Landmarks of                    

A Comprehensive Study
for use in the
training of men for the Baptist ministry

Prepared by:
Pastor Robert J. Sargent

[CHM note: some info from an old file.]

        The following lectures are two lectures from the ENGLISH BIBLE: 
        MANUSCRIPT EVIDENCE Lecture notes available from Bible Baptist 
        Church Publications.

        This study in BIBLE INTRODUCTION fully upholds the Authorized,
        King James Version as the pure, preserved Word Of God in
        English. The notes deal with both Biblical and historical
        reasons for this stand, covering the issues causing much 
        consternation today in a documented, non-inflammatory way.

        Pastors will be glad to find these notes also maintain the 
        historic Baptist position without having to resort to the 
        'original Greek' or 'a better translation.'

        -305 pages of TYPESET Lecture Notes, including CHARTS, STUDY

        -52 pages of Appendices, listing major Papyrus, Unical, and 
         Minuscule manuscripts, PLUS a list of English translations
         since 1611 A.D.

        -Spiral Bound.

        -$25.00 plus shipping and handling (10%)

        ORDER FROM:     Bible Baptist Church
                        1219 N. Harns Road
                        Oak Harbor, WA 98277
                        Telephone: (206) 675-8311

        Lecture One is the course description
        Lecture Two is a Lecture on Revelation.



Welcome to this series of lectures on the subject of our English Bible. It 
is hoped these notes will provide a clear, concise, and accurate study of 
the doctrinal, textual, and historical basis for the Bible we hold in our 
hands - the Authorized, King James Version.

        The objectives of this course entitled "English Bible: Manuscript 
        Evidences" are as follows:

   A. To acquaint the student with the general history of the Bible as it 
      came from God to man.

   B. To give the student an understanding of the various kinds of 
      manuscript evidence, their characteristics, and their use in Bible 

   C. To instruct the student in lower (textual) criticism by examining 
      the popular theories held today.

   D. To give the student an understanding of the issues relating to Bible 
      Versions facing believers today.

   E. To give the student a firm grasp of the doctrine of the Preservation 
      Of The Word Of God.

   F. To strengthen the student's confidence in the Authorized, King James 
      Version as the preserved Word of God.

   G. To equip the student to defend confidently the Authorized, King James 
      Version both Scripturally and factually.

   H. To foster a greater love and respect for, and to increase the 
      student's faith in, the Word of God; and to enhance his use of the 
      Word of God in preaching, soul winning, and personal devotion.

   I. To stimulate the student and prepare him for further studies in the 
      Word of God.
    What we believe about the Bible determines what we believe about all 
    other doctrines.  This is because our faith is BIBLE BASED.
    If we are "off" on the Bible, we will be "off" on all the other 
    doctrines, and, if we have the wrong Bible, we will have wrong 
    beliefs accordingly.


Psalm 11:3 "If the foundations be destroyed, what can the righteous do?"

   A. Which Bible?

   Theological battles have raged throughout most of the centuries of 
   Christendom's history.  All the great doctrines taught in the Bible have 
   at some point in time been challenged and defended.  Creeds have been 
   written, wars have been fought, and denominations founded as a direct 
   result of passionate controversy.
   To the twentieth century may rightfully be given the title, "The Battle 
   For The Bible." Of all the issues fought over, that of the Bible ranks 

   In the earlier decades, the battle-lines were formed over the issues of  
   Authorship (Inspiration) and Authority (credibility), and the outcome 
   was the broad division of Christendom into two camps - the liberal and 
   the conservative. It was at this time that the terms "modernist" and 
   "fundamentalist" came to be used.

   The last decades of the 20th Century have seen the matter of the Word of 
   God become a great issue within the "conservative camp", to the place that 
   it has now become a point of division amongst fundamentalists.  Like all 
   theological controversies, this has raged with much feeling and fire, and 
   at times has been fueled with personal abuse rather than substantive facts.
   Nevertheless, the burning question facing Bible-believing Baptists in this 
   present day and age is, "Which Bible?"   There is a multiplicity of 
   Versions available, each with varying claims and style, and each with 
   significant differences in key doctrinal passages.  If truth is narrow, 
   then they all cannot be right!

   A secondary question is, "Do we really have the Word of God available 
   to us today?"   After all, it has been over 1,890 years since the ink 
   dried on the Book of The Revelation, and are we not taught that the Bible 
   was a "lost Book" for the best part of 1,000 years?

   B. Our God Is At Stake.
   What kind of God do we have anyway?   When He speaks, is His voice so 
   "fuzzy" and His words so "garbled" that we can hear Him out of any 
   Version of the Bible we choose?
   When He gives us His Word in writing, is He so inept as to lose it for so 

   Or can it be that we do in fact have a clear, authoritative Word of God 
   available to us today - the same Bible as had the early Christians?  If 
   God is truly the God of Heaven, all powerful, all knowing, all loving, 
   then we can be assured the answer is a resounding "yes!"

   This course of study is mainly concerned with the more recent of the 
   above issues - that of Authenticity.  Which Bible is the Word of God, 
   if indeed we do have it?

   The story of our English Bible is fascinating, amazing, and humbling.  It 
   is the story of how the very words of the living God were transmitted 
   from the throne-room of glory into our frail, trembling hands.
   Holding the Bible is like standing in the presence of Almighty God; like 
   sitting at the feet of Jesus; like watching the workings of the Holy 

   It is THE WORD OF GOD!      


     Lecture 1: INTRODUCTION

        I.   Aim of the Course
        II.  Importance of the Course
        III. Outline of the Lectures
        IV.  Overview of the Course
        V.   Grading of the Course
        VI.  Bibliography & Helpful Texts

     Lecture 2: REVELATION

        I.   Revelation Defined
        II.  Revelation Explained
             A. General revelation
             B. Special revelation
        III. Revelation Contrasted

     Lecture 3: INSPIRATION
        I.   Biblical Statements of Inspiration
        II.  Inspiration Defined
             A. Confluent
             B. Verbal
             C. Plenary
             D. Inerrant
             E. Infallible   
        III. Theories of Inspiration
        IV.  Old Testament Inspiration
        V.   New Testament Inspiration
        VI.  Evidences of Inspiration

     Lecture 4: COMMUNICATION

        I.   Development of Languages and Writing.
        II.  Development of the English Language
        III. Biblical Languages & Writing
        IV.  Transmission of the Biblical Text
             A. Manuscript Types
             B. Manuscript Materials
             C. Manuscript Terminology

     Lecture 5: CANONIZATION

        I.   The Meaning of Canon and Canonicity
        II.  The Standards or Tests of Canonicity
        III. Terms Used in the Canonical Process
             A. Homologoumena
             B. Antilogoumena
             C. Apocrypha
             D. Pseudepigrapha   
        IV.  The Old Testament Canon
        V.   The New Testament Canon
     Lecture 6: PRESERVATION

        I.   The Doctrine of Preservation
        II.  The Logic of Preservation
        III. The Extent of Preservation
        IV.  The Various Views of Preservation
        V.   The Nature of Preservation
             A. Physical perpetuity
             B. Textual purity
        VI.  The Preservation of the Old Testament    
             A. Jewish Witness to the Hebrew Text
             B. Samaritan Witness to the Hebrew Text
             C. Christian Witness to the Hebrew Text
        VII. The Preservation of the New Testament
             A. The Old Latin Bible
             B. The Old Syriac Bible
             C. The Gothic Bible

     Lecture 7: DESECRATION

        I.   The Nature of Textual Corruption
        II.  The Background of Textual Corruption
        III. The Great Center of Textual Corruption
        IV.  The Great Agent of Textual Corruption
        V.   The Products of Textual Corruption
             A. The Eusebio-Constantine Bible
             B. The Latin Vulgate
        VI.  The Septuagint Question

     Lecture 8: EMANCIPATION - I
        I.   Foundations of the Reformation
        II.  Desiderius Erasmus
             A. The Life of Erasmus
             B. The Works of Erasmus
             C. The Criticisms of Erasmus
             D. The Johannine Comma
        III. The Textus Receptus

     Lecture 9: EMANCIPATION - II
        I.   The Period of Manuscript Collection
             A. Polyglot Bibles
             B. Critical Editions of the Received Text
             C. The Work of Tischendorf
        II.  The Major Uncial Manuscripts
        III. The Major Minuscule Manuscripts
        IV.  The Major Papyrus Manuscripts

     Lecture 10: TRANSLATION

        I.   Preliminary Considerations Concerning Translation  
        II.  Old English Translations
        III. Middle English Translations
        IV.  Wycliffe's English Version
        V.   Tyndale's English Version
        VI.  [Etc.]

     Lecture 11: CORONATION -- The Authorized, King James Version

        I.   Its Historical Setting
        II.  Its Proposal
        III. Its Translation
        IV.  Its Translators
        V.   Its Textual Basis
        VI.  Its Language

     Lecture 12: PUBLICATION

        I.   Editions of the Authorized Version
        II.  Revisions of the Authorized Version
        III. Reception of the Authorized Version
        IV.  Excellence of the Authorized Version
        V.   Influence of the Authorized Version

     Lecture 13: DISCRIMINATION
        I.   Scientific Biblical Criticism Defined
        II.  The Historical Background of Scientific Biblical Criticism
        III. An Examination of Higher Criticism
        IV.  An Examination of Lower (Textual) Criticism
        V.   The Westcott and Hort Theory
        VI.  The Westcott and Hort Theory Refuted
        VII. Major Differences with Critical Texts

     Lecture 14: PROLIFERATION
        I.   Early Revisions of the Authorized Version
        II.  Early 20th Century Perversions
        III. Late 20th Century Perversions
        IV.  Modern Methods of Translating
        V.   Testing Modern Perversions

     Lecture 15: ALTERCATION
        I.   An Overview of the "KJV Issue" Today
        II.  Arguments Leveled Against the KJV
        III. Arguments Defending the KJV

    The diagram on the following page shows the rationale of this course of study,
    and depicts the historical basis of how we came to receive our Bible.   Such an
    outline may be termed, "From God To Us," since we begin with the
    supernatural revelation of the Word of God to holy men of God, and conclude
    with the printed Word of God we hold in our hands each day.

Page 7





Page 8


   A. Quarterly Grade

       This will consist of the following:

       1. Average Grade Of Assignments......... 50%
       2. Quarterly Examination................ 50%
   B. Course Grade

       This will consist of the following:
       1. Average Of Quarterly Grades.......... 70%
       2. Course Paper......................... 30%

   C. Grading System

          A+   97 -100%
          A-   94 - 96%  Excellent work

          B+   90 - 93%
          B-   87 - 89%  Very Good work

          C+   82 - 86%
          C-   79 - 81%  Average work

          D    70 - 78%  Below Average work

          F    Below 70% Fail

          I    Incomplete (Return in 1 week for credit)

Grades will be reduced for the following reasons:
  • Late assignments (unless Providentially hindered).
  • 2 points per day late.
  • Inexcusable absence from regular lectures.
  • More than 3 such absences per quarter will result in automatic quarterly grade of F.
  • Careless spelling and grammar. (Pastors need to exhibit skill in this area.)

    Page 9


      The following texts are presented for the information of the student.   These, and
      other books pertaining to the subject, have been consulted or referred to in the
      preparation of these lecture notes.   They are not necessarily endorsed as
      "recommended," and students should be aware that doctrinal errors and
      un-Christlike attitudes are likely to be found -- even in books defending the
      Authorized Version.

      For a guide to purchasing any of the books listed below, the student is directed
      to his pastor.

      • Beale, D. A Pictorial History of Our English Bible. Greenville,
        South Carolina: Bob Jones University Press, 1982 [?]
      • Bruce, F. F. History of the Bible in English. New York, New
        York: Oxford University Press, 1978
        [Info only: W&H, pro- RCC.]
      • Bruce, F. F. The Books and the Parchments. Old Tappan, New
        Jersey: Revell, 1984
        [Info only: heresy?]
      • Ewert, D. From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations.
        Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 1983 [?]
      • Geisler, N. L. & Nix, W. E. From God to Us. Chicago, Illinois:
        Moody Press, 1981
        [Info only: non-KJV refs.]
      • Grant, F. W. Translating the Bible. Edinburgh: Nelson, 1961 [?]
      • Kenyon, Sir F. The Story of the Bible. London: John Murray,
        [Info only: heresy?]
      • Lewis, J. P. The English Bible from KJV to NIV. Grand Rapids,
        Michigan: Baker, 1981 [?]
      • Miller, H. S. General Biblical Introduction. Houghton, New
        York: Word Bearer Press, 1960 [Info only: W&H.]
      • Vance, L. A Brief History of English Bible Translations.
        Pensacola, Florida: Vance Publications, 1993 [?]

      • Burgon, J. W. The Revision Revised. Collingswood, New Jersey:
        The Bible For Today (Classic reprint), 1984 [ok]
      • Fuller, D. O. Which Bible? Grand Rapids, Michigan: Grand
        Rapids International Publications, 1975 [B]
      • Fuller, D. O. True or False? Grand Rapids, Michigan: Grand
        Rapids International Publications, 1973
      • Hills, E. F. Believing Bible Study Des Moines, Iowa: The
        Christian Research Press, 1977 [ok]

      • Letis, T. P. (Ed.) The Majority Text: Essays and Reviews. Grand
        Rapids, Michigan: Institute for Biblical Textual Studies, 1987 [?]
      • MacLean, W. The Providential Preservation of the Greek Text
        of the New Testament. Gisborne, New Zealand: Te Rau Press,
        1977 [?]
      • Maynard, M. A History of the Debate over I John 5:7-8.
        Tempe, AZ: Comma Publications, 1995 [ok]
      • Pickering, W. N. The Identity of the New Testament Text.
        Nashville, Tennessee: Nelson, 1977 [?]
      • Robertson A. T. An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of
        the New Testament.
        Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran
        & Company, 1925. [Info only: ok if KJV.]
      • Ruckman, P. S. The Christian's Handbook of Manuscript
        Evidence. Palatka: Pensacola Bible Press [?]
      • Ruckman P. S. The Christian's Handbook of Biblical
        Scholarship. Pensacola, Florida: Bible Baptist Bookstore, 1988 [?]
      • Sturtz, H. A. The Byzantine Text-Type and New Testament
        Textual Criticism. Nashville, Tennessee: Nelson, 1984 [?]
      • Van Bruggen, J. The Ancient Text of the New Testament.
        Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Premier Printing, 1983. [?]
      • Waite, D. A. Burgon's Vindication of the Last Twelve Verses
        of Mark.
        Collingwood, New Jersey: Bible For Today, 1994 [B]

      • Brandenburg, Kent (Editor). Thou Shalt Keep Them. El
        Sobrante, California: Pillar & Ground Publishing, 2003 [B]
      • Bridges, R. & Weigle, L. A. The King James Bible Word Book.
        Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, 1994 [?]
      • Cloud, D. W. Myths About the King James Bible. Oak Harbor,
        Washington: Way Of Life Literature, 1993 rev. [B]
      • Cloud, D. W. For Love of the Bible. London, Ontario, Canada:
        Way of Life Literature
      • Cloud, D. W. Testimonies of King James Bible Defenders.
        London, Ontario, Canada: Way of Life Literature
      • Cimino, D. The Book. Harlingen: Wonderful Word Publishers. [?]
      • Grady, W. P. Final Authority. Schereville, Indiana: Grady
        Publications, 1993 [?]
      • Hills, E. F. The King James Version Defended. Des Moines,
        Iowa: The Christian Research Press, 1979
      • Lackey, B. Why I Believe the Old King James Bible.
        Chattanooga, Tennessee: Personal publication [B]

      • McClure, A. W. Translators Revived. Worthington: Maranatha
        Publications [ok]
      • Paine, G. S. The Men Behind the King James Version. Grand
        Rapids, Michigan: Baker, 1977 [ok]
      • Reagan, D. F. The King James Version of 1611. The Myth Of
        Early Revisions. Knoxville: Trinity Baptist Temple] [?]
      • Van Bruggen, J. The Future of the Bible. Nashville, Tennessee:
        Nelson, 1972 [?]
      • Waite, D. A. Defending the King James Version.
        Collingswood, New Jersey: Bible For Today, 1992
      • [omit 1.] 1995

      • Cloud, D. W. Unholy Hands on God's Holy Book. Oak Harbor,
        Washington: Way Of Life Literature, 1985.
      • Cloud, D. W. The Bible Society, The Good News Bible and the
        Oak Harbor, Washington: Way Of Life.
      • Cloud, D. W. Dynamic Equivalency -- Death Knell of Pure
        Oak Harbor, Washington: Way Of Life
      • Cloud, D. W. Rome and the Bible. London, Ontario, Canada:
        Way of Life Publications.
      • Cloud, D. W. Myths of Modern Bible Versions. London,
        Ontario, Canada: Way of Life Literature.
      • Cloud, D. W. Examining James White's "The King James'
        Only Controversy"
        London, Ontario, Canada: Way of Life
      • Cloud, D. W. What About Ruckman? London, Ontario, Canada:
        Way of Life Literature.
      • Countess, R. H. The Jehovah's Witnesses' New Testament.
        Phillipsburg: Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing, 1987. [?]
      • Coy, G. H. The Inside Story of the Anglo American Revised
        New Testament. Personal publication, 1973 [?]
      • Fowler, E. W. Evaluating Versions of the New Testament.
        Watertown, Wisconsin: Maranatha Baptist Press, 1981 [Info only: ok if KJV.]
      • Moser, M. L. Jr. Good News for Modern Man: The Devil's
        Little Rock, Arkansas: Challenge Press, 1970. [B]
      • Moser, M. L. Jr. The New English Bible, Satan's Polluted
        Little Rock, Arkansas: Challenge Press, 1971.

      • Moser, M. L. Jr. The Case Against the Living Bible. Little Rock,
        Arkansas: Challenge Press, 1973.
      • Nowlin, G. The Paraphrased Perversion of the Bible.
        Collingswood, New Jersey: The Bible For Today, 1975 [?]
      • Ward, N. Famine in the Land. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Which
        Bible Society. [?]

    The word "revelation" simply means a revealing, and in theology is applied 
    to God's revealing of Himself to mankind.
    Without revelation, we wouldn't know anything about God - or even that there 
    was a God.  Thus we begin this study with the premise that God desires to 
    make Himself known to man, and has revealed Himself at various times and in 
    different ways - Hebrews 1:1,2; 2:1-4.
       "Revelation is the unveiling of something previously hidden so that it 
       may be seen for what it is."
       All revelation is supernatural in that it has God for its source and 
       truth as its end.  See: Deuteronomy 29:29.
        The revelation of God to man falls into two basic categories:
    GENERAL                  T               SPECIAL
    REVELATION               O             REVELATION
         A. General Revelation.
            General (or Natural) Revelation is that knowledge of God derived 
            from the light of natural things.
            General Revelation is accessible to all men and is addressed to all 
            intelligent creatures.  It is the revelation of God to man in:
            1. Creation.
               See: Psalm 19:1-6; Isaiah 40:12,26; Acts 14:17; Psalm 8:1; 104:24.
            2. History.
               See: Psalm 9:16a
            3. Conscience.
               See: Romans 2:15
               General Revelation bears witness to the existence of God, the 
               power of God, and the need for God. However it does not testify 
               to the personality of God or the plan of salvation.
               According to Romans 1:18-20, the effect of General Revelation is 
               to condemn man.  Why? See: Romans 1:21.
               General Revelation alone is inadequate to save man for two 
               a. Creation has been affected by the entrance of sin.  
                  See: Genesis 3:17; Romans 8:22.
                  The witness is marred and blurred, and is now a monument to 
                  God's curse upon sin.
               b. Man himself has also been affected by sin, to the extent that 
                  he is not able to read the evidences of God afforded in nature 
         B. Special Revelation.
            Special Revelation is direct, divine intervention in the affairs of 
            this world, and is God revealing Himself through special acts done 
            by His Person.
            This kind of revelation has come to man by various means - 
            Hebrews 1:1:
            1. Through Dreams.
               See: Genesis 37:5-10
            2. Through Visions.
               See: Daniel 8:1
            3. Through Urim And Thummin.
               See: Numbers 27:21
            4. Through Audible Voices.
               See: I Samuel 3:1-10
            5. Through Animals.
               See: Numbers 22:28
            6. Through Angels.
               See: Luke 1:26-37
            The "crown" of God's special revelation of Himself to man was in the 
            coming to earth of the Lord Jesus Christ.  See: John 1:14; 14:9.
            The "completion" of God's special revelation of Himself to man is 
            the BIBLE. 
            According to Psalm 19:7-14, the effect of special Biblical revelation 
    is to save man.  Thus this kind of revelation is redemptive 
            and remedial.
            Special Revelation is necessary because of:
            a. The effects of sin (as outlined above).
            b. The transcendence of God (the fact that He is so separated, holy, 
               that man could not find Him).
            c. The Personality of God (the fact that He is a God of love Who 
               desires fellowship with man).
            "Without special revelation, general revelation would be for sinful 
            men incomplete and ineffective, and could issue, as in fact it has 
            issued wherever it alone has been accessible, only in leaving them 
            without excuse (Romans 1:20). 
            "Without general revelation, special revelation would lack that basis 
            in the fundamental knowledge of God as the mighty and wise, righteous 
            and good, Maker and Ruler of all things, apart from which the further 
            revelation of this great God's interventions in the world for the 
            salvation of sinners could not be either intelligible, credible, or 
            operative." Warfield B. B.  Inspiration And Authority Of The Bible.  
            Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Baker, 1948
         Several terms are often associated with any discussion on the doctrine 
         of the Bible. As an aid to understanding what is meant by "Revelation," 
         these terms are contrasted below:
         A. Revelation vs. Inspiration.
            1. Revelation makes truth known.
               Inspiration provides for its inerrant recording.
            2. The Bible contains Revelation.
               The entire Bible is Inspired.
               The writers of the Bible drew from two different sources for their 
               a. Special revelation - i.e. things that only God could make 
                  known. e.g. the account of Creation, the fall of Satan, etc.
               b. Personal observation - i.e. known facts that resulted from what 
                  the writer saw, e.g. the crossing of the Red Sea, or, from 
                  existing documents, e.g. Ezra 6:1-12.     
               Both kinds of narrative are recorded for us in the Bible. 
               Inspiration ensures both are recorded without error.
            3. Revelation Is Progressive.
               Inspiration is plenary.
               God did not reveal all truth at the beginning.  Much truth was 
               revealed progressively over centuries - I Peter 1:9-12.  Some 
               examples of this would be:
               a. The Name of God.
               b. The Coming of Messiah.
               On the contrary, there is NO SUCH THING as progressive 
               inspiration. All parts of the Bible were inspired of God, and 
               equally inspired.
         B. Revelation vs. Illumination.
            Illumination is the Holy Spirit-given understanding of revelation or 
            revealed truth.
            The believer enjoys this blessing today as he studies the Word of 
            God.  See: I John 2:20,21,27.
            The presence or absence of illumination with the writers of the Word 
            of God had no bearing on the inspiration of the Bible.
            1. Sometimes the words of the Biblical writers were the result of 
               careful research. e.g. Luke 1:1-4, where Luke had full 
               understanding of what he was writing.
            2. Sometimes the Biblical writers both understood what they were 
               writing and recognized the words they were penning as coming 
               directly from God. e.g. II Samuel 23:2.  
               In such cases, the writers had full illumination of what was being 
            3. Sometimes the Biblical writers did not know the importance of the 
               words they penned, recognizing them as divine, but not 
               understanding them. e.g. Daniel 12:8,9.
            4. Sometimes, the source of the words neither understood the words 
               nor recognized them as divine. e.g. John 11:49-52.
            The point is, whether the writer had illumination or not, 
            inspiration provided that God's exact message was truthfully 
            I Corinthians 2:9,10 - REVELATION   - "Disclosure"
            I Corinthians 2:12   - ILLUMINATION - "Discovery"
            I Corinthians 2:13   - INSPIRATION  - "Documenting"

    [For Lecture 3 here, see theol1b.htm#Bible .]

    [Christian Helps Ministry (USA)] [Christian Home Bible Course]