannot be reformed or corrected,
as a corrupt idolatrous community or
nation, Mic. 1:9.
- INDEBTED, in debt, obliged by some
service unrequited, Luke 11:4.
- INDEED, assuredly or really, Deut. 2:
15: most eminently, John 8:31-36.
- IN'DIA, [h], or HIDDU (praise, or law),
a province of the Persian empire, under
Ahasuerus, bounded on the east by the
river Indus, from which Hindus then, or
India proper, derives its name, Esth. 1:
1. India proper, lying west of the river
Indus, comprehends the several pro-
vinces of the vast peninsula of southern
Asia, extending about 2400 miles in
length from east to west, and about
1800 miles from north to south, and sub-
ject to the Crown of Great Britain.
- INDIGNATION, anger mingled with
contempt, as malignant passion in wicked
men, Neh. 4:1; Esth. 5:9; as a righteous
vindication of his honour and holiness in
God, Rom. 2:8; Heb. 10:27.
- INDITING, forming thoughts for speech
and writing, Psal. 45:1.
- INDONESIAN NEW TESTAMENT. See N. T., etc.
- INDUSTRIOUS, diligent in business, 1
- INEXCUSABLE, what will not admit of
apology, Rom. 2:2.
- INFALLIBLE, certain, not to be mis-
taken, Acts 1:3.
- INFAMOUS, notoriously guilty, Ezek.
- INFAMY, public reproach or scorn, Ezek.
- INFANT, a young child, 1 Sam. 15:3;
- INFERIOR, lower, as in rank and power,
Dan. 2:39; or wisdom, Job 12:3.
- INFIDEL, an unbeliever in Divine re-
velation, 2 Cor. 6:15; 1 Tim. 5:8.
- INFINITE, boundless, as the being,
wisdom, and other perfections of God,
Psal. 147:5; Job 11:7: very great,
22:5; Nah. 3:9.
- INFIRMITY, disease, Luke 13:11:
bodily weakness, 1 Tim. 5:23: afflictions
and reproaches, 2 Cor. 12:5-10; Heb. 4:
15: ignorance, Rom. 8:26: sinfulness,
Heb. 5:2; 7:18.
- INFLAME, to excite, as the passions,
with the infatuation of idolatry and excess
of wine, Isa. 5:11.
- INFLAMING, exciting, as with abomina-
ble idolatry, Isa. 57:5.
- INFLAMMATION, feverish disease, Lev.
13:28; Deut. 28:22.
- INFLICTED, imposed as a punishment,
2 Cor. 2:6.
- INFLUENCES, power exercised, as the
light of the sun and of the heavenly
bodies exercises power upon the earth,
- INFOLDING, enclosing or enwrapping,
- INFORM, to tell, make known, or in-
struct, Deut. 17:10.
- INFORMED, did inform or instruct,
Dan. 9:22: did acquaint, as an accusa-
tion, Acts 24:1.
- IN-GATHERING, harvest, Exod. 23:
16. The feast of tabernacles was held at
the close of harvest, and was sometimes
called the Feast of In-gathering, Deut.
- INGRAFTED, fixed influentially in the
mind, as a fruitful branch is grafted into
a tree: thus the doctrine of the gospel is
fixed in the mind of believers, Jam. 1:21.
- INHABIT, to dwell, as in houses, Isa.
- INHABITANTS, dwellers, as in houses
or cities, Gen. 19:25; Isa. 5:9.
- INHABITED, occupied by inhabitants,
Exod. 16:35; Ezek. 12:20.
- INHABITERS, inhabitants, Rev. 8:13;
- INHABITING, dwelling in, Psal. 74:
- INHERIT, to possess, as land by inherit-
ance or right of heirship, Gen. 15:18;
Exod. 32:13: to enjoy by the gift of
sovereign favour, as God grants Heaven
to His adopted children, Matt. 25:34;
1 Cor. 6:9, 10.
- INHERITANCE, an hereditary posses-
sion, Gen. 31:14; 48:6: the patri-
mony of God, our heavenly Father,
bestowed upon believers as His adopted
children, Eph. 1:11, 14, 18; Rom. 8:
14, 17. In eastern countries the portions
of children were distributed to them in
the lifetime of their fathers; hence the
procedure of Abraham, who "gave gifts
unto the sons" of his secondary wives,
"and sent them away from Isaac his son
while he yet lived," Gen. 25:6: and
also the request of the prodigal son, Luke
- INHERITED, did inherit, Josh. 14:1;
- INHERITOR, a possessor by inheritance,
- INIQUITIES, sins, crimes against God,
Lev. 16:21; Heb. 8:12.
- INIQUITY, sin, wickedness in heart and
life, Gen. 15:16; 2 Tim. 2:19.
- INJURED, hurt injustly, Gal. 4:12.
- INJURIOUS, hurtful or mischievous,
1 Tim. 1:13.
- INJUSTICE, wrong, or iniquity, Job
- INK, a writing fluid, Jer. 36:18; 2
- INK-HORN, a portable case for ink, as
commonly used in the East: writers in
oriental countries are persons of note;
and to this day, in countries of the
Turkish empire, they carry their ink in
cases, usually made of horn, by their
sides, Ezek. 9:2, 3, 11.
- INN, a resting-place for travellers, Gen.
42:27; Exod. 4:24. Inns or caravan-
saries, in the East, are in general at this
day but mean accommodations, affording
little besides shelter and water; and tra-
vellers are obliged to carry their own
provisions with them, Luke 2:7; 10:34.
- INNER, interior, as an apartment in a
house, 1 Chron. 28:11; or court, Est.
4:11; 5:1; or prison, Acts 16:24. The
inner man, is the spirit, as distinguished
from the body, Eph. 3:16; 2 Cor. 4:16.
- INNERMOST, most inward or secret,
- INNOCENCY, harmlessness, without
guilt, in relation to men, Gen. 20:5; Dan.
- INNOCENT, harmless, not guilty of
crimes against society, Exod. 23:7;
- INNOCENTS, young children incapable
of crimes, Jer. 2:34.
- INNUMERABLE, more than could be
numbered, Job 21:33; Luke 12:1; Heb.
- INORDINATE, irregular and criminal,
Ezek. 23:11; Col. 3:5.
- INQUISITION, judicial inquiry, Deut.
19:18; Est. 2:23.
- INSCRIPTION, a superscription, as a
writing upon stone &c., as usual on
pillars, altars, coins, &c., Acts 17:23;
Deut. 27:8. Facts of history were
anciently preserved in memory by such
means in Egypt, Greece, and Rome; and
a chronicle of Grecian history, for about
1318 years, was inscribed on a number
of stones, as reported, 264 years before
the birth of Christ; they were purchased
in 1624 by the Earl of Arundel, from
whom they are called the Arundelian
marbles; many, however, doubt the
genuineness of the marbles, and the an-
tiquity of the inscriptions.
- INSPIRATION, a breathing into a person:
thus the Holy Spirit
to pious men, Job 32:8: thus He in-
fluenced the prophets to declare the will
of God to men, 2 Pet. 1:21: and by this
influence the sacred penmen were ex-
cited, instructed, and guided to write the
Holy Scriptures, 2 Tim. 3:16. See the
former part of this volume.
- INSPIRATION, Divine. See Notes.
INSTANT, a moment of time, Isa. 31:
9; Jer. 18:7.
INSTANT, immediately urgent, Luke
23:23: diligent, Rom. 12:12; 2 Tim.
INSTANTLY, urgently, Luke 7:4:
constantly, Acts 27:7.
INSTRUCT, to teach, Deut. 4:36. God
instructs pious men in the ways of holi-
ness, by His Spirit, Neh. 9:20; 1 Cor. 2:
20[?]; and by His word, 2 Tim. 3:16.
INSTRUCTED, did teach, Deut. 32:
10; 2 Kings 12:2.
INSTRUCTED, taught, 2 Chron. 3:3;
Matt. 13:52; Luke 1:4: admonished,
INSTRUCTING, teaching, 2 Tim. 2:25. INSTRUCTION, information, knowledge,
Prov. 15:22: wisdom, Job 33:16;
Prov. 15:33: edification by divine doc-
trine, 2 Tim. 3:16.
INSTRUCTOR, a teacher, Gen. 4:22;
1 Cor. 4:15.
INSTRUMENT, an implement or a tool
used for any work, Exod. 25:9; or for
war, 1 Sam. 8:12; or for music, Psal.
68:25. The members of our bodies
are instruments, or means of sin and of
holiness, Rom. 6:13.
INSURRECTION, a seditious rising up of
the people against magistrates, Ezra 4:
19; Mark 15:7.
INTEGRITY, uprightness in principles
and conduct, Gen. 20:5, 6; Job 2:3-9;
INTELLIGENCE, information by a mes-
senger, Dan. 11:30.
INTEND, to purpose or resolve, Exod.
2:14; Josh. 22:3; Acts 5:28-35.
INTENDED, did purpose, Psal. 21:11. INTENDING, purposing, Acts 12:4. INTENT, the end proposed by an action,
2 Kings 10:19; Eph. 3:10: a purpose,
Jer. 30:24; Heb. 4:12.
INTERCESSION, the act of coming
between two parties, pleading with one
on behalf of the other who has given of-
fence, Jer. 7:16; 36:25; 1 Tim. 2:1.
INTERCESSION OF CHRIST. Christ, as
our High-Priest and Mediator with God
makes intercession for penitents, by ap-
pearing as their advocate in the presence
of God, pleading His own righteousness
and sacrifice on their behalf, Heb. 7:
25-28; 1 John 2:1, 2.
INTERCESSION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.
The Holy Spirit makes intercession for
the saints, by enabling them to pray for
blessings according to the will of God,
Rom. 8:26, 27.
INTERCESSOR, a pleader on behalf of
another, Isa. 59:16.
INTERMEDDLE, to interfere or partici-
pate, Prov. 14:10: to labour for in hope
of obtaining, Prov. 18:1.
INTERMISSION, without ceasing, Lam.
INTERPRET, to explain, as the meaning
of a dream, Gen. 41:8-12: or of a speech
in a foreign language, 1 Cor. 14:5-13.
INTERPRETATION, an explanation, as
of a dream, Gen. 40:5-12; Dan. 2:4-45:
or of a foreign word, John 1:42; Acts 9:
3: or language, Ezra 4:7; 1 Cor. 12:10:
application, 2 Pet. 1:20.
INTERPRETED, explained or expound-
ed, Gen. 40:22; Ezra 4:7: translated,
Matt. 1:23; Mark 5:41; John 1:38-41.
INTERPRETER, one that explains, as a
dream or a foreign tongue, Gen. 40:8;
42:23; 1 Cor. 14:28: an expounder of
the will of God, Job 33:23.
INTERPRETING, knowledge to explain,
INTREAT, to pray earnestly, Exod.
8:8. See ENTREAT.
INTREATY, solicitation, 2 Cor. 8:4;
INTRUDING, presumptuously entering,
INVADE, to enter a country as an
enemy, with a design to ravage or con-
quer it, Hab. 3:16.
INVADED, did invade or enter as an
enemy, 1 Sam. 27:8; 30:1.
INVASION, a hostile entrance of a
country, 1 Sam. 30:14.
INVENT, to find out or contrive, Amos
INVENTED, contrived or made, 2 Chron.
INVENTIONS, contrivances, Prov. 8:
12: sinful and idolatrous practices,
INVENTORS, contrivers, practisers,
INVISIBLE, what cannot be seen with
bodily eyes, Rom. 1:20; Col. 1:15, 16.
God's eternal power and divinity, with
His infinite perfections of wisdom, good-
ness, justice, and holiness are manifest
to every rational being, from the visible
works of creation and providence; as
the apostle argues, leaving wicked men
without excuse in awful guilt, while they
neglect to acknowledge and worship the
glorious Creator, Rom. 1:20, 21.
INVITED, did invite, or call, as to a
feast, 2 Sam. 13:23.
INVITED, called or summoned, as a
guest to an entertainment, Est. 5:12.
INWARD, internal, secret, Prov. 20:27:
relating to the mind, Psal. 5:9; 51:6; Jer.
31:33: intimate, as near friends, Job
19:19. "The inward man," is a re-
newed mind, Rom. 7:22.
INWARDLY, mentally, Psal. 62:4;
Matt. 7:15: in the spirit or heart, Rom.
INWARDS, the bowels, Exod. 29:13;
I'RA, [h] (city, or heap of vision), a prince
in the court of David, 2 Sam. 20:26: as
some suppose, one of his mighty captains,
I'RAD, [h] (wild ass), a grandson of
Cain, Gen. 4:18.
I'RAM, [h] (their city, or their watch), a
duke of Edom, supposed to be the last of
the family of Esau, Gen. 36:43.
IRI'JAH, [h] (the fear of the Lord), a
captain, who arrested Jeremiah the pro-
phet, under pretence of his holding a
treasonable correspondence with the
Chaldeans, Jer. 37:13, 15.
IRON, the hardest and most useful of
all metals, Deut. 8:9. Iron was used
in the earliest ages of the world, the first
tools of which, it has been supposed,
must have been made by the Creator, as
the art of working in it must have been
taught by His inspiration, Gen. 4:22.
Moses mentions the iron bedstead of
king Og, Deut. 3:11: he refers to the
furnace for smelting iron, 4:20; and to
mines of iron, 8:9: to instruments of
iron, Num. 35:16, as the axe, Deut.
19:5, and other tools, 27:5: so that
the working of iron must have been
common, while the Canaanites had many
hundreds of iron chariots, Josh. 17:16;
Judg. 4:3. Various allusions are made
to this valuable metal in the Scriptures;
as obstinate disobedience is called a
"neck with an iron sinew," Isa. 48:
4; and an impenitent heart is called
a "conscience seared with a hot iron[,]"
1 Tim. 4:2.
IRON, made of iron, Deut. 37:5;
I'SAAC, יצחק (laughter), the son of Abra-
ham, by his first wife Sarah, according
to the promise of God, Gen. 21:1-6.
Isaac was a man of exalted piety, and
his whole history abounds with divine
instruction, especially his extraordinary
birth; his early years; his persecution
by Ishmael, 21:10-12; Gal. 4:22-30;
his being offered in sacrifice by his
father, Gen. 22:1-19; Heb. 11:17-19;
his marriage with Rebekah, and the
character of his sons Jacob and Esau.
Isaac was called to endure various severe
trials, some of which arose from his own
infirmities: but he died at the advanced
age of 180 years, and was buried by his
sons Esau and Jacob, Gen. 36:27-29.
ISA'IAH, [h] (salvation of the Lord),
one of the most eminent of the prophets
of God: he flourished in the kingdom of
Judah, under several of its kings, for
about sixty years, Isa. 1:1. Uzziah be-
gan to reign in the year B.C. 810, and
Hezekiah died in the year B.C. 698,
between which period of 112 years,
Isaiah exercised his prophetic ministry:
those who allow the shortest duration of
his public office, reckon it at forty-eight,
the period between those two kings;
but it is evident that he lived many
years in the reign of Hezekiah, and tra-
dition says, that he was put to death by
king Manasseh, during his alienation
from God, 2 Kings 21:16.
ISAIAH, THE BOOK OF: this is the
largest and most important volume of
the prophetic writings, and which is
remarkable for the elegance and sub-
limity of its composition. The former
part of Isaiah contains a series of dis-
courses relating to the condition of the
kingdom of Judah; its capital city, Jeru-
salem; the iniquity of the people; the
necessity of repentance, and the mercy
of God through the Messiah, with vari-
ous references to the people of the sur-
rounding countries: the latter twenty-
seven chapters contain a series of oracles
referring to the Babylonish captivity of
the guilty Jews, and their future eman-
cipation from that state of bondage,
expanding into glorious views of the
spiritual deliverance of the church, by
the mission and humiliation of the Mes-
siah; the enlargement and prosperity of
the kingdom of Christ on earth, and its
consummate felicity in Heaven in the
presence of God. See Commentary.
IS'CAH, [h] (he that protects), a sister of
Lot, and, as the Jews say, with which
some [important] Christian commentators
agree, the same with Sarah, the wife of
Abraham, Gen. 11:27-29.
ISCAR'IOT, [g] (a man of murder),
the surname of Judas, the betrayer of
Christ, Matt. 10:4. See JUDAS.
ISH'BAK, [h] (who is empty or aban-
doned), a son of Abraham, by Keturah,
ISH'BI-BE'NOB, [h] (he that sits in
prophecy), a giant warrior of the Philis-
tines, 2 Sam. 21:16.
ISH'BOSHETH, [h] (a man of shame),
a son and the successor of king Saul on
the throne of Israel: he was basely
murdered by two of his captains, who
vainly hoped, by this atrocious act of
treason, to secure the favour of David,
as they perceived he was prospering,
being seated on the throne of Judah,
2 Sam. 2:8-10; 4:5-7.
I'SHI, [h] (my husband), the title by
which the penitent and restored Israel-
ites were to address God, Hos. 2:16;
ISH'MAEL, [h] (God who hears), the
son of Abraham, by Hagar, Gen. 16.
21. 25. He had a numerous family,
and became a daring chieftain in Arabia:
his personal history is instructive, Gal.
4.; and that of his posterity is remark-
ably illustrative of the Divine prediction,
Gen. 16:12, in the several tribes of
Arabs, under the designation of Ishmael-
ites, Hagarenes, and in modern ages,
ISHMAEL, a prince of the royal family
of Judah, who treacherously murdered
Gedaliah, who had been left as governor
of Judea by the king of Babylon, Jer.
ISH'MAELITES, descendants of Ishmael,
the son of Abraham, Gen. 37:25-28.
ISLAND, an isle, a tract of land, sur-
rounded with water, as Melita, Acts
28:1, 7, 9.
ISLE, an island, as Cyprus, Acts 13:
4-6. The prophets, in speaking of isles,
referred not only to the isles situated in
the Mediterranean sea, or to islands pro-
perly so called, but to remote regions of
the earth separated from Canaan and
other countries by seas, Gen. 10:5; Est.
10:1; Psal. 72:10; Isa. 60:9.
IS'RAEL, ישראל (a prince with God), the
name which God gave to Jacob, in hon-
our of his firm faith and ardent prayer,
Gen. 32:28; 35:10. The personal
history of this patriarch, both with re-
gard to his imperfections and his piety,
as well as his various domestic trials, is
most instructive. Israel died in Egypt
in the year B.C. 1689, aged 147 years,
Gen. 49:33; 50.
ISRAEL, the people of Israel, descend-
ants of Jacob, Exod. 4:22; 5:2.
ISRAEL: this name, as a title of hon-
our, is given to the true [family] of
God, including the whole body of pious
persons throughout the world in every
age, Gal. 6:16 ["the Israel of God"].
IS'RAELITE, a descendant of Israel,
Num. 25:14; John 1:47; Rom. 11:1.
Nathaniel is called an Israelite indeed,
on account of his uprightness and piety,
ISRAELITES, the body or nation of the
people of Israel, Exod. 9:7: thus they
were generally called till after the capti-
vity of Judah in Babylon, since which
time they have been called Jews. See
IS'SACHAR, [h] (price or reward), a
son of Jacob, by Leah, Gen. 30:18.
ISSACHAR, THE TRIBE OF: this tribe
was located in the most fertile part of
Canaan, along the great valley of Jezreel,
and they appear to have been a laborious
people, Josh. 17:10, 11.
ISSUE, a flowing, as of a river, Ezek.
47:8; or of blood, Matt. 9:20: off-
spring, as children, Gen. 48:6: thoughts
and purposes, Prov. 4:23.
ISSUE, to flow, as a river, Ezek. 47:
8: offspring, 2 Kings 20:18.
ISSUED, did issue or flow, as water,
Ezek. 47:1; or flame, Dan. 7:10;
or a troop of concealed soldiers, Josh.
ITAL'IAN, relating to Italy, as a cohort
of about a thousand soldiers, called the
Italian cohort, Acts 10:1.
- ITALIAN BIBLE, Italiano. List: Ministry.
IT'ALY, Ίταλια (from vitula, signifying
a calf): this famous country forms a
peninsula in the south of Europe, and
the seat of government of the vast Ro-
man empire, whose capital was Rome,
Acts 18:2. See ROME.
ITCH, a loathsome disease, chiefly af-
fecting the skin, Deut. 28:27.
ITCHING, restless, as men dissatisfied
with the simplicity of Divine doctrine
are said to have itching ears, 2 Tim.
ITHA'MAR, [h] (island of the palm- tree),
the fourth son of Aaron, but of whose
history little is recorded, Exod. 6:23;
28:21; Num. 4:28; 1 Chron. 24:
ITH'IEL, [h] (God with me), a dis-
ciple of Agur, and to whom, with Ucal,
that ancient instructor delivered his pro-
phecy, Prov. 30:1.
IT'TAI, [h] (strong or sign), a faithful
follower of David, and a general in his
army, 2 Sam. 15:19-22; 18:2.
ITURE'A, [g] (which is guarded), a
north-western province of Arabia, bor-
dering on Syria, Luke 3:1.
I'VAH, [h] (iniquity), an idolatrous city,
as appears, in Syria, 2 Kings 18:34.
IVORY, שן SCHEN (a tooth), Ezek. 27:
6, 15. Ivory is a well-known, hard, and
beautiful white substance, chiefly the
tusks of elephants; very much, however,
that is now used in cutlery and various
fancy articles in Europe is taken from
other animals which have large tusks.
It appears to have been brought in
abundance to Canaan, especially after
the time of Solomon, 1 Kings 22:39;
Amos 3:15; 6:4: and that flourishing
monarch had a throne made of ivory
and gold, 1 Kings 10:18-22. Elephants'
teeth are found of an astonishing size:
two of these huge tusks are to be seen
in London, one eight feet six inches
long, weighing 133 lbs.; the other eight
feet long, weighing 140 lbs.: but an
elephant's tusk, weighing 330 lbs., is said
to have been brought from Sumatra, and
sold at Amsterdam!
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