Bible Dictionary: T.   1840

  1. TA'ANACH, [h] (who humbles thee), a city
    of Canaan allotted to Manasseh, Josh.
    21:25; Judg. 1:27; 1 Kings 4:12.
  2. TA'BEAL, [h] (good God), an [important]
    prince of Israel, or of Syria, as some have
    supposed, "Remaliah's son," Pekah, the
    king of Israel, Isa. 7:6; 2 Kings 15:27, 37.
  3. TA'BEEL, or TABEAL, one of the Syrian
    rulers in Judea, who opposed the rebuild-
    ing of the temple at Jerusalem, Ezra 4:7.
  4. TABE'RAH, [h] (burning), a place in
    the desert of Sinai, where a burning
    wind destroyed many of the Israelites on
    account of their murmuring, Num. 11:3;
    1 Cor. 10:10: it was called also Kibroth-
    hattaavah, Num. 11:34.
  5. TABERING, beating or striking, as being
    vexed, Nah. 2:7.
  6. TABERNACLE, a tent, as a temporary
    shelter from the wind and rain, formed
    of skins or cloth supported by poles and
    cordage, Isa. 4:6; Jer. 10:20; Matt. 17:
    4: a domestic habitation, which was a
    large tent, Heb. 11:9; Gen. 18:1, 10:
    the human
    body, as a frail and temporary
    covering in which the soul is lodged, 2
    Cor. 5:1-4; 1 Pet. 1:14.   See TENT.
    or of WITNESS.   This costly tent was
    constructed by
    Moses at the foot of
    mount Sinai, for the purpose of Divine
    worship, by the sacrifices and interces-
    sions of Aaron and the assistant priests,
    on behalf of the congregation of Israel,
    Exod. 25:9; 26:1, 26; Num. 4:16.

    This sacred building is computed to
    have been about fifty-five feet in length,
    eighteen feet in breadth, and the same
    in height: the two sides and the west
    end consisted of a frame-work of shittim-
    wood boards, having tenons to fit in
    sockets made of solid silver, and the
    whole overlaid with plates of gold.   This
    fabric was put together after the manner
    of modern shop-window-shutters, and
    held fast by five bars on each side, bracing
    the boards as a kind of ribs: the entrance
    at the east end had no boards, but five
    pillars of wood, overlaid with gold, each
    standing in a socket of brass, Exod. 27:
    15-18; 36:20-38.   The tabernacle was
    divided into two apartments, separated
    by a rich veil or curtain: the first, or
    larger one, was the "holy place," contain-
    ing the golden altar of incense, the table
    of shew-bread, and the golden candle-
    stick: the inner apartment, the "most
    holy place,"
    or "Holy of Holies," con-
    tained only the ark of the covenant, with
    its sacred contents, surmounted with its
    cherubim of glory overspreading the
    mercy-seat.   Into the holy place the
    priest entered daily, to offer incense at
    the time of the burnt-offerings, morning
    and evening; but into the Holy of Holies,
    the high-priest alone entered, only once
    every year, on the day of atonement.
    The brazen altar for the burnt-offerings,
    and the laver, were placed at the front
    of the tabernacle, which was enclosed by

    an open court of one hundred cubits long
    and fifty cubits wide, having rich curtains
    supported by pillars of brass: here the
    elders of the nation assembled daily, to
    represent the people at the time of sacri-
    fice, in witnessing the significant atone-
    ment for sin.   The whole structure with
    its enclosure is included in the taber-
    nacle, 25:10, 40; 26:31, 37; 27:21;
    29:38, 42; 30:1-10; 40:2, 38; Heb. 9:
    2, 21.   The tabernacle was covered with
    curtains, of which the innermost was of
    blue, striped with purple, scarlet and
    crimson, upon which was a covering of
    goat's hair, as a defence against the rain;
    and over these were two others of sheep-
    skins dyed red, and one above of badger's
    skins.   The court of the tabernacle also
    was enclosed with ten large curtains of
    fine twined linen, wrought as tapestry,
    defended by others of goat's hair, 26:
    1, 2, 7, 16.   The tabernacle had no win-
    dow; but the lamps on the candlestick
    gave light to the holy place: the Holy of
    Holies was dark; yet, being the visible
    dwelling-place of the God of Israel, it
    was enlightened by the Shechinah, the
    glory of the LORD, 40:34.   This sacred
    tabernacle of the congregation contained
    gold to the amount of about L175,000;

    silver worth L37,721 17s. 6d.; brass worth
    L138 6s. 0d.: total of the value of metal
    unwrought L213,320 3s. 6d.: round this
    precious structure the tribes of Israel
    were encamped in the wilderness; and
    the several parts of it, with all its various
    articles of furniture and its utensils, were
    committed to the care of the tribe of Levi,
    Num. 1:50, 53.   Christ's human nature
    was typified by this costly tabernacle;
    and while God dwelt symbolically be-
    tween the cherubim in the Holy of
    Holies, in the person of Jesus, "all the
    fulness of the Godhead
    [dwelt] bodily[,]"
    Heb. 8:2; 9:7, 11; Col. 2:9.

  8. TABERNACLE OF MOSES.   This is be-
    lieved to have been the tent or pavilion
    in which Moses and the elders of Israel
    assembled for public business, or confer-
    ence on the affairs of the nation, and the ad-
    ministration of justice, Exod. 33:7-11.
  9. TABERNACLES, FEAST OF: this was
    held at the close of the whole harvest
    and vintage, Deut. 16:13, to acknow-
    ledge the bounties of God, with which he
    had crowned the year: it was designed
    to commemorate the gracious providence
    which supplied the Israelites while dwell-
    ing forty years in the deserts of
    and hence they dwelt seven days in tents
    or booths.   This festival commenced on
    the fifteenth day of the first month of
    the civil year, Lev. 23:27, 34, 43.
  10. TAB'ITHA, Ταβιθα (clear-sighted), an [im-
    Christian matron at Joppa, Acts 9:
    36, 40.   See DORCAS.
  11. TABLE, a frame of wood on which to
    set food for a meal, Judg. 1:7; 2 Sam. 9:
    7; 1 Kings 10:5: a frame-work stand for
    the transaction of business, Matt. 21:12:
    a broad, flat piece of stone, metal, or
    other matter, for an engraving or writing,
    Exod. 32:15, 19; Isa. 30:8; Hab. 2:
    2: the provision or supplies of the table,
    Psal. 23:5; Rom. 9:9.   "Fleshly
    tables of the heart,"
    on which, the doc-
    trine of the gospel is written, denote the
    faculties of the soul, impressed in re-
    generation, by the Spirit of God, engaging
    all the powers of the soul, 2 Cor. 3:3;
    Heb. 8:10; 10:76.
  12. TABLE OF THE LORD, the divine ordi-
    nances of burnt-offering for sacrifice, Mal.
    1:7-12: the Lord's supper, as a represen-
    tation of the provision of mercy by Christ,
    1 Cor. 10:21; Luke 22:30.
  13. TABLE OF SHEW-BREAD: this was
    made of the shittim-wood, overlaid with
    gold; two cubits in length, one in width,
    and one and a half in height: it was
    placed in the west corner of the holy
    place of the tabernacle, near to the vail;
    and twelve loaves of bread were placed
    upon it, which were exchanged for new
    ones every sabbath, the stale ones being
    eaten by the priests, Exod. 25:23-27;
    Lev. 24:6.   This shew-bread, presented
    constantly before the Lord, was designed
    as a memorial of the Divine goodness in
    His bountiful and gracious providence.
    are declared to have been two tables of
    stone, containing the
    Ten Commandments,
    written by the finger of God, Exod. 31:
    18; 32:15, 16; Deut. 4:13; 10:1-4.
    Various conjectures have been formed
    concerning the manner and form of these
    tables, and whether the law were written
    by the immediate operation of God, or the
    ministry of angels
    : it is sufficient, how-
    ever, to know that the law itself is of Di-
    vine inspiration
    , as recorded by Moses.
  15. TABLETS, golden lockets or collars, as
    is supposed, Exod. 35:22; Num. 31:
    50; Isa. 3:20.
  16. TA'BOR, [h] (choice or purity), a moun-
    tain of
    Galilee, rising to the height of
    about a mile in the midst of the valley
    of Jezreel: it is celebrated as the ren-
    dezvous of the Israelites under Barak
    for the defeat of Sisera, but especially
    for the transfiguration of our blessed
    , Judg. 4:6-12; 1 Sam. 10:3; Jer.
    46:18; Matt. 17:1.
  17. TABOR, a city of Zebulon given to the
    Levites, 1 Chron. 6:77.
  18. TABRET, a musical instrument, a kind
    of timbrel or drum, 1 Sam. 18:6; Ezek.
  19. TAB'RIMON, [h] (good pomegranate),
    the father of Benhadad, king of Syria,
    1 Kings 15:18.
  20. TACHES, hooks or clasps, some of
    which were made of gold, others of brass,
    to fasten the curtains and furniture of
    the tabernacle, Exod. 26:6, 11, 33.
  21. TACKLING, cordage, as the ropes of a
    ship, Acts 27:19; or of a tent, Isa.
  22. TAD'MOR, [h] (the palm, palm-tree, or
    admirable), a city of Syria, on the borders
    of Arabia Deserta, towards the Euphrates:
    it is about sixty miles east of Damascus,
    and twenty-three west of the Euphrates.
    Tadmor was built or rebuilt as a store-city
    by king Solomon, 1 Kings 9:18; 2 Chron.
    8:4; and it was regarded as a place
    of importance, being surrounded on the
    east, west, and north, by barren moun-
    tains, and on the south by a vast sandy
    desert: it retained its name Tadmor till
    the time of Alexander the Great, when
    it received the name of Palmyra: in the
    middle of the third century it became
    famous under Odenatus and his queen
    Zenobia, who made it the seat of their
    empire; but it was seized about A.D. 273
    by the Romans.
      Tadmor obtained its
    ancient name under the
    Saracens; but its
    glory has been reduced to heaps of ruins,
    the extraordinary magnificence of which
    excites the astonishment of every intel-
    ligent beholder: about thirty wretched
    families now inhabit it, and it is com-
    monly called Palmyra.
  23. TAHAP'ANES, [h] (secret temptation,
    or concealed flight), a royal city of Egypt,
    supposed to be the same as Daphnæ
    Pelusiac, sixteen miles from Pelusium;
    and where the principal Jews at the
    desolated city of Jerusalem retired, car-
    rying with them the prophet Jeremiah:
    this city, Jeremiah foretold, would be
    taken by Nebuchadnezzar, and it is
    believed that his infidel countrymen
    stoned him for his unwelcome fidelity:
    this city is called also Tahpanhes and
    Tehaphnehes, Jer. 2:16; 43:7; 46:16;
    Ezek. 30:18.
  24. TAH'PENES, [h] (hidden flight, or
    covered standard), the queen-consort of
    Pharaoh, king of Egypt, in the reign of
    Solomon, 1 Kings 11:19, 20.
  25. TAIL, the hinder part or train of a
    beast or fish, Exod. 4:4; Judg. 15:4;
    Rev. 9:10: a low or base part, Deut.
    28:13; Isa. 9:15: the instruments
    and policy of the devil, Rev. 12:4: an
    army, Isa. 7:4.
  26. TAKE, to receive, Gen. 14:21; Matt.
    26:26: to have or possess, Deut. 24:
    6, 17; Matt. 15:24: to occupy, Josh. 10:
    42: to apprehend or seize, Acts 12:3:
    to conquer, 2 Sam. 12:28: to regard,
    Jam. 5:10.
  27. TAKEN, received, Gen. 12:15; Acts
    27:33: obtained, Job 28:2: seized
    or carried away, Gen. 14:14; Judg. 17:
    2: selected or appointed, Heb. 5:1: con-
    quered, 1 Sam. 7:14; Jer. 38:28.
  28. TAKING, receiving, 2 Chron. 19:7;
    2 Cor. 11:8; 3 John 7: employing, Matt.
    6:27; Eph. 6:6: leading, Hos. 11:3;
    Luke 4:5.
  29. TALE, a story, Psal. 90:9; Luke 24:
    11: a reckoning, Exod. 5:8, 18; 1 Chron.
  30. TALENT, a Hebrew weight of 3000
    shekels, Exod. 25:39; 38:25, 26;
    2 Sam. 12:30.   Learned men are not
    perfectly agreed as to the weight or
    value of the talent: but reckoning the
    shekel at half an ounce, the talent would
    be 1500 ounces, and at five shillings per
    ounce it would be worth L375: a talent
    of gold, at L3 10s. per oz., would be
      From these calculations, it will
    be seen how great was the amount in
    gold and silver that was devoted by
    David and his nobles to the building of
    the temple by Solomon, 1 Chron. 29:
    4-7.   Our Saviour's parable of the ser-
    vant owing his king 10,000 talents, the
    payment of whose debt was remitted,
    teaches us how greatly
    sinners are in-
    debted to God, how rich is His sovereign
    grace, and how merciful we should be
    to our fellow men, especially to our
    Christian brethren, Matt. 18:23-25.
    See MONEY.
  31. TALENT, any gift or endowment be-
    stowed upon men, for which they are
    accountable to God.   Reason, intellect,
    wealth, influence, time, and special ad-
    vantages of rank or station, are talents
    adapted eminently to be the means of
    glorifying God and of benefiting the
    world, Matt. 25:15, 21, 28.
  32. TAL'ITHA, CUMI, Ταλιθα, κουμι (Damsel,
    arise), Mark 5:41.
  33. TALK, speech, Job 11:2; 15:3: vain
    conversation, Prov. 14:23; Eccles. 10:13:
    discourse or
    preaching, Matt. 22:15.
  34. TALK, to speak in conversation, Num.
    11:17; Deut. 6:7; John 14:30.
  35. TALKED, discoursed or conversed, Gen.
    45:15; Luke 9:30; Acts 10:27.
  36. TALKERS, persons excessively addicted
    to talk, or to speak vainly, Ezek. 36:
    3; Tit. 1:10.
  37. TALKING, the act of discourse, Eph.
  38. TALKING, speaking or discoursing,
    Gen. 17:22; Matt. 17:3.
  39. TAL'MAI, [h] (my sorrow), a son of
    Anak, of the race of the giants of
    Canaan, Josh. 15:14; Num. 13:33.
  40. TALMAI, the king of Geshur, and
    father of Maachah, a wife of
    2 Sam. 3:3; 13:37.
  41. TA'MAR, [h] (a palm or palm-tree), wife
    of Er and of Onan, sons of Judah, and
    mother of Pharez and Zarah, by her
    father-in-law, Gen. 38:1, 6, 13, 24.
  42. TAMAR, a daughter of David by Maa-
    chah, and sister of Absalom: she was
    basely dishonoured by her half-brother
    Amnon, whose guilty life was sacrificed
    to the dreadful revenge of her brother
    Absalom, 2 Sam. 13:1-32.
  43. TAMAR, a daughter of Absalom, 2 Sam.
  44. TAMAR, a city, supposed to be En-gedi,
    Ezek. 47:10-19.
  45. TAME, to reduce from wildness, to
    make gentle, Mark 5:4; Jam. 3:8.
  46. TAMED, made gentle, Jam. 3:7.
  47. TAM'MUZ, [h] (concealed or abstruse),
    a fabulous deity, whose image was wor-
    shipped by some of the Israelites, Ezek.
    8:14.   Tammuz is supposed to have
    been the same as Adonis, said to have
    been a favourite of Venus, and to have
    been killed by a wild boar; divine hon-
    ours were paid to him after his death,
    with various abominable rites, which
    aggravated the guilt of the Jews.
  48. TANNER, one who prepares the skins
    of beasts for use as leather, Acts 9:43.
    Simon of Joppa is supposed to have been
    a currier, who is a dresser of leather.
  49. TAPESTRY, cloth beautifully figured
    with needle-work, which was a precious
    commodity for curtains in the East,
    Prov. 7:16; 31:22.
  50. TA'PHATH, [h] (little girl, or distillation,
    or drop), a daughter of king Solomon,
    married to the governor of the province
    of Dor, 1 Kings 4:11.
  51. TAP'PUAH, [h] (an apple), a city of
    Ephraim, Josh. 17:8, probably the
    same as En-tappuah, ver. 8.
  52. TARE, did tear or rend, as a person in
    grief, 2 Sam. 13:31; or a beast in rage,
    2 Kings 2:24.
  53. TARES, a species of weed, called dar-
    nell, resembling wheat, when growing
    among the corn: it is separated from
    the wheat after thrashing, as injurious,
    having an intoxicating influence on the
    eater in bread.   Tares are, therefore, a
    fit emblem of
    wicked men, Matt. 13:
  54. TARGET, a kind of buckler or shield,
    to defend the breast of a soldier, 1 Sam.
    17:6; 1 Kings 10:16; 2 Chron. 14:8.
  55. TARRIED, did tarry or wait, 2 Sam.
    15:17-29; Acts 28:12: did lodge,
    Gen. 24:54; Acts 9:43.
  56. TARRY, to stay or remain, Gen. 19:2;
    Psal. 101:7: to lodge or dwell, Gen. 30:
    27; John 4:40; Acts 10:48.
  57. TARRYING, delaying, Psal. 40:17.
  58. TAR'SHISH, [h] (contemplation or exa-
    mination of the marbles
    ), the second son of
    Javan, supposed to have been the founder
    of Tarsus in Cilicia, which gave surname
    to a province, Gen. 10:4.
  59. TARSHISH, a son of Bilhan, of the
    tribe of Benjamin, 1 Chron. 7:10.
  60. TARSHISH, a nobleman of Persia, Est.
  61. TARSHISH or THARSHISH, a city or
    country, supposed to have been on the
    east coast of Africa, 2 Chron. 20:36, 37;
    1 Kings 10:22.
  62. TARSHISH, supposed to be Tartessus,
    on the coast of Spain, near the entrance
    to the Mediterranean, the most westerly
    emporium of commerce to the Pheni-
    cians, Jon. 1:3; 4:2.
  63. TARSHISH, SHIPS OF, large merchant
    ships, capable of making a voyage to
    Tartessus, across or along the coast of
    the Mediterranean, Isa. 2:16; 23:1, 6;
  64. TAR'SUS, Ταρσος (winged, or having
    ), the capital of Cilicia, in Asia
    Minor, said to have been founded by
    Sardanapalus, king of Assyria, if not by
    Tarshish, son of Javan.   Tarsus is famous
    for its having had Cicero for proconsul,
    and for being esteemed for learning
    beyond even Athens and Alexandria,
    having supplied to those cities, and even
    to Rome, some of their best professors.
    Julius Caesar, and afterwards Octavius,
    honoured Tarsus, granting its citizens
    equal privileges with those of Rome:
    Paul, who was a native of Tarsus,
    supported himself against the oppres-
    sions of his enemies by pleading his
    having been free-born, Acts 9:11; 21:
    39; 22:25, 28.
  65. TAR'TAK, [h] (chained or shut up), the
    idol deity of the Avites, who were brought
    by the king of Assyria to settle in Sama-
    ria, instead of the Israelites, 2 Kings
    17:24, 31.
  66. TAR'TAN, [h] (that searches and exa-
    , or the gift of a turtle), a commander
    in the army of king Sennacherib, sent
    with Rabshakeh on a message of defi-
    ance to king
    Hezekiah, 2 Kings 18:17;
    Isa. 20:1.
    • Tartarus, a literal place.   See Hell.
  67. TASK, allotted labour, Exod. 5:13, 14.
  68. TASKMASTERS, drivers of slaves or
    workmen, compelling them to labour,
    Exod. 1:11; 3:7, 5:6, 14.
  69. TASTE, relish, as of food, Exod. 16:
    31; Job 6:6: the palate, Prov. 24:13.
  70. TASTE, to relish, as food, 2 Sam. 19:
    35; Job 34:3: to partake of, 1 Sam.
    14:43; Luke 14:24: to suffer or endure,
    Matt. 16:28; Heb. 2:9.
  71. TASTED, did taste or partake of, as
    food or drink, 1 Sam. 14:24; Dan. 5:2.
  72. TASTED, tried by the palate, Matt.
    27:34: participated, Heb. 6:4, 5:
    experienced sensibly, 1 Pet. 2:3.
  73. TATLERS, idle talkers, persons given to
    talking, 1 Tim. 5:13.
  74. TAT'NAI, [h] (that gives, or the overseer
    of the tribute
    ): the governor of Samaria,
    under the king of Persia: he opposed the
    rebuilding of the temple at Jerusalem;
    when his letter to the court led to a
    search for the decree of
    Cyrus, which,
    being found, was confirmed with addi-
    tional privileges by the king Darius, Ezra
    5:3; 6:13.
  75. TAUGHT, did teach or instruct, Deut.
    31:22; Matt. 7:29; Acts 4:2.
  76. TAUGHT, instructed, Matt. 28:15;
    John 6:45; Gal. 1:12.
  77. TAUNT, insult or reproach, Jer. 24:
    9; Ezek. 5:5.
  78. TAUNTING, insulting or provoking,
    Hab. 2:6.
  79. TAVERNS, inns, or places of entertain-
    ment, for the accommodation of travellers:
    the Three Taverns were places of this
    kind, situated on one of the great roads,
    and about thirty-six miles from Rome,
    Acts 28:15.
  80. TAXATION, an assessment, or rate of
    tax charged upon a country according to
    its extent or population, 2 Kings 23:
  81. TAXED, enrolled or registered, for the
    purpose of being assessed to pay as a tax,
    Luke 2:1-5.
  82. TAXES, exactions: Seleucus, son of An-
    tiochus the Great, is intended by the pro-
    phet, as he distinguished himself chiefly
    by raising taxes to pay the debts of his
    father, due to the Romans, Dan. 11:20.
  83. TAXING, the act of registering or being
    assessed, Luke 2:21; Acts 5:37.
  84. TEACH, to instruct, Exod. 4:15; Luke
    God teaches men by His works of
    creation and providence, by His written
    word, and by His Holy Spirit
    , Job 35:
    11; Acts 20:32; 1 John 2:27; 1 Cor. 2:14.
  85. TEACHER, an instructor or master, 1
    Chron. 25:8; John 3:2: a
    preacher, as
    an apostle, 1 Tim. 2:7; or pastor, Eph.
  86. TEACHING, instructing, Matt. 4:23;
    15:9; Acts 18:11.
  87. TEAR, to rend or pull in pieces, Judg.
    8:7; Psal. 7:2; Nah. 2:12; Mark 9:18.
  88. TEARS, drops of water issuing from the
    eyes, in seasons of grief, Psal. 6:6; Jer.
    9:1, 18; or of solicitous excitement, Luke
    7:38; Acts 20:31: grief or sorrow, Isa.
    25:8; Rev. 7:17.
  89. TEATS, the nipples or dugs of the
    breasts, Ezek. 23:3: luxuriant crops,
    in the failure of which the Jewish women
    lamented, Isa. 32:12.
  90. TE'BAH, [h] (murder or grinding of the
    ), a son of Nahor, Gen. 22:24.
  91. TEBALI'AH, [h] (baptism of the Lord),
    a son of Merari, a Levite, 1 Chron. 26:
  92. TE'BETH, a Hebrew month, the tenth
    in the sacred year, Esth. 2:16.
  93. TEDIOUS, wearisome by continuance,
    Acts 24:4.
  94. TEETH, bones framed in the mouth for
    chewing food, Num. 11:33: the spikes of
    a fork, 1 Sam. 2:12.   To "cast in the
    is to reproach, Matt. 26:44.
    "Cleanness of teeth," is scarcity of food,
    Amos 4:6.
  95. TEHIN'NAH, [h] (prayer or mercy), a
    son of Eshton, in the tribe of Judah, 1
    Chron. 4:12.
  96. TEIL-TREE, the oak, Isa. 6:13.   See
  97. TE'KEL, [h] (weight, or he is weighed),
    one of the mysterious words written on
    the wall of the palace against the guilty
    king Belshazzar, Dan. 5:25-27.   See
  98. TEKO'A, [h] (trumpet, or that is con-
    ), a man of note in the tribe of
    Judah, 1 Chron. 2:24; 4:5.
  99. TEKO'AH, [h] (a trumpet, or blowing of
    a trumpet
    ), a city of Judah, about twelve
    miles south of Jerusalem, 2 Sam. 14:24;
    Amos 1:1.   Near to the city there was a
    desert of some extent called the "wilder-
    ness of Tekoah,"
    2 Chron. 20:20.
  100. TE'LAH, [h] (humility or verdure), a son
    of Rephah in the tribe of Ephraim, 1
    Chron. 7:25.
  101. TEL'AIM, [h] (lambs), a city on the
    south-west frontier of Judah, 1 Sam. 15:
    4, called Telem, Josh. 15:24.
  102. TELL, to inform, Gen. 32:6; 45:13;
    Acts 22:27: to declare, 1 Kings 1:20:
    to make known, 1 Sam. 9:8; Psal. 26:
    7: to number or count, Gen. 15:5.
  103. TELLING, a report or relating, Judg.
  104. TELLING, relating or reporting, 2 Sam.
    11:19; 2 Kings 8:5.
  105. TE'MA, [h] (admiration, or the south), a
    son of
    Ishmael, founder of a tribe of
    Arabs, Gen. 25:15; Job 6:19; Jer. 25:
  106. TE'MAN, [h] (the south, or perfect), a son
    of Eliphaz, and grandson of Esau, Gen.
    35:10, 11.
  107. TEMAN, a district of Idumea, so called
    from Teman the grandson of Esau, Ezek.
    25:13; Obad. 9.
  108. TEMANITE, a native of Teman, as
    Eliphaz, Job 2:11.
  109. TEMPER, to mix, as oil with flour, for
    a meat-offering, Ezek. 46:14.
  110. TEMPERANCE, moderation, especially
    in regard to eating and drinking, in oppo-
    sition to indulgence which nourishes im-
    moral habits, Acts 24:25; 2 Pet. 1:6.
  111. TEMPERATE, moderate in eating and
    drinking, 1 Cor. 9:25; Tit. 1:8.
  112. TEMPERED, mixed, Exod. 29:2:
    adjusted or proportioned, as the various
    members of the body, 1 Cor. 12:24.
  113. TEMPEST, a storm of wind, especially
    dreadful at sea, Jon. 1:4-12; Matt. 8:
    24; Acts 27:18, 20: grievous afflictions,
    Job 9:17.   Divine judgments upon indi-
    viduals and nations are signified by tem-
    , Job 27:20; 32:2; Psal. 83:
  114. TEMPESTUOUS, stormy, Jon. 1:11; Acts
  115. TEMPLE, a building dedicated to sacred
    uses: the
    tabernacle is so called, 1 Sam.
    1:9; 3:3; the splendid edifice erected by
    the Ephesians for the abominable wor-
    ship of the fabulous goddess Diana, Acts
    19:27; that of the idol Dagon, built
    by the Philistines, 1 Chron. 10:10; and
    that of Bel, at Babylon, 2 Chron. 36:
    7.   Heaven is called God's temple, 2 Sam.
    22:7; and every true Christian is called
    a "temple of God," and a "temple of the
    Holy Chost[,]"
    being regenerated by the
    Holy Spirit
    , and self-consecrated to the
    Divine glory, 1 Cor. 3:16, 17; 2 Cor. 6:
  116. TEMPLE OF SOLOMON.   Solomon's
    temple, erected to the honour of Jehovah,
    was the most splendid and sumptuous
    edifice that ever was reared upon earth.
    It was built upon mount Moriah at Jeru-
    , the sacred spot on which the
    LORD appeared to Abraham when he
    was offering up his son Isaac.   Like the
    tabernacle of Moses, it was constructed
    after a model given by Divine inspiration,
    by architects and artificers, the chief of
    whom are believed to have been specially
    endowed with widsom and skill from
    God, 1 Kings 7:14; 2 Chron. 3:3; Gen.
    22:2, 14.   David had projected this
    work; but he was forbidden by the
    prophet to undertake it, while Nathan
    assured him, that God would enable his
    son to accomplish it in a manner worthy
    of its design: for which purpose the king
    and his princes made prodigious prepa-
    rations, and contributed 108,000 talents
    of gold, and 1,017,000 talents of silver;
    which together, if reckoned according to
    the Mosaic talent, the correctness of
    which some have doubted
    , must have

    amounted in weight to 46,000 tons of gold
    and silver, and in value to more than
    L1,000,000,000 sterling, 1 Chron. 22:14;
    29:3, 7.   Besides the sacred house
    itself, numerous chambers and apart-
    ments were added, to an extent far more
    than equal to the chief building, so as to
    make it altogether a most magnificent
    structure.   About 184,000 workmen and
    overseers were employed in constructing
    this great edifice with its various vessels
    and furniture; and though urged forward
    with all possible expedition, it occupied
    them seven years and six months, 1 Kings
    5:13, 16; 2 Chron. 2:17, 18.   When com-
    pleted, a national convocation was called,
    and the sacred edifice was dedicated to
    God by a solemn prayer from king Solo-
    mon.   During the festival, which lasted
    fourteen days, 22,000 oxen and 120,000
    sheep were sacrificed as a peace-offering,
    and for the supply of the people: God
    accepted the offering of the house to his
    service, and signified his approbation by
    fire from heaven to consume the sacri-
    fices, and by the visible cloud of the glory
    of the LORD, which filled the house of
    God, 1 Kings 8.; 2 Chron. 5.; 7:1-11.
    Solomon's temple existed in its primitive
    glory only about thirty-four years: for
    his shameful idolatries, which he prac-
    tised to gratify his heathenish wives,
    provoked the LORD; and as his son
    Rehoboam walked in the steps of his
    father in his degenerate state, ten tribes
    of the people revolted from him, and, as
    a further punishment, God gave him into
    the hands of Shishak, king of Egypt, who
    carried away the royal and the sacred
    treasures from Jerusalem, 1 Kings 12:
    15; 14:21, 25, 26; 2 Chron. 12:1-10.
       Divine worship was still continued in
    the temple of God, but idolatry prevailed
    among the people, and the house of the
    LORD was dishonoured under several
    kings.   Asa gave a large portion of its
    remaining precious furniture to Benha-
    dad, king of Syria, 1 Kings 15:15, 18.
    Joash, and the high-priest Jehoiada, re-
    paired the temple, but soon after the
    king gave its sacred treasures to Hazael
    king of Syria, who had threatened to
    pillage Jerusalem, 2 Kings 12:4, 18.
    Ahaz was a gross idolator; and he
    stripped the temple to procure the assist-
    ance of Assyria, against the king of Syria,
    16:1-18; and for a long time the doors

    were closed, 2 Chron. 18:21, 24.   Heze-
    repaired the temple, replacing such
    of the sacred vessels as were wanting;
    but he was obliged to give much of its
    gold and silver to propitiate Sennacherib
    king of Assyria, 29.; 30.; 2 Kings 18:
    4, 14-16.   Manasseh, in the former part
    of his reign, appeared as a monster of ini-
    quity: he even reared altars to the host
    of heaven and to idols in the courts of
    the temple: but he afterwards repented,
    and restored the true worship of God,
    21:2, 11; 2 Chron. 33:14-19.   Amon's
    was a reign of destructive wickedness:
    but Josiah repaired the temple and re-
    placed the ark of God in the most noly
    place, 2 Kings 23.; 2 Chron. 34.;
    35.   Idolatry and wickedness con-
    tinued to prevail among the people, who
    profaned the house of the LORD, and,
    with every species of abuse, rejected the
    ministry of his faithful servants the pro-
    ; when, in the year 606 B.C.,
    Nebuchadnezzar was permitted to gratify
    his ambition, by seizing Jerusalem, and
    carrying away the sacred vessels to Baby-
    lon; and, the people continuing to reject
    the counsels of the prophet Jeremiah,
    that proud monarch returned to the holy
    city in the year 588 B.C. and utterly
    destroyed the magnificent temple of
    Solomon, with the whole city of Jerusa-
    lem, 2 Kings 25:1, 9; 2 Chron. 36:
    10-20; Jer. 52:12, 27.

  117. TEMPLE, THE SECOND.   Zerubbabel,
    the prince of the Jews, led back nearly
    50,000 of the people from Babylon to
    Jerusalem, under the decree of Cyrus,
    and rebuilded the temple of God, Ezra 1.
    2. 3.   Vehement opposition was made
    by powerful enemies; but the work was
    of God; and, encouraged by the prophets
    Haggai and Zechariah, and sanctioned by
    new decrees of Artaxerxes and Darius,
    the temple was finished in about twenty
    years, and dedicated in the year 515 B. C.
    Though larger in its dimensions than the
    temple of Solomon, it was incomparably
    less splendid in appearance; and it
    wanted, as the Jews acknowledge, five
    things, which the former possessed: 1,
    the Ark and its furniture; 2, the She-
    chinah, or cloud of the Divine presence;
    3, the Holy Fire; 4, the Urim and
    Thummim; and 5, the Spirit of prophecy;
    Ezra 1. 3. 5. 6.   This temple underwent
    various changes, as the people obeyed or

    provoked the LORD.   Antiochus Epi-
    king of Syria, about the year 167
    B. C., plundered the temple of about 800
    talents of gold, and abolished the services
    of Divine worship, under circumstances
    of extraordinary impiety and cruelty.
    Judas Maccabeus recovered the city after
    three years, repaired the temple, and
    restored the ordinances of God.   Herod
    the Great, however, finding it much di-
    lapidated, after it had stood nearly 500
    years, began to rebuild it in the year 17
    B. C., for the purpose of securing the
    favour of the Jews.   The temple was
    rendered fit for Divine worship in the
    ninth year; but Herod continued to
    enlarge and embellish it to the end of his
    reign; and its magnificense and splen-
    dour, in white marble and gold, as de-
    scribed by Josephus, rendered it one of
    the most astonishing structures in all the
    world, Matt. 24:1, 2; Mark 13:1;
    John 2:20.   Messiah appearing personally
    in this second temple, it was filled with
    greater glory than the temple of Solomon,
    Hag. 2:9: and having completed his
    ministry, thereby superseding the typical
    institutions of the Levitical law, and the
    Jews having rejected the gospel dispen-
    sation of mercy, crucifying the Lord of
    glory, and persecuting His apostles, and
    still proceeding in their national crimes,
    God permitted the city and temple to be
    utterly destroyed by the Romans, under
    circumstances of unparalleled sufferings,
    as predicted by Christ, A. D. 70.   Jeru-
    salem still continues, as our Saviour fore-
    , "trodden down of the Gentiles,"
    Luke 21:24: and a temple to the false
    prophet now pollutes
    the consecrated
    summit of Mount Moriah, into which no
    Jew or Christian is allowed to enter on
    pain of death, or a solemn surrender as a
    [radical] disciple of Moh_mm_d!

  118. TEMPLES, the upper parts of the sides
    of the head, Judg. 4:21; 5:26.
  119. TEMPORAL, measured by or relating to
    time, 2 Cor. 4:18.
  120. TEMPT, to try, or exercise with a trial;
    God exercised Abraham, to illustrate
    his fidelity and obedience, in relation to
    the Divine promises, Gen. 22:1: to
    endeavour to deceive or ensnare, as the
    devil seeks to delude
    the people of God,
    Matt. 4:[7]: or as the hypocritical Jews
    sought to overreach our Saviour, Matt.
    22:18.   Men tempt God, by provo-
    cation, requiring His miraculous inter-
    position, Exod. 17:2, 7: exposing them-
    selves presumptuously to danger, Matt.
    4:7: or daringly transgressing His law,
    Mal. 3:15; Acts 5:9.
  121. TEMPTATION, a state of trial, as the
    sojourning of the Israelites in the wilder-
    ness, Psal. 95:8; or a series of perse-
    cution, Luke 8:13: danger, as of
    suffering, Rev. 3:10; or of allurement,
    Matt. 6:13; 1 Tim. 6:9: suffering, Jam.
    1:12; Acts 20:19.
  122. TEMPTATION OF CHRIST, the trial
    which He endured from the attacks of
    devil, who laboured to draw Him into
    the commission of evil
    , Luke 4:13: the
    series of persecution and trial which He
    endured throughout His ministry
    , Luke
  123. TEMPTED, did tempt or provoke, Exod.
    17:7; Num. 14:22.
  124. TEMPTED, tried, as by grievous afflic-
    tion, Heb. 11:37; or by the malicious craft
    of men, Luke 10:25; or by the wiles of
    devil, Matt. 4:1; Heb. 4:15; or by
    the unsubdued corruptions of the heart,
    Jam. 1:14.
  125. TEMPTER, a title of the devil, as the
    malicious and vigilant enemy of man,
    Matt. 4:3; 1 Thess. 3:5.
  126. TEMPTING, endeavouring to ensnare,
    Matt. 16:1; Mark 10:2; John 8:6.
  127. TEN, twice five in number, Gen. 16:3;
    1 Kings 7:38; Ezek. 45:14.
  128. TEND, to incline or move towards, Prov.
    10:16; 14:23.
  129. TENDER, young and fatted, as for food,
    Gen. 18:7: weak and feeble, as children
    in relation to fatiguing journeys, 33:
    13: nice or excessively effeminate, Deut.
    28:54, 56: sympathising or com-
    passionate, Luke 1:7; Jam. 5:11: inex-
    perienced, 1 Chron. 22:5; 2 Chron. 13:
    7.   God is said to be of tender
    mercy, to
    denote His being pitiful and forgiving
    Psal. 25:6.
  130. TENDERNESS, extreme sensitiveness or
    effeminacy, Deut. 28:56.
  131. TENONS, the ends of wooden beams
    cut to fit into other pieces of timber,
    Exod. 26:17.
  132. TENOR, the sense or general drift of an
    argument or discourse, Gen. 43:7; Exod.
  133. TENT, a lodging-place or temporary
    dwelling, made of cloth or skins, sup-
    ported by poles, Gen. 4:20; 9:21; Num.
    1:52: the outward covering of the taber-
    nacle, Exod. 40:19.   Most habitations
    in the early ages were tents, especially
    of those who did not reside in cities,
    Gen. 13:12-18; Heb. 11:9.   The [O.T.] church
    of God is signified by a tent, Isa. 54:2.
  134. TENTH, the next after nine in number,
    the ordinal of ten, Jer. 32:1; John 1:
    39: the tithe or tenth part, Lev. 27:
    32; Num. 18:21.
  135. TE'RAH, [h] (to breathe or to scent), the
    father of
    Haran, Nahor, and Abraham:
    he and his family were idolators in
    Chaldea; but it is believed that he was
    converted to God by the ministry of his
    son Abraham.   Terah died at Haran, on
    the way to Canaan, aged 205 years, when
    Abraham was 75 years old; so that he
    must have been 130 years old at the
    birth of Abraham, Gen. 11:26, 32; 12:4;
    Josh. 24:2.
  136. TER'APHIM, [h] (images), Judg. 17:
    5; 18:14-20; Hos. 3:4.   This word
    is translated images, Gen. 31:19, 34,
    35; 2 Kings 23:24; Ezek. 21:21:
    image, 1 Sam. 19:13-16; and idols,
    Zech. 10:2.   It is evident that they were
    instruments of idolatry; and it has been
    supposed that they represented angels,
    cherubim or seraphim; such images were
    very common with those who had de-
    parted from the purity of the Divine
    worship, as was the case with Laban,
    Gen. 31:19-35; Nebuchadnezzar con-
    sulted his teraphim, Ezek. 21:21; and
    this form of idolatry was almost uni-
    versal among the heathen, as is evident
    from their household gods, or Dii Penates.
  137. TER'ESH, [h] (heir, miserable, or ban-
    ), one of the chamberlains of king
    Ahasuerus, who had conspired against
    his life, when the design was defeated
    by the diligent zeal of Mordecai, Est. 2:
    21-23; 6:2.
  138. TERMED, named or called, Isa. 62:4.
  139. TERRACES, elevated walks, 2 Chron.
  140. TERRESTRIAL, earthly, consisting of
    earth, 1 Cor. 15:40.
  141. TERRIBLE, dreadful, as God is, on
    account of His infinite justice and power,
    and His awful judgments upon the
    , Exod. 34:10; Deut. 7:21;
    Job 37:22: frightful, as the moun-
    tainous desert of Arabia, Deut. 1:19; or
    a savage beast, Job 41:14; Dan. 7:7;
    or cruel enemies, Hab. 1:7.
  142. TERRIBLENESS, a quality or character
    exciting terror, Deut. 26:8; Jer. 49:
  143. TERRIBLY, dreadfully, Isa. 2:19: vio-
    lently, Nah. 2:3.
  144. TERRIFIED, shocked with fear, Deut.
    20:3; Luke 21:9.
  145. TER'TIUS, Τερτιος (the third), the amanu-
    ensis of the apostle
    Paul, Rom. 16:22.
    Tertius is supposed to have been Silas,
    a companion of the apostle; especially
    as his name in Hebrew is of the same
    signification as Tertius, which is Latin,
    Acts 15:40.
  146. TERTUL'LUS, [g] (a liar, an im-
    , or a teller of stories), an eloquent
    advocate employed by the Jews to plead
    against the apostle Paul before Festus,
    governor of Judea, Acts 24:1-8.   Ter-
    tullus's fulsome flattery seems to have
    had but little effect on the assembly,
    while Paul's upright statement and holy
    reasonings vindicated his cause, and
    made the judge himself to tremble, 10-
  147. TESTAMENT, the act of a person in the
    prospect of death, by which he declares
    how he wishes to dispose of his property
    or estate, Heb. 9:16, 17; Gal. 3:15.
    Hence our
    Saviour appointed the Lord's
    supper, as His testament, to declare His
    legacy of peace and salvation, by the
    remission of sins through His blood, to
    all [N. T. church] believers
    , Matt. 26:28; Luke 22:
    20; John 14:27.   The Greek word ren-
    dered testament properly means cove-
    nant, as it is generally translated; and
    conveys the idea of obligation to observe
    the wishes of the testator.   Such a testa-
    ment, especially when written, had been
    regarded by all nations as sacredly to be
    observed by the appointed executors.
  150. TESTATOR, one who makes a testament,
    as a dying man in disposing of his pro-
    perty by will.   Christ is represented to
    us in this character, freely bequeathing
    the riches of His grace and His inherit-
    ance of glory to His true disciples
    , Heb.
    9:16, 17; John 14:27.
  151. TESTIFIED, did declare as a witness,
    John 4:39, 44: did show evidence, Acts
    18:5: did protest, Neh. 12:15.
  152. TESTIFIED, declared on evidence, Exod.
    21:19; Acts 8:25: published, 23:11;
    1 Tim. 2:2.
  153. TESTIFY, to bear witness, Num. 35:
    30; Acts 26:5: to publish or make
    known, as by preaching, Acts 2:40; 20:
    24: to protest, Deut. 8:19.
  154. TESTIFYING, declaring with evidence,
    Acts 20:21; 1 Pet. 5:12: giving manifest
    evidence, Heb. 11:4.
  155. TESTIMONY, a witnessing evidence,
    Ruth 4:7; Matt. 8:4: the law of
    as written on the two tables of stone
    Exod. 16:34; 25:16; 30:6; 31:18:
    the declaration of a witness or of a mes-
    senger, John 3:32, 33; Acts 13:22:
    the gospel, as the testimony of Christ,
    2 Tim. 1:8.   The tabernacle, as contain-
    ing the tables of the law of God in the
    sacred ark, and as the place where the
    daily and other sacrifices were offered
    by the priests, was called the testimony,
    Num. 1:50; Psal. 122:4.   The Divine
    laws and ordinances are called the testi-
    monies of God
    , Deut. 6:17-20; Psal.
  156. TETRARCH, a sovereign prince that
    has the fourth part of a state, province,
    or kingdom, under his dominion, without
    wearing the diadem, or bearing the title
    of king, Matt. 14:1; Luke 3:1.
  157. THADDE'US, Θαδδαιος (that praises and con-
    ), the surname of the apostle Jude,
    Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18.   See JUDAS.
  158. THANK, personal merit, Luke 6:32,
  159. THANK, to gratefully acknowledge a
    favour, Luke 17:9; more particularly
    God, as the author of all good,
    1 Chron. 16:4; 23:30; especially of
    grace and salvation by Jesus Christ
    1 Cor. 1:4.
  160. THANKED, did thank or acknowledge
    a favour, 2 Sam. 14:22: did praise, Acts
  161. THANKED, praised and honoured, Rom.
  162. THANKFUL, grateful under a sense of
    favours received, Psal. 100:4; Rom. 1:21.
  163. THANKFULNESS, a sense of obligation
    for favours received, Acts 24:3.
  164. THANKING, praising for mercies re-
    ceived, 2 Chron. 5:13.
  165. THANKS, acknowledgments for favours
    and mercies, Dan. 6:10; Rom. 14:6;
    Heb. 13:15.
  166. THANKSGIVING, the act of Divine
    worship in which the mercies and bless-
    ings of God
    are acknowledged with an
    intelligent and grateful mind, Neh. 11:
    17; 12:46; Rev. 7:12.   Thanksgiving
    for spiritual blessings in Christ Jesus is
    especially required, both in public and
    in private, from all believers, as a part
    of their acceptable worship, Psal. 100:4;
    2 Cor. 9:12; Phil. 4:6; Col. 2:7.
  167. THANKWORTHY, deserving commenda-
    tion, 1 Pet. 2:19.
  169. THEATRE, a public place where the
    people assembled to behold plays and
    exhibitions, especially combats with wild
    beasts, Acts 19:29-31.   Some suppose
    that Paul had been so exposed in the
    theatre at Ephesus; but he seems rather
    to refer to brutal men in that city, 1 Cor.
  170. THE'BEZ, [h] (muddy, eggs, or fine linen),
    a city of Ephraim, near Shechem, noted
    for its tower, in besieging which Abime-
    lech was killed, Judg. 9:50-54.
  171. THEE, a governed case of thou, as
    "to thee," Philem. 11; or "with thee,"
    Acts 8:20.
  172. THEFT, the act of stealing, Exod. 22:
    3; Rev. 9:21: the thing stolen, Exod.
  173. THEIRS, of them, as their own, Gen.
    15:13; 34:23; Matt. 5:3.
  174. THEM, a governed case of they, as
    "before them," Gen. 18:8; or "against
    Rom. 2:2; Col. 3:19.
  175. THEMSELVES, those very persons, Gen.
    43:32; 2 Tim. 2:25, 26; or things,
    Matt. 14:2.
  176. THEN, at that time, Gen. 4:26; Judg.
    5:8; Rom. 6:21: in that case, Matt. 12:
    37; 1 John 3:21: afterwards, Heb. 7:27.
  177. THENCE, from that place, Gen. 24:
    7; Matt. 6:11.
  178. THENCEFORTH, from that time, John
  179. THEOPH'ILUS, Θεοφιλος (a lover of
    ), an honourable person to whom the
    Luke addressed his Gospel
    and the Acts of the Apostles, Luke 1:3;
    Acts 1:1.   Some suppose that Theophilus
    was an Egyptian nobleman; but we know
    only that he was probably a man of
    rank, who lived out of Palestine, and
    had abjured paganism to embrace the
    doctrine of Christianity.
  180. THERE, in that place, Gen. 2:8; Num.
    21:26; Acts 20:2.
  181. THEREABOUT, concerning that, Luke
  182. THEREAT, at that place, Exod. 30:
    19: in that way, Matt. 7:13.
  183. THEREBY, by means of that, Prov. 20:
    1; John 11:4; Eph. 2:16.
  184. THEREFORE, for that, Gen. 2:24: for
    that reason, 1 Cor. 6:20.
  185. THEREFROM, from that, Josh. 23:6;
    2 Kings 3:3.
  186. THEREIN, in that place, Luke 21:21.
  187. THEREOF, of that, Gen. 2:17; Eccles.
  188. THEREON, on that, Exod. 20:24; Matt.
  189. THEREOUT, out of that, Lev. 2:2.
  190. THERETO, to that, Lev. 5:16; Matt.
  191. THEREUNTO, unto that, Exod. 32:8.
  192. THEREUPON, upon that, 1 Cor. 3:10:
    in consequence of that, Ezek. 16:16.
  193. THEREWITH, with that, 1 Sam. 17:
    51; 1 Tim. 6:8.
  194. THESE, the persons, Gen. 10:5; 1 Kings
    11:2; or things, now spoken of, Gal. 5:
    17-19; Heb. 9:23.
  195. THESSALONIANS, inhabitants of the city
    of Thessalonica, especially those who had
    become Christians by the ministry of the
    apostle Paul, A.D. 50, Acts 17:1; 1 Thess.
    1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1.
    Paul's ministry having been blessed to
    the gathering of a
    church at Thessa-
    lonica, the infidel Jews, inflamed with
    malice, persecuted him, and he fled to
    Berea and Athens, whence he sent Timo-
    thy back to encourage the young be-
    lievers.   Timothy reported to Paul at
    Corinth their steadfastness in the gospel,
    and he wrote this epistle to confirm
    them in tneir belief of the truth, and
    to direct them in their Christian course:
    it contains various consolatory statements
    of doctrine, with practical counsels, and
    declares the safe and blessed condition
    of the godly who may be living at the
    period of the resurrection, 4:17.   This
    epistle is believed to have been written
    early, A.D. 52.   See Commentary.
    this second letter was written to the
    church at Thessalonica, probably but a
    few months after the former, to remove
    some misapprehensions that were enter-
    tained by certain members of that society:
    they were expecting the near approach
    of the day of judgment, and the appear-
    ance of Christ, through which they had
    neglected their worldly callings.   To
    rectify this mistaken notion, and to
    guide them in the discharge of their
    duties as Christians, the apostle was
    again inspired
    to write to this church.
    This epistle contains a most remarkable
    prophecy concerning "antichrist," under
    the character of the "man of sin[,]" the
    "son of perdition[,]" the "mystery of
    and "that Wicked[,]" 2 Thess.
    2:3-8.   Commentators the most wise
    and learned regard this prediction as
    fulfilled in the Romish priesthood, with
    its pontifical head, pretending to be the
    "Vicar of Christ;" by that body cor-
    rupting the doctrine of Christ, and per-
    verting the instituted worship of God,
    and by the worshipping of angels, saints,
    images, and the bread and wine of the
    Lord's supper.   "[E]xalt[ing] himself above
    all that is called God, or that is worshipped[,]"

    denotes the pope's assuming authority
    over all the ministers of Christ, and
    even over kings and emperors, so at to
    dispose of kingdoms at his pleasure.
    "[S]itt[ing] in the temple of God," denotes
    the inauguration of the pope, as in St.
    Peter's church at Rome, where he is
    seated on the high altar, making the
    table of the Lord his footstool, receiving
    adoration in that position.   "[S]hewing
    himself that he is God[,]"
    intends his
    affecting divine titles, as "Your Holiness,"
    and "Our lord god the Pope."

    See Commentary.
  198. THESSALONI'CA, [g] (victory of
    ), a city and seaport of Mace-
    , situated at the head of the Ther-
    maic gulf.   It was anciently called Halia,
    Eurathia, and Therma; but called Thes-
    salonica by Philip, father of Alexander
    the Great, to commemorate his victory
    over the Thessalians.   Æmilius Paulus,
    having conquered Macedonia, divided it
    into four districts, making this the capi-
    tal of the second division, and the station
    of a Roman governor.   Paul introduced
    the gospel into Thessalonica, A.D. 50;
    and to the believers here wrote two
    epistles.   See THESSALONIANS.   This
    city was the most populous in Mace-
    donia: it was taken by the Saracens,
    about A.D. 800; and at length fell into
    the hands of the Turks: it is still very
    large, containing about 60,000 inhabitants,
    and called Salonichi.
  199. THEU'DAS, [g] (a false teacher), an
    ambitious imposter, called Judas, by
    Josephus; after the death of Herod he
    raised an insurrection in Galilee, aiming
    to get the sovereignty of Judea; but he
    was defeated and put to death, Acts 5:
  200. THEY, those persons, Num. 16:33;
    Acts 11:2, 9; or those things, John 5:39;
  201. THICK, large in bulk, as the trunk of
    a tree, Psal. 74:5; or bushy and
    spreading, 2 Sam. 18:9; Ezek. 19:11:
    crowded, as people, Luke 11:29: wealthy,
    as a nation, Deut. 32:15.
  202. THICKER, more bulky or heavy, as to be
    burdensome or oppressive, 1 Kings 12:10.
  203. THICKET, a wood or copse full of trees,
    Gen. 22:13; Jer. 4:7, 29.
  204. THICKNESS, substance, 2 Chron. 4:5;
    Jer. 52:21; Ezek. 41:9.
  205. THIEF, one who steals, or takes un-
    lawfully the property of another, Exod.
    22:2, 8; Matt. 24:43.
  206. THIEVES, robbers, Luke 10:30; 1 Cor.
    6:10: violent oppressors, Isa. 1:23.
  207. THIGH, the limb of the human body
    above the leg, Gen. 24:2; Exod. 28:
    42; Judg. 3:16-21.   "Smiting on the
    denotes grief, Ezek. 21:12.
    "Having a name written on the thigh,"
    denotes great fame, Rev. 19:16.
  208. THIN, small in substance, Exod. 39:
    3: diminutive in size, Gen. 41:6, 27:
    depressed in condition, as were the idol-
    atrous Jews, Isa. 17:4-8.
  209. THINE, belonging to thee, thy own,
    Gen. 14:23; Matt. 25:25.
  210. THING, a substance, not a person,
    Judg. 8:27; Rom. 9:20: an action,
    Exod. 18:11, 17; Acts 10:28: an event,
    Num. 16:30; Heb. 10:31: information,
    2 Sam. 15:3; Acts 17:21.   "All things
    in heaven and on earth,"
    denote Jews
    and Gentiles, as equally members of the
    church of Christ, both in this world and
    in Heaven, united with the holy angels,
    Eph. 1:10, 22; Col. 1:20.
  211. THINK, to imagine or consider, Num.
    36:6; Est. 4:13: to reflect, Phil. 4:
    8: to suppose, John 16:2; Gal. 6:3: to
    remember, Gen. 40:14: to purpose, Neh.
    6:6; Dan. 7:25: to conceive, Eph. 3:
  212. THINKING, supposing, 2 Sam. 4:10;
  213. THIRD, the next after the second, Gen.
    32:19; Ezek. 10:14; Dan. 2:39; John
  214. THIRDLY, in the third rank or order,
    as teachers or
    pastors of churches, to
    continue after the abolition of the minis-
    try of the extraordinary officers, apostles
    and prophets, 1 Cor. 12:28; Eph. 4:11.
  215. THIRST, want of drink, Exod. 18:3;
    Judg. 15:18; 2 Cor. 11:27.
  216. THIRST, to desire drink, John 4:13, 15:
    to desire eagerly, as men desire happi-
    ness, Isa. 55:1; as the godly desire the
    blessings of grace, Psal. 42:2; Matt. 5:6.
  217. THIRSTED, did thirst, as for water,
    Exod. 17:3.
  218. THIRSTY, suffering for want of water,
    Judg. 4:19; Matt. 25:35, 37: barren,
    being destitute of water, Psal. 63:1;
    Ezek. 19:13.
  219. THIRTEEN, ten and three, Gen. 17:
    25; 1 Kings 7:1.
  220. THIRTEENTH, the third after the
    tenth, Gen. 14:4; Jer. 1:2; 25:3.
  221. THIRTIETH, the tenth thrice told,
    Neh. 5:4; 2 Kings 15:13.
  222. THIRTY, three times ten, Gen. 6:15;
    41:46; Matt. 27:3.
  223. THIS, the person or thing present,
    Gen. 15:4; Matt. 13:55.
  224. THISTLE, a large prickly weed which
    grows among the corn, Gen. 3:18; 2
    Kings 14:9; Matt. 7:16.
  225. THITHER, to that place, Gen. 19:20,
    22; Acts 8:30; 16:13.
  226. THITHERWARD, towards that place,
    Judg. 18:15; Jer. 50:5.
  227. THOM'AS, Θωμας (a twin), called Didy-
    mus, one of the twelve apostles of Christ,
    Matt. 10:3; John 11:16; 20:24: he is
    supposed, like the others, to have been
    Galilean; but the place of his birth
    and his occupation are not recorded.
    Thomas is mentioned but seldom in the
    evangelical history: he hesitated to be-
    lieve, at first, the resurrection of Christ;
    but, on beholding his Lord, his doubts
    vanished, and he became a devoted
    labourer after the day of Pentecost,
    according to tradition, in Ethiopia, and
    among the Parthians and Medes.   Some
    suppose that he suffered martyrdom in
    India, in some parts of which there are
    certain persons who call themselves
    "Christians of St. Thomas."
  228. THONGS, leathern straps, Acts 22:25.
  229. THORNS, a general name for several
    kinds of prickly plants, Gen. 3:18;
    Judg. 8:7-16: those of the smaller
    kind are called briers, Isa. 27:4; 55:
    13; Heb. 7:8.   "Hedging up the way
    with thorns,"
    denotes God restraining
    men by afflictions and trials, Hos. 2:6;
    in allusion to the common fences in
    Syria.   "As we rode through Riphah,"
    says a modern traveller in Judea, "we
    perceived it to be a settlement of about
    fifty dwellings, all very mean in their
    appearance, and every one fenced in
    front with thorn-bushes, while a barrier
    of the same kind encircled the whole of
    the town.   This was one of the most
    effectual defences which they could have
    raised against the incursions of horse
    Arabs, the only enemies whom they
    have to dread, as neither will the horse
    approach to entangle himself in these
    thickets of brier, nor could the rider,
    even if he dismounted, get over them,
    or remove them to clear a passage, with-
    out assistance from some one within."

    Paul's "thorn in the flesh" is believed
    to have been some bodily ailment that
    affected his speech, and perhaps dis-
    figured his face, 2 Cor. 12:7.
  230. THOSE, the others, persons, 1 Kings
    2:7; 9:21; 2 Pet. 2:6; or things, Heb.
  231. THOU, thyself, Gen. 3:12; 20:7; Acts
  232. THOUGH, if, Gen. 40:10; 1 Pet. 4:12:
    notwithstanding that, Neh. 1:9; 2 Pet.
  233. THOUGHT, the act of thinking, Job
    42:2; Prov. 24:9; 2 Cor. 10:5: reflec-
    tion, Rom. 2:15: purpose, Ezek. 38:
    10: opinion or judgment, Job 12:5:
    anxious care, Matt. 6:25.
  234. THOUGHT, did think, Gen. 20:11;
    1 Sam. 1:13.
  235. THOUGHT, considered, Heb. 10:29.
  236. THOUGHTS: this word is used to de-
    note all the operations and exercises of
    the human mind; as incipient reasonings,
    Gen. 6:5; intentions, purposes, and de-
    signs, Psal. 56:5; Prov. 12:5; Isa. 55:
    7-9; Heb. 4:12.   God's thoughts are His
    infinitely wise and holy purposes and
    , Psal. 92:5; 139:17; Jer.
  237. THOUSAND, ten hundred, Gen. 20:16;
    Eccles. 6:6; 7:28; Rev. 20:2, 7.   "The
    little one becoming a thousand,"
    the increase of the church in the times
    of Christ, Isa. 60:22.   "The city going
    out by a thousand and leaving a hundred,"

    denotes destructive calamities, Amos 5:3.
  238. THOUSANDS, vast multitudes, Exod.
    20:6; 34:7; Dan. 7:10; Rev. 5:11.
  239. THREAD, a fine twist, as for sewing,
    Gen. 14:23; 38:28: a rope or cord,
    Josh. 2:18.
  240. THREATEN, to menace, or terrify, by
    the fear of punishment, Acts 4:17, 29.
  241. THREATENED, menaced or denounced,
    1 Pet. 2:23.
  242. THREATENING, menacing with pun-
    ishment, Eph. 6:9.
  243. THREE, two and one, Gen. 18:2;
    Exod. 25:32, 33; 2 Sam. 23:9, 22;
    Dan. 3:24; 1 Cor. 13:13.
  244. THREEFOLD, three united, or an asso-
    ciation, Eccles. 4:12.
  245. THREESCORE, sixty, Gen. 25:26;
    Dan. 3:1.
  246. THREE-TAVERNS, a place on the road
    to Rome, Acts 28:15.   See TAVERNS.
  247. THRESH, to beat corn out of the straw,
    Jer. 51:33; 1 Cor. 9:10: to afflict, Hab.
    3:13: to repulse or subdue, Isa. 41:15;
    Mic. 4:13.
  248. THRESHED, did thresh, as corn, Judg.
  249. THRESHING, adapted for the operation
    of beating out corn, 2 Sam. 24:18, 22.
  250. THRESHING-FLOOR, a plot of ground
    on a hill, levelled and rolled hard, as a
    floor; it was exposed to the wind for
    the purpose of driving away the chaff:
    on this the corn-sheaves were thrown,
    and the grain beaten out by a machine,
    or by the feet of oxen, Gen. 50:10; Deut.
  251. THRESHING-INSTRUMENT, a sort of
    cart for the threshing of corn, Isa. 41:
    15.   One of these is thus described by a
    Syrian traveller, in 1839 :--"It is a board
    about three feet wide, six or eight feet
    long, and three inches thick.   On the
    lower side many holes are made, from
    an inch and a half to two inches, in
    which are fastened pieces of stone, flint,
    or iron.   These project, it may be, from
    a half to three quarters of an inch from
    the face of the board, and serve as teeth
    to tear the beards of the grain in pieces.
    Oxen are fastened to the forward end
    of the boards, and driven round the
    floor, drawing it after them.   The driver
    of the oxen usally stands or sits on the
    instrument.   This is the common thesh-
    ing-instrument in these countries.   I
    saw it everywhere, and I have seen no
    other.   The oxen are usually without
    muzzles, and are often as they pass
    around taking up from time to time a
    few straws and feeding on them,"
    1 Cor.
  252. THRESHOLD, the step under the door
    or gate, 1 Sam. 5:4, 5; 1 Kings 14:17;
    Ezek. 47:1.
  253. THREW, did throw, 2 Sam. 16:13: did
    put, Mark 12:42.
  254. THRICE, three times, Exod. 34:23;
    Matt. 26:34: many times or repeatedly,
    2 Cor. 11:25.
  255. THROAT, the fore-part of the neck,
    Prov. 23:2; Matt. 18:28: the passage
    to the stomach, Psal. 69:3, especially as
    the means of speech, 115:7; Rom. 3:13.
  256. THRONE, a royal seat; the magnificent
    chair on which a sovereign sits to transact
    the high affairs of a nation, or to give
    audience to foreign ambassadors, 1 Kings
    10:18-20: the government or authority of
    a sovereign, as indicated by the throne,
    Gen. 41:40; Prov. 20:8; Hag. 2:22.
    Throne, as it relates to
    God, denotes His
    infinite sovereignty and righteous ad-
    ministration in the world
    , Psal. 11:4;
    47:8; Isa. 6:1.   Having given His
    Son to be our Mediator, and set Him
    forth as a propitiation for our sins, He
    is represented as seated on a throne of
    grace, waiting to show mercy to penitent
    , Heb. 4:16; Rom. 3:24-26;
    1 John 2:1, 2.
  257. THRONES, the royal seats of sovereign
    princes, Isa. 14:9; Ezek. 26:16: seats
    of honour allotted to the twelve apostles
    of Christ at the judgment-day, Matt.
    19:28: a title or designation of an
    order of angels, on account of their
    being employed in the administration
    of the Divine government, Col. 1:16.
  258. THRONG, to crowd around, Mark 3:9;
    Luke 8:45.
  259. THRONGED, did throng or crowd, Mark
  260. THRONGING, crowding, Mark 5:31.
  261. THROUGH, from one side to the other,
    as a sword through the body, Num. 25:
    8: down, as by a passage, Ezek. 46:
    19; or through a casement, 2 Kings 1:2:
    across, as in a river, Ezek. 47:4: by
    means of; as
    believers have reconcilia-
    tion with God, and peace and eternal
    life, through, or by means of, the righte-
    ousness and sacrifice of Christ
    , Rom. 5:
    1; 6:23; Heb. 9:14; and as they are
    sanctified by means of divine truth, John
  262. THROUGHLY, perfectly, Exod. 21:19:
    completely, Psal. 51:2; 2 Tim. 3:17:
    sincerely and uprightly, Jer. 7:5.
  263. THROUGHOUT, quite through, Josh.
    24:3: universally, Mark 14:9; Rom.
  264. THROW, to cast forcibly, 2 Kings 9:
    33: to demolish, as a building, Judg. 6:
    25; Mal. 1:4; Ezek. 16:39.
  265. THROWING, flinging or casting with
    force, as a stone, Num. 35:17.
  266. THROWN, cast with violence, Exod.
    15:1; 2 Sam. 20:21: demolished, Judg.
    6:32; Matt. 24:2.
  267. THRUST, to push or force, as a weapon
    into the body, Num. 25:8; Judg. 3:21;
    2 Sam. 18:14: to compress, Judg. 6:
    38: to drive or force, Exod. 11:1; Acts
    16:24: to dismiss, 1 Kings 2:27; Acts
    16:37: to debase, Job 32:13.
  268. THUMB, the short strong finger equal
    to the other four on the hand, Exod. 29:
    20; Judg. 1:6, 7.
  269. THUM'MIM, [h] (perfections), with
    URIM, which pertained to the breast-
    plate of the high-priest of Israel; it
    formed the
    oracle of God, Exod. 28:
    30; Lev. 8:8; Deut. 33:8; Ezra 2:
    63; Neh. 7:65.   See URIM.
  270. THUNDER, the noise made by the
    sudden explosion of electric clouds:
    lightning and thunder are, therefore,
    inseparable, Job 28:26.   Thunder
    and lightning formed one of the dreadful
    plagues of Egypt, Exod. 9:23, 29, 33.
    "The thunder of Jehovah's power" is His
    omnipotence, a small part of which ap-
    pears in the works of nature, Job 16:14.
  271. THUNDER, to make the noise of
    thunder, 1 Sam. 2:10; Job 37:4, 5.
  272. THUNDER-BOLTS, flashes of lightning,
    Psal. 78:48; Exod. 9:23.
  273. THUNDERED, did thunder, 1 Sam. 7:
    10; John 12:29.
  274. THUNDERING, the sounds of thunder,
    Exod. 9:28; with flashes of lightning,
  275. THUS, in this manner, Gen. 6:22;
    Josh. 7:7.
  276. THYATI'RA, [g] (fragrance of la-
    ), a city of Asia Minor, between
    Sardis and Pergamos, on the confines of
    Mysia and Lydia, on the river Lycus:
    this city was famous for the art of dyeing
    purple, and hence the occupation of
    Lydia, Acts 16:14: it became still
    more celebrated in Christian history, for
    its containing one of the distinguished
    apostolic churches, to whom an inspired
    was addressed by the apostle John,
    Rev. 1:11; 2:18-29.
  277. THYINE-WOOD: this is from the thya-
    tree, which rises with a strong woody
    trunk to the height of more than thirty
    feet: the wood is hard, receives a fine
    polish, and is a valuable article of com-
    merce, Rev. 18:12.   Jackson, in his
    "Account of Morocco" says that, "be-
    sides producing the gum sandrac, the
    wood of the thya is invaluable, being
    somewhat like cedar, having a similar
    smell, and being impenetrable to the
    worm.   The roofs of houses, and the
    ceilings of houses, are made of this
  278. TIBE'RIAS, [g] (good sight, or break-
    ), a city of Galilee, founded by Herod
    Agrippa, in honour of his patron, the
    emperor Tiberius, John 6:23.   It lay
    on the western shore of the lake of
    Gennesareth, about twelve miles south
    of the place where it receives the river
    Jordan.   At the destruction of Jeru-
    salem, Tiberias was the capital of Gali-
    lee, and it became famous afterwards
    for a flourishing academy, and the seat
    of Jewish learning.   This city still exists,
    with about 2000 inhabitants, and is called
  279. TIBERIAS, SEA OF, the lake or sea of
    Gennesareth is so called, John 5:1.   See
  280. TIBE'RIUS, [g] (son of Tiber), the
    step-son and successor of Augustine Cæsar,
    as emperor of Rome, he having married
    his mother Livia.   Tiberius succeeded
    to the empire A.D. 14; and after a cruel
    reign of twenty-two years and a half,
    he died A.D. 37.   Pontius Pilate was
    appointed by Tiberius, as governor of
    Judea, in the thirteenth year of his
    reign; John entered on his ministry in
    the fifteenth year, Luke 3:1; and Jesus
    Christ was crucified in the nineteenth
    year, by Pontius Pilate, the power of
    putting criminals to death having been
    taken away from the Jews by Tiberius.
    This emperor is said to have heard of
    the miracles of Christ, and to have pro-
    posed that he should be enrolled among
    the divinities of Rome: this is said to
    have been rejected by the senate; yet
    that Tiberius favoured his disciples
    threatening with death any that injured
    the Christians.
  281. TIB'NI, [h] (straw, understanding, or
    filiation), the son of Ginath, competitor
    with Omri for the throne of Israel: he
    is supposed to have died by the sword
    as Omri prevailed against the people
    that followed Tibni, 1 Kings 16:21, 22.
  282. TI'DAL, [h] (that breaks the yoke, or
    knowledge of elevation), one of the confede-
    rated kings who went against the kings
    of Sodom and the neighbouring cities;
    but was overcome and slain by Abra-
    ham, Gen. 14:1, 7, 17.   He is thought
    to have been called "king of nations,"
    as several tribes had placed themselves
    under his government.
  283. TIDINGS, news, reports of recent events,
    Exod. 33:4; Dan. 11:44; Acts 11:22.
    The gospel is glad tidings of great joy
    to all people, and glad tidings of the
    kingdom of God, as it proclaims Christ
    to be the Saviour of all that believe
    throughout the world, Luke 2:10; 8:1;
    Acts 13:32.
  284. TIE, to bind or fasten, 1 Sam. 6:7, 10.
  285. TIED, did tie or fasten, Exod. 39:
  286. TIED, bound or fastened, 2 Kings 7:
    10; Matt. 21:2.
  287. TIG'LATH-PILE'SER, [h] (that
    , or takes away into captivity), a king
    of Assyria, son and successor of Sarda-
    napalus: he is called Tiglath-pilneser,
    1 Chron. 5:6; 2 Chron. 28:20, 21.
    Ahaz, king of Judah, gave him all the
    gold and silver found in the treasuries
    of the temple and the palace, to hire
    him against Rezin king of Syria, and
    Pekah king of Israel: he killed Rezin,
    and plundered Damascus, and then
    marched into the territories of Israel,
    many of the inhabitants he carried cap-
    tive into Assyria, and even distressing
    Judah and king Ahaz, 2 Kings 15:29;
    16:7-10; 1 Chron. 5:6:26; 2 Chron.
    28:16-23.   He was succeeded by his
    son Shalmanezer.   See SHALMANEZER.
  288. TILE, a thin plate of baked clay, or
    perhaps flag-stone, used for the roofs of
    houses, Ezek. 4:1.
  289. TILING, the roof of a house, made of
    tiles: the Jewish houses having flat
    roofs, the tiling is thought to have been
    made of a kind of flag-stone, Luke 5:19.
  290. TILL, to dress or cultivate the ground,
    as for a garden, or for the growth of
    corn, Gen. 2:5; 4:12; 2 Sam. 9:10.
  291. TILL, until, to the time that, Gen. 19:
    22; Acts 7:18; 23:12.
  292. TILLAGE, husbandry, cultivation of
    land, Neh. 10:37.
  293. TILLED, cultivated, as for the growth
    of corn, Ezek. 36:9, 34.
  294. TILLER, a husbandman, a cultivator
    of the ground, Gen. 4:2.
  295. TIMBER, wood of large trees, fit for
    building, 1 Kings 5:18; Neh. 2:8: beams
    of wood in a house, Ezra 6:11.
  296. TIMBREL, a musical instrument, a
    kind of tambourine, consisting of a brass
    hoop covered with parchment, and hung
    round with bells, to be struck with the
    hand, Exod. 15:20; 2 Sam. 6:5.
  297. TIME, measure of duration, Judg. 18:
    31; Rev. 10:6: season, as for the accom-
    plishment or doing of a thing, Num. 13:
    20; Neh. 2:6; Eccles. 3:1, 2.   "The
    fulness of the time,"
    is the period de-
    creed and prepared for, Gal. 4:4.   "The
    accepted time,"
    is the present season
    under the gospel dispensation, 2 Cor. 6:
    2.   To "gain the time," is to profit or
    secure advantage by delay, Dan. 2:8.
    To "redeem the time," is to use and
    improve present advantages, especially
    avoiding excessive sleep, indolent habits,
    formal visits, vain conversation, trifling
    reading, useless recreations, and officious
    employment, Eph. 4:16.
  298. TIMES, seasons or opportunities, Judg.
    13:25.   "The last times," the latter
    years of the Jewish state before the
    destruction of Jerusalem, Acts 1:7; or
    of the duration of the world, 2 Tim. 3:
    1; 2 Pet. 3:3.   To "discern or know the
    is, from a comprehensive view
    of past events, to perceive the indications
    of the present, so as to take advantage of
    circumstances, Est. 1:13; Matt. 16:3.
  299. TIME'US, [g] (honourable), the father
    of the blind beggar of Jericho, restored
    to sight by
    Jesus Christ, Mark 10:46.
  300. TIM'NA, [h] (hinderance or prohibition),
    a wife of Eliphaz, the son of Esau, and
    mother of Amalek, Gen. 36:12.
  301. TIMNA or TIMNAH, a duke or chief in
    Idumea, descended from Esau, Gen.
    36:40; 1 Chron. 1:51.
  302. TIM'NATH, [h] (image or enumera-
    ), a city of the Philistines, allotted to
    Judah, Gen. 38:12; Judg. 14:1.
  303. TIM'NATH-SE'RAH, [h] (image of
    the lady
    , or of the morning-star), a city of
    Ephraim, given to Joshua, Josh. 19:50;
  304. TI'MON, [g] (honourable), one of the
    first seven Grecian deacons in the Chris-
    church at Jerusalem, Acts 6:5.
  305. TIMO'THEUS, Τιμοθεος, or TIMOTHY
    (honour of God), an eminent Christian
    evangelist: his father was a Greek, but
    his mother Eunice, and his grandmother
    Lois, were pious Jewesses, by whom he
    was carefully trained in the knowledge
    of the Scriptures; and he embraced the
    doctrine of Christ, as preached by the
    apostle Paul, as he calls him his own
    son in the faith, and a witness of his
    sufferings at Iconium, Lystra, &c., Acts
    14:19-23; 1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 1:2-5;
    3:10, 11, 15.   Timothy, though young,
    was recommended by the church at
    Lystra to the apostle, who took him as
    his assistant in my. labour; and
    he was ordained by the apostle and the
    elders to the work of the ministry, as an
    evangelist, A.D. 52, Acts 16:1-3; 1 Tim.
    4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6.   He was with Paul,
    the next year, at Berea, Acts 17:14:
    he followed him to Athens, 1 Thess. 3:
    13, whence he was directed to return,
    to comfort the persecuted believers at
    Thessalonica, whose condition he re-
    ported to the apostle, A.D. 54, at Corinth,
    whence Paul wrote the Epistles to the
    Thessalonians, Acts 18:5; 1 Thess. 1:1;
    2 Thess. 1:1.   With the apostle he pro-
    ceeded to Ephesus, Acts 19:1, whence
    he was again sent into Macedonia, 10-22,
    A.D. 56: he returned to Ephesus, and
    was then sent to visit the Corinthian
    church, 1 Cor. 4:17, A.D. 59, whence he
    returned, and was one of the seven who
    accompanied the apostle into Macedonia,
    Acts 21:1-5, where, at Berea or Phi-
    lippi, Paul wrote his second Epistle to
    the Corinthians, 2 Cor. 2:12, 13; 7:5, 6;
    A.D. 60.   Timothy returned with Paul
    to Troas, and went with him to Miletus,
    Acts 20:6; to Tyre, to Ptolemais, and
    to Jerusalem, 21:3, 7, 17.   How Timo-
    thy was employed for the next two years,
    24:27, is not recorded: but he attended
    the apostle at Cesarea, and, A.D. 62,
    accompanied him in his dangerous voy-
    age to Rome, 27:1; 28:1-11;
    where he appears to have been impri-
    soned, but after a short time liberated,
    Phil. 1:1; Col. 1:1; Heb. 13:23.   Paul
    having gained his liberty, A.D. 64, Timo-
    thy accompanied him in his my.
    travels, and while the apostle went into
    Macedonia, he sent the evangelist to
    visit the church at Ephesus, A.D. 65,
    where he wrote to him his first Epistle,
    1 Tim. 1:3; and, having visited Troas,
    Miletum, Corinth, and other places, he
    was again imprisoned and brought before
    Cæsar, at Rome, A.D. 66, where he wrote
    to Timothy his second Epistle, charging
    him to fulfil his work as an evangelist,
    and desiring him to visit him, now in
    close confinement, ready to be sacrificed
    by the savage Nero, for the doctrine of
    Jesus Christ, 2 Tim. 4:5, 10, 13, 20.
    Timothy is supposed to have returned
    to Ephesus, after the martyrdom of his
    father in the gospel; but we have no
    certain record of the time, place, or
    manner of his death; though uncertain
    tradition, which also calls him "bishop
    of Ephesus,"
    states that he suffered mar-
    tyrdom for Christ at Ephesus.
  306. TIMOTHY, I. EPISTLE TO: this epistle
    was written, A. D. 65, by the apostle
    Paul, to Timothy, to encourage and in-
    struct him generally, while labouring as
    an evangelist at Ephesus, and to direct
    him especially in the ordination of suit-
    able persons as bishops, the pastors of the
    churches; and as deacons, to take care
    of the poor members of the Christian
    congregations, 1 Tim. 3.   See Commentary.
  307. TIMOTHY, II. EPISTLE: this epistle
    was written by the apostle
    Paul, during
    his last imprisonment at Rome, to inform
    Timothy of his circumstances, and of his
    state of mind in prospect of his approach-
    ing martyrdom, desiring also his presence
    with him.   The epistle affords a most
    striking illustration of the exalted piety,
    the benevolent affection, and the apos-
    tolical fidelity of this eminent servant of
    God, in the anticipation of martyrdom
    for his Lord and Saviour, 2 Tim. 1. 4.
    See Commentary.
  308. TIN, a well-known white metal of great
    ductility and usefulness, Num. 31:22:
    it was an article of commerce at Tyre,
    obtained, as some suppose, in the time of
    Ezekiel, from the mines of Cornwall, by
    the merchants of Phenicia, Ezek. 22:18,
    20; 27:12.   Tin is commonly found
    mixed with some silver; in renders that
    pure metal brittle, and hence the ex-
    pression in Isaiah, Isa. 1:22, 25.
  309. TINGLE, to feel a piercing with the
    sensation of sound, 1 Sam. 3:11.
  310. TINKLING, sounding sharply, as with
    small bells, Isa. 3:16, 18; 1 Cor. 13:1.
  311. TIP, the end or extremity, Luke 16:
  312. TIPH'SAH, [h] (a passage or ford), the
    ancient Thapsacus, a city of Syria, on
    the Euphrates, on the north-eastern
    boundary of the dominions of Solomon,
    1 Kings 4:24.
  313. TIPHSAH, a city of Samaria, the scene
    of horrid cruelties of Menahem, 2 Kings
  314. TI'RAS, [h] (that destroys), a son of
    Japheth, supposed to be the ancestor of
    the Thracians, Gen. 10:2.
  315. TIRE, a woman's head-dress, or an
    ornamental bandage for the head, Ezek.
    24:17, 23; Isa. 3:18.
  316. TIRED, did dress the head with orna-
    ments, 2 Kings 9:30.
  317. TIR'HAKAH, [h] (inquirer or examiner),
    a king of Ethiopia in Arabia, who pre-
    pared to aid king
    Hezekiah when be-
    sieged by Sennacherib, king of Assyria.
    He is called Thearchon by Strabo, 2
    Kings 19:9.
  318. TIR'SHATHA, [h] (that overthrows the
    ), the title given to Zerubbabel
    and Nehemiah, as governors or commis-
    saries, deputed by the kings of Persia, to
    regulate the affairs of Jerusalem and in
    the province of Judea, Ezra 2:63; Neh.
    7:70; 8:9; 10:1.
  319. TIR'ZAH, [h] (benevolent or pleasant), a
    daughter of Zelophehad, Num. 26:33.
  320. TIR'ZAH, a famous city of Canaan, Josh.
    12:24: it became the royal residence of
    several kings of Israel, 1 Kings 14:17;
    15:21; 16:8, 15, 17.
  321. TISH'BITE, an inhabitant of Thisbe,
    a city of Galilee, as Elijah is called, 1
    Kings 17:1.
  322. TITHE, the tenth part: a sort of con-
    tribution, voluntarily devoted to the
    purposes of religion and beneficence, and
    practised in some of the most ancient
    nations: hence Abraham, on returning
    from the slaughter of the kings, being
    met and blessed by Melchisedec, gave him
    the tenth part of the booty taken from
    the enemies, as priest of the Most High
    God, Gen. 14:18, 20; Heb 7:4.   Jacob
    also vowed to give the tenth part of all
    the property he might possess to the ser-
    vice of God, Gen. 28:22.
  323. TITHE OF LEVI.   Canaan was granted
    to the people of Israel as the sovereign
    donation of Jehovah; but the tribe of
    Levi, being devoted to the service of God,
    had no part granted to them, except forty-
    eight cities with their suburbs, Deut. 10:
    9; 18:1, 2; Num. 35:7.   They were
    to be the priests, physicians, instructors,
    and literati, of the nation; and for their
    services they were to receive a tenth
    portion of the produce of the land, of the
    cattle, and of the fruits, Num. 18:23,
    24: out of this tithe, a tenth was paid to
    the priests, who were of the family of
    Aaron, 25, 28.   The nine parts were again
    tithed for the feasts of the Lord, to be
    eaten and enjoyed before the tabernacle:
    but if the distance was too great to carry
    it, the several articles were to be sold,
    and the proceeds, with one-fifth in amount
    added, were to be expended at the annual
    feasts before the Lord, Lev. 27:31;
    Deut. 12:17, 18; 14:22, 27.   Some sup-
    pose there was a third tithing every three
    years, for the use of the poor and aged at
    home, Deut. 14:28, 29.   Mint, anise, and
    other garden herbs, were tithed by the
    Pharisees; but for this there appears no
    Divine command, though their hypocri-
    tical neglect of the commands of God is
    condemned by our Saviour, Matt. 23:
    23.   Tithes are not commanded by our
    Saviour or His apostles to be paid to the
    ministers of the gospel, as they are not
    priests nor Levites; nor are they pro-
    hibited, like them, from possessing landed
    property.   Nevertheless, our Saviour's
    maxim is, "the labourer is worthy of his
    in relation to his servants, Luke 10:
    7; and the inspired apostle has established
    it, that "they who preach the gospel should
    live of the gospel,"
    as the ordinance of
    Christ, 1 Cor. 9:14.
  324. TITHE, to tithe, or appropriate the
    tenth part, according to the ordinance of
    God for the support of the Levites, Deut.
  325. TITHING, collecting the tithe for the
    Levites, Deut. 26:12.
  326. TITLE, a name or style of address, Job
    32:21, 22: a motto or inscription, as
    on a tombstone, 2 Kings 23:17; or on
    cross, John 19:19, 20.
  327. TITTLE, the least part, Matt. 5:18;
    Luke 16:17.
  328. TI'TUS, Τιτος (honourable), an eminent
    evangelist, who assisted the my.
    labours of the apostle Paul.   Titus was a
    Greek, probably of Antioch: as he is first
    mentioned as accompanying Paul, his
    father in the gospel, A.D. 52, from that
    city to Jerusalem, Gal. 2:1; Acts 15:2.
    Some years after Paul sent him, it is sup-
    posed, from Ephesus to Corinth, where
    his zeal, piety, and talents, procured him
    respect, as a minister of Christ, 2 Cor. 10:
    11-18.   Having carried a favourable re-
    port of the Corinthians to the apostle in
    Macedonia, Paul sent him back again to
    Corinth, with the second Epistle, 7:6,
    13-15; 8:6, 16, 17, A. D. 60.   Paul left
    Titus at Crete, perhaps, after his first
    imprisonment at Rome, though some
    think it was when he returned from
    Macedonia into Greece, Acts 20:1, 2, and
    commissioned him to complete the or-
    ganisation of the infant [young] churches, where
    there were converts to Christ in the
    cities of that island, especially ordaining
    bishops [pastors] in the several congregations, Tit.
    1:5, 7; and for his direction in his work
    he wrote to him the Epistle, A. D. 65,
    desiring him to meet him at Nicopolis,
    3:12.   Titus complied with that request;
    and the apostle sent him, A. D. 66, into
    Dalmatia, 2 Tim. 4:10: after this we
    hear no more of him: but uncertain tra-
    dition says that he returned to Crete,
    and preached the gospel in the islands
    of Greece.
  329. TITUS, EPISTLE TO: this letter was
    written by the apostle
    Paul, to serve as a
    directory in several parts of his evange-
    lical ministry, especially in relation to
    the qualifications of Christian pastors,
    and to request him to meet the apostle
    at Nicopolis, Tit. 3:12.   See TITUS.
    See Commentary.

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