Bible Dictionary: T. 1840
- TA'ANACH, [h] (who humbles thee), a city
of Canaan allotted to Manasseh, Josh.
21:25; Judg. 1:27; 1 Kings 4:12.
- TA'BEAL, [h] (good God), an [important]
prince of Israel, or of Syria, as some have
supposed, "Remaliah's son," Pekah, the
king of Israel, Isa. 7:6; 2 Kings 15:27, 37.
- TA'BEEL, or TABEAL, one of the Syrian
rulers in Judea, who opposed the rebuild-
ing of the temple at Jerusalem, Ezra 4:7.
- TABE'RAH, [h] (burning), a place in
the desert of Sinai, where a burning
wind destroyed many of the Israelites on
account of their murmuring, Num. 11:3;
1 Cor. 10:10: it was called also Kibroth-
hattaavah, Num. 11:34.
- TABERING, beating or striking, as being
vexed, Nah. 2:7.
- TABERNACLE, a tent, as a temporary
shelter from the wind and rain, formed
of skins or cloth supported by poles and
cordage, Isa. 4:6; Jer. 10:20; Matt. 17:
4: a domestic habitation, which was a
large tent, Heb. 11:9; Gen. 18:1, 10:
the human body, as a frail and temporary
covering in which the soul is lodged, 2
Cor. 5:1-4; 1 Pet. 1:14. See TENT.
- TABERNACLE OF THE CONGREGATION,
or of WITNESS. This costly tent was
constructed by Moses at the foot of
mount Sinai, for the purpose of Divine
worship, by the sacrifices and interces-
sions of Aaron and the assistant priests,
on behalf of the congregation of Israel,
Exod. 25:9; 26:1, 26; Num. 4:16.
This sacred building is computed to
have been about fifty-five feet in length,
eighteen feet in breadth, and the same
in height: the two sides and the west
end consisted of a frame-work of shittim-
wood boards, having tenons to fit in
sockets made of solid silver, and the
whole overlaid with plates of gold. This
fabric was put together after the manner
of modern shop-window-shutters, and
held fast by five bars on each side, bracing
the boards as a kind of ribs: the entrance
at the east end had no boards, but five
pillars of wood, overlaid with gold, each
standing in a socket of brass, Exod. 27:
15-18; 36:20-38. The tabernacle was
divided into two apartments, separated
by a rich veil or curtain: the first, or
larger one, was the "holy place," contain-
ing the golden altar of incense, the table
of shew-bread, and the golden candle-
stick: the inner apartment, the "most
holy place," or "Holy of Holies," con-
tained only the ark of the covenant, with
its sacred contents, surmounted with its
cherubim of glory overspreading the
mercy-seat. Into the holy place the
priest entered daily, to offer incense at
the time of the burnt-offerings, morning
and evening; but into the Holy of Holies,
the high-priest alone entered, only once
every year, on the day of atonement.
The brazen altar for the burnt-offerings,
and the laver, were placed at the front
of the tabernacle, which was enclosed by
an open court of one hundred cubits long
and fifty cubits wide, having rich curtains
supported by pillars of brass: here the
elders of the nation assembled daily, to
represent the people at the time of sacri-
fice, in witnessing the significant atone-
ment for sin. The whole structure with
its enclosure is included in the taber-
nacle, 25:10, 40; 26:31, 37; 27:21;
29:38, 42; 30:1-10; 40:2, 38; Heb. 9:
2, 21. The tabernacle was covered with
curtains, of which the innermost was of
blue, striped with purple, scarlet and
crimson, upon which was a covering of
goat's hair, as a defence against the rain;
and over these were two others of sheep-
skins dyed red, and one above of badger's
skins. The court of the tabernacle also
was enclosed with ten large curtains of
fine twined linen, wrought as tapestry,
defended by others of goat's hair, 26:
1, 2, 7, 16. The tabernacle had no win-
dow; but the lamps on the candlestick
gave light to the holy place: the Holy of
Holies was dark; yet, being the visible
dwelling-place of the God of Israel, it
was enlightened by the Shechinah, the
glory of the LORD, 40:34. This sacred
tabernacle of the congregation contained
gold to the amount of about L175,000;
silver worth L37,721 17s. 6d.; brass worth
L138 6s. 0d.: total of the value of metal
unwrought L213,320 3s. 6d.: round this
precious structure the tribes of Israel
were encamped in the wilderness; and
the several parts of it, with all its various
articles of furniture and its utensils, were
committed to the care of the tribe of Levi,
Num. 1:50, 53. Christ's human nature
was typified by this costly tabernacle;
and while God dwelt symbolically be-
tween the cherubim in the Holy of
Holies, in the person of Jesus, "all the
fulness of the Godhead [dwelt] bodily[,]"
Heb. 8:2; 9:7, 11; Col. 2:9.
- TABERNACLE OF MOSES. This is be-
lieved to have been the tent or pavilion
in which Moses and the elders of Israel
assembled for public business, or confer-
ence on the affairs of the nation, and the ad-
ministration of justice, Exod. 33:7-11.
- TABERNACLES, FEAST OF: this was
held at the close of the whole harvest
and vintage, Deut. 16:13, to acknow-
ledge the bounties of God, with which he
had crowned the year: it was designed
to commemorate the gracious providence
which supplied the Israelites while dwell-
ing forty years in the deserts of Arabia;
and hence they dwelt seven days in tents
or booths. This festival commenced on
the fifteenth day of the first month of
the civil year, Lev. 23:27, 34, 43.
- TAB'ITHA, Ταβιθα (clear-sighted), an [im-
portant] Christian matron at Joppa, Acts 9:
36, 40. See DORCAS.
- TABLE, a frame of wood on which to
set food for a meal, Judg. 1:7; 2 Sam. 9:
7; 1 Kings 10:5: a frame-work stand for
the transaction of business, Matt. 21:12:
a broad, flat piece of stone, metal, or
other matter, for an engraving or writing,
Exod. 32:15, 19; Isa. 30:8; Hab. 2:
2: the provision or supplies of the table,
Psal. 23:5; Rom. 9:9. "Fleshly
tables of the heart," on which, the doc-
trine of the gospel is written, denote the
faculties of the soul, impressed in re-
generation, by the Spirit of God, engaging
all the powers of the soul, 2 Cor. 3:3;
Heb. 8:10; 10:76.
- TABLE OF THE LORD, the divine ordi-
nances of burnt-offering for sacrifice, Mal.
1:7-12: the Lord's supper, as a represen-
tation of the provision of mercy by Christ,
1 Cor. 10:21; Luke 22:30.
- TABLE OF SHEW-BREAD: this was
made of the shittim-wood, overlaid with
gold; two cubits in length, one in width,
and one and a half in height: it was
placed in the west corner of the holy
place of the tabernacle, near to the vail;
and twelve loaves of bread were placed
upon it, which were exchanged for new
ones every sabbath, the stale ones being
eaten by the priests, Exod. 25:23-27;
Lev. 24:6. This shew-bread, presented
constantly before the Lord, was designed
as a memorial of the Divine goodness in
His bountiful and gracious providence.
- TABLES OF THE LAW OF GOD: these
are declared to have been two tables of
stone, containing the Ten Commandments,
written by the finger of God, Exod. 31:
18; 32:15, 16; Deut. 4:13; 10:1-4.
Various conjectures have been formed
concerning the manner and form of these
tables, and whether the law were written
by the immediate operation of God, or the
ministry of angels: it is sufficient, how-
ever, to know that the law itself is of Di-
vine inspiration, as recorded by Moses.
- TABLETS, golden lockets or collars, as
is supposed, Exod. 35:22; Num. 31:
50; Isa. 3:20.
- TA'BOR, [h] (choice or purity), a moun-
tain of Galilee, rising to the height of
about a mile in the midst of the valley
of Jezreel: it is celebrated as the ren-
dezvous of the Israelites under Barak
for the defeat of Sisera, but especially
for the transfiguration of our blessed
Lord, Judg. 4:6-12; 1 Sam. 10:3; Jer.
46:18; Matt. 17:1.
- TABOR, a city of Zebulon given to the
Levites, 1 Chron. 6:77.
- TABRET, a musical instrument, a kind
of timbrel or drum, 1 Sam. 18:6; Ezek.
- TAB'RIMON, [h] (good pomegranate),
the father of Benhadad, king of Syria,
1 Kings 15:18.
- TACHES, hooks or clasps, some of
which were made of gold, others of brass,
to fasten the curtains and furniture of
the tabernacle, Exod. 26:6, 11, 33.
- TACKLING, cordage, as the ropes of a
ship, Acts 27:19; or of a tent, Isa.
- TAD'MOR, [h] (the palm, palm-tree, or
admirable), a city of Syria, on the borders
of Arabia Deserta, towards the Euphrates:
it is about sixty miles east of Damascus,
and twenty-three west of the Euphrates.
Tadmor was built or rebuilt as a store-city
by king Solomon, 1 Kings 9:18; 2 Chron.
8:4; and it was regarded as a place
of importance, being surrounded on the
east, west, and north, by barren moun-
tains, and on the south by a vast sandy
desert: it retained its name Tadmor till
the time of Alexander the Great, when
it received the name of Palmyra: in the
middle of the third century it became
famous under Odenatus and his queen
Zenobia, who made it the seat of their
empire; but it was seized about A.D. 273
by the Romans. Tadmor obtained its
ancient name under the Saracens; but its
glory has been reduced to heaps of ruins,
the extraordinary magnificence of which
excites the astonishment of every intel-
ligent beholder: about thirty wretched
families now inhabit it, and it is com-
monly called Palmyra.
- TAHAP'ANES, [h] (secret temptation,
or concealed flight), a royal city of Egypt,
supposed to be the same as Daphnæ
Pelusiac, sixteen miles from Pelusium;
and where the principal Jews at the
desolated city of Jerusalem retired, car-
rying with them the prophet Jeremiah:
this city, Jeremiah foretold, would be
taken by Nebuchadnezzar, and it is
believed that his infidel countrymen
stoned him for his unwelcome fidelity:
this city is called also Tahpanhes and
Tehaphnehes, Jer. 2:16; 43:7; 46:16;
- TAH'PENES, [h] (hidden flight, or
covered standard), the queen-consort of
Pharaoh, king of Egypt, in the reign of
Solomon, 1 Kings 11:19, 20.
- TAIL, the hinder part or train of a
beast or fish, Exod. 4:4; Judg. 15:4;
Rev. 9:10: a low or base part, Deut.
28:13; Isa. 9:15: the instruments
and policy of the devil, Rev. 12:4: an
army, Isa. 7:4.
- TAKE, to receive, Gen. 14:21; Matt.
26:26: to have or possess, Deut. 24:
6, 17; Matt. 15:24: to occupy, Josh. 10:
42: to apprehend or seize, Acts 12:3:
to conquer, 2 Sam. 12:28: to regard,
- TAKEN, received, Gen. 12:15; Acts
27:33: obtained, Job 28:2: seized
or carried away, Gen. 14:14; Judg. 17:
2: selected or appointed, Heb. 5:1: con-
quered, 1 Sam. 7:14; Jer. 38:28.
- TAKING, receiving, 2 Chron. 19:7;
2 Cor. 11:8; 3 John 7: employing, Matt.
6:27; Eph. 6:6: leading, Hos. 11:3;
- TALE, a story, Psal. 90:9; Luke 24:
11: a reckoning, Exod. 5:8, 18; 1 Chron.
- TALENT, a Hebrew weight of 3000
shekels, Exod. 25:39; 38:25, 26;
2 Sam. 12:30. Learned men are not
perfectly agreed as to the weight or
value of the talent: but reckoning the
shekel at half an ounce, the talent would
be 1500 ounces, and at five shillings per
ounce it would be worth L375: a talent
of gold, at L3 10s. per oz., would be
L5250. From these calculations, it will
be seen how great was the amount in
gold and silver that was devoted by
David and his nobles to the building of
the temple by Solomon, 1 Chron. 29:
4-7. Our Saviour's parable of the ser-
vant owing his king 10,000 talents, the
payment of whose debt was remitted,
teaches us how greatly sinners are in-
debted to God, how rich is His sovereign
grace, and how merciful we should be
to our fellow men, especially to our
Christian brethren, Matt. 18:23-25.
- TALENT, any gift or endowment be-
stowed upon men, for which they are
accountable to God. Reason, intellect,
wealth, influence, time, and special ad-
vantages of rank or station, are talents
adapted eminently to be the means of
glorifying God and of benefiting the
world, Matt. 25:15, 21, 28.
- TAL'ITHA, CUMI, Ταλιθα, κουμι (Damsel,
arise), Mark 5:41.
- TALK, speech, Job 11:2; 15:3: vain
conversation, Prov. 14:23; Eccles. 10:13:
discourse or preaching, Matt. 22:15.
- TALK, to speak in conversation, Num.
11:17; Deut. 6:7; John 14:30.
- TALKED, discoursed or conversed, Gen.
45:15; Luke 9:30; Acts 10:27.
- TALKERS, persons excessively addicted
to talk, or to speak vainly, Ezek. 36:
3; Tit. 1:10.
- TALKING, the act of discourse, Eph.
- TALKING, speaking or discoursing,
Gen. 17:22; Matt. 17:3.
- TAL'MAI, [h] (my sorrow), a son of
Anak, of the race of the giants of
Canaan, Josh. 15:14; Num. 13:33.
- TALMAI, the king of Geshur, and
father of Maachah, a wife of David,
2 Sam. 3:3; 13:37.
- TA'MAR, [h] (a palm or palm-tree), wife
of Er and of Onan, sons of Judah, and
mother of Pharez and Zarah, by her
father-in-law, Gen. 38:1, 6, 13, 24.
- TAMAR, a daughter of David by Maa-
chah, and sister of Absalom: she was
basely dishonoured by her half-brother
Amnon, whose guilty life was sacrificed
to the dreadful revenge of her brother
Absalom, 2 Sam. 13:1-32.
- TAMAR, a daughter of Absalom, 2 Sam.
- TAMAR, a city, supposed to be En-gedi,
- TAME, to reduce from wildness, to
make gentle, Mark 5:4; Jam. 3:8.
- TAMED, made gentle, Jam. 3:7.
- TAM'MUZ, [h] (concealed or abstruse),
a fabulous deity, whose image was wor-
shipped by some of the Israelites, Ezek.
8:14. Tammuz is supposed to have
been the same as Adonis, said to have
been a favourite of Venus, and to have
been killed by a wild boar; divine hon-
ours were paid to him after his death,
with various abominable rites, which
aggravated the guilt of the Jews.
- TANNER, one who prepares the skins
of beasts for use as leather, Acts 9:43.
Simon of Joppa is supposed to have been
a currier, who is a dresser of leather.
- TAPESTRY, cloth beautifully figured
with needle-work, which was a precious
commodity for curtains in the East,
Prov. 7:16; 31:22.
- TA'PHATH, [h] (little girl, or distillation,
or drop), a daughter of king Solomon,
married to the governor of the province
of Dor, 1 Kings 4:11.
- TAP'PUAH, [h] (an apple), a city of
Ephraim, Josh. 17:8, probably the
same as En-tappuah, ver. 8.
- TARE, did tear or rend, as a person in
grief, 2 Sam. 13:31; or a beast in rage,
2 Kings 2:24.
- TARES, a species of weed, called dar-
nell, resembling wheat, when growing
among the corn: it is separated from
the wheat after thrashing, as injurious,
having an intoxicating influence on the
eater in bread. Tares are, therefore, a
fit emblem of wicked men, Matt. 13:
- TARGET, a kind of buckler or shield,
to defend the breast of a soldier, 1 Sam.
17:6; 1 Kings 10:16; 2 Chron. 14:8.
- TARRIED, did tarry or wait, 2 Sam.
15:17-29; Acts 28:12: did lodge,
Gen. 24:54; Acts 9:43.
- TARRY, to stay or remain, Gen. 19:2;
Psal. 101:7: to lodge or dwell, Gen. 30:
27; John 4:40; Acts 10:48.
- TARRYING, delaying, Psal. 40:17.
- TAR'SHISH, [h] (contemplation or exa-
mination of the marbles), the second son of
Javan, supposed to have been the founder
of Tarsus in Cilicia, which gave surname
to a province, Gen. 10:4.
- TARSHISH, a son of Bilhan, of the
tribe of Benjamin, 1 Chron. 7:10.
- TARSHISH, a nobleman of Persia, Est.
- TARSHISH or THARSHISH, a city or
country, supposed to have been on the
east coast of Africa, 2 Chron. 20:36, 37;
1 Kings 10:22.
- TARSHISH, supposed to be Tartessus,
on the coast of Spain, near the entrance
to the Mediterranean, the most westerly
emporium of commerce to the Pheni-
cians, Jon. 1:3; 4:2.
- TARSHISH, SHIPS OF, large merchant
ships, capable of making a voyage to
Tartessus, across or along the coast of
the Mediterranean, Isa. 2:16; 23:1, 6;
- TAR'SUS, Ταρσος (winged, or having
pinions), the capital of Cilicia, in Asia
Minor, said to have been founded by
Sardanapalus, king of Assyria, if not by
Tarshish, son of Javan. Tarsus is famous
for its having had Cicero for proconsul,
and for being esteemed for learning
beyond even Athens and Alexandria,
having supplied to those cities, and even
to Rome, some of their best professors.
Julius Caesar, and afterwards Octavius,
honoured Tarsus, granting its citizens
equal privileges with those of Rome:
hence Paul, who was a native of Tarsus,
supported himself against the oppres-
sions of his enemies by pleading his
having been free-born, Acts 9:11; 21:
39; 22:25, 28.
- TAR'TAK, [h] (chained or shut up), the
idol deity of the Avites, who were brought
by the king of Assyria to settle in Sama-
ria, instead of the Israelites, 2 Kings
- TAR'TAN, [h] (that searches and exa-
mines, or the gift of a turtle), a commander
in the army of king Sennacherib, sent
with Rabshakeh on a message of defi-
ance to king Hezekiah, 2 Kings 18:17;
- Tartarus, a literal place. See Hell.
- TASK, allotted labour, Exod. 5:13, 14.
- TASKMASTERS, drivers of slaves or
workmen, compelling them to labour,
Exod. 1:11; 3:7, 5:6, 14.
- TASTE, relish, as of food, Exod. 16:
31; Job 6:6: the palate, Prov. 24:13.
- TASTE, to relish, as food, 2 Sam. 19:
35; Job 34:3: to partake of, 1 Sam.
14:43; Luke 14:24: to suffer or endure,
Matt. 16:28; Heb. 2:9.
- TASTED, did taste or partake of, as
food or drink, 1 Sam. 14:24; Dan. 5:2.
- TASTED, tried by the palate, Matt.
27:34: participated, Heb. 6:4, 5:
experienced sensibly, 1 Pet. 2:3.
- TATLERS, idle talkers, persons given to
talking, 1 Tim. 5:13.
- TAT'NAI, [h] (that gives, or the overseer
of the tribute): the governor of Samaria,
under the king of Persia: he opposed the
rebuilding of the temple at Jerusalem;
when his letter to the court led to a
search for the decree of Cyrus, which,
being found, was confirmed with addi-
tional privileges by the king Darius, Ezra
- TAUGHT, did teach or instruct, Deut.
31:22; Matt. 7:29; Acts 4:2.
- TAUGHT, instructed, Matt. 28:15;
John 6:45; Gal. 1:12.
- TAUNT, insult or reproach, Jer. 24:
9; Ezek. 5:5.
- TAUNTING, insulting or provoking,
- TAVERNS, inns, or places of entertain-
ment, for the accommodation of travellers:
the Three Taverns were places of this
kind, situated on one of the great roads,
and about thirty-six miles from Rome,
- TAXATION, an assessment, or rate of
tax charged upon a country according to
its extent or population, 2 Kings 23:
- TAXED, enrolled or registered, for the
purpose of being assessed to pay as a tax,
- TAXES, exactions: Seleucus, son of An-
tiochus the Great, is intended by the pro-
phet, as he distinguished himself chiefly
by raising taxes to pay the debts of his
father, due to the Romans, Dan. 11:20.
- TAXING, the act of registering or being
assessed, Luke 2:21; Acts 5:37.
- TEACH, to instruct, Exod. 4:15; Luke
11:1. God teaches men by His works of
creation and providence, by His written
word, and by His Holy Spirit, Job 35:
11; Acts 20:32; 1 John 2:27; 1 Cor. 2:14.
- TEACHER, an instructor or master, 1
Chron. 25:8; John 3:2: a preacher, as
an apostle, 1 Tim. 2:7; or pastor, Eph.
- TEACHING, instructing, Matt. 4:23;
15:9; Acts 18:11.
- TEAR, to rend or pull in pieces, Judg.
8:7; Psal. 7:2; Nah. 2:12; Mark 9:18.
- TEARS, drops of water issuing from the
eyes, in seasons of grief, Psal. 6:6; Jer.
9:1, 18; or of solicitous excitement, Luke
7:38; Acts 20:31: grief or sorrow, Isa.
25:8; Rev. 7:17.
- TEATS, the nipples or dugs of the
breasts, Ezek. 23:3: luxuriant crops,
in the failure of which the Jewish women
lamented, Isa. 32:12.
- TE'BAH, [h] (murder or grinding of the
body), a son of Nahor, Gen. 22:24.
- TEBALI'AH, [h] (baptism of the Lord),
a son of Merari, a Levite, 1 Chron. 26:
- TE'BETH, a Hebrew month, the tenth
in the sacred year, Esth. 2:16.
- TEDIOUS, wearisome by continuance,
- TEETH, bones framed in the mouth for
chewing food, Num. 11:33: the spikes of
a fork, 1 Sam. 2:12. To "cast in the
teeth," is to reproach, Matt. 26:44.
"Cleanness of teeth," is scarcity of food,
- TEHIN'NAH, [h] (prayer or mercy), a
son of Eshton, in the tribe of Judah, 1
- TEIL-TREE, the oak, Isa. 6:13. See
- TE'KEL, [h] (weight, or he is weighed),
one of the mysterious words written on
the wall of the palace against the guilty
king Belshazzar, Dan. 5:25-27. See
- TEKO'A, [h] (trumpet, or that is con-
firmed), a man of note in the tribe of
Judah, 1 Chron. 2:24; 4:5.
- TEKO'AH, [h] (a trumpet, or blowing of
a trumpet), a city of Judah, about twelve
miles south of Jerusalem, 2 Sam. 14:24;
Amos 1:1. Near to the city there was a
desert of some extent called the "wilder-
ness of Tekoah," 2 Chron. 20:20.
- TE'LAH, [h] (humility or verdure), a son
of Rephah in the tribe of Ephraim, 1
- TEL'AIM, [h] (lambs), a city on the
south-west frontier of Judah, 1 Sam. 15:
4, called Telem, Josh. 15:24.
- TELL, to inform, Gen. 32:6; 45:13;
Acts 22:27: to declare, 1 Kings 1:20:
to make known, 1 Sam. 9:8; Psal. 26:
7: to number or count, Gen. 15:5.
- TELLING, a report or relating, Judg.
- TELLING, relating or reporting, 2 Sam.
11:19; 2 Kings 8:5.
- TE'MA, [h] (admiration, or the south), a
son of Ishmael, founder of a tribe of
Arabs, Gen. 25:15; Job 6:19; Jer. 25:
- TE'MAN, [h] (the south, or perfect), a son
of Eliphaz, and grandson of Esau, Gen.
- TEMAN, a district of Idumea, so called
from Teman the grandson of Esau, Ezek.
25:13; Obad. 9.
- TEMANITE, a native of Teman, as
Eliphaz, Job 2:11.
- TEMPER, to mix, as oil with flour, for
a meat-offering, Ezek. 46:14.
- TEMPERANCE, moderation, especially
in regard to eating and drinking, in oppo-
sition to indulgence which nourishes im-
moral habits, Acts 24:25; 2 Pet. 1:6.
- TEMPERATE, moderate in eating and
drinking, 1 Cor. 9:25; Tit. 1:8.
- TEMPERED, mixed, Exod. 29:2:
adjusted or proportioned, as the various
members of the body, 1 Cor. 12:24.
- TEMPEST, a storm of wind, especially
dreadful at sea, Jon. 1:4-12; Matt. 8:
24; Acts 27:18, 20: grievous afflictions,
Job 9:17. Divine judgments upon indi-
viduals and nations are signified by tem-
pests, Job 27:20; 32:2; Psal. 83:
- TEMPESTUOUS, stormy, Jon. 1:11; Acts
- TEMPLE, a building dedicated to sacred
uses: the tabernacle is so called, 1 Sam.
1:9; 3:3; the splendid edifice erected by
the Ephesians for the abominable wor-
ship of the fabulous goddess Diana, Acts
19:27; that of the idol Dagon, built
by the Philistines, 1 Chron. 10:10; and
that of Bel, at Babylon, 2 Chron. 36:
7. Heaven is called God's temple, 2 Sam.
22:7; and every true Christian is called
a "temple of God," and a "temple of the
Holy Chost[,]" being regenerated by the
Holy Spirit, and self-consecrated to the
Divine glory, 1 Cor. 3:16, 17; 2 Cor. 6:
- TEMPLE OF SOLOMON. Solomon's
temple, erected to the honour of Jehovah,
was the most splendid and sumptuous
edifice that ever was reared upon earth.
It was built upon mount Moriah at Jeru-
salem, the sacred spot on which the
LORD appeared to Abraham when he
was offering up his son Isaac. Like the
tabernacle of Moses, it was constructed
after a model given by Divine inspiration,
by architects and artificers, the chief of
whom are believed to have been specially
endowed with widsom and skill from
God, 1 Kings 7:14; 2 Chron. 3:3; Gen.
22:2, 14. David had projected this
work; but he was forbidden by the
prophet to undertake it, while Nathan
assured him, that God would enable his
son to accomplish it in a manner worthy
of its design: for which purpose the king
and his princes made prodigious prepa-
rations, and contributed 108,000 talents
of gold, and 1,017,000 talents of silver;
which together, if reckoned according to
the Mosaic talent, the correctness of
which some have doubted, must have
amounted in weight to 46,000 tons of gold
and silver, and in value to more than
L1,000,000,000 sterling, 1 Chron. 22:14;
29:3, 7. Besides the sacred house
itself, numerous chambers and apart-
ments were added, to an extent far more
than equal to the chief building, so as to
make it altogether a most magnificent
structure. About 184,000 workmen and
overseers were employed in constructing
this great edifice with its various vessels
and furniture; and though urged forward
with all possible expedition, it occupied
them seven years and six months, 1 Kings
5:13, 16; 2 Chron. 2:17, 18. When com-
pleted, a national convocation was called,
and the sacred edifice was dedicated to
God by a solemn prayer from king Solo-
mon. During the festival, which lasted
fourteen days, 22,000 oxen and 120,000
sheep were sacrificed as a peace-offering,
and for the supply of the people: God
accepted the offering of the house to his
service, and signified his approbation by
fire from heaven to consume the sacri-
fices, and by the visible cloud of the glory
of the LORD, which filled the house of
God, 1 Kings 8.; 2 Chron. 5.; 7:1-11.
Solomon's temple existed in its primitive
glory only about thirty-four years: for
his shameful idolatries, which he prac-
tised to gratify his heathenish wives,
provoked the LORD; and as his son
Rehoboam walked in the steps of his
father in his degenerate state, ten tribes
of the people revolted from him, and, as
a further punishment, God gave him into
the hands of Shishak, king of Egypt, who
carried away the royal and the sacred
treasures from Jerusalem, 1 Kings 12:
15; 14:21, 25, 26; 2 Chron. 12:1-10.
Divine worship was still continued in
the temple of God, but idolatry prevailed
among the people, and the house of the
LORD was dishonoured under several
kings. Asa gave a large portion of its
remaining precious furniture to Benha-
dad, king of Syria, 1 Kings 15:15, 18.
Joash, and the high-priest Jehoiada, re-
paired the temple, but soon after the
king gave its sacred treasures to Hazael
king of Syria, who had threatened to
pillage Jerusalem, 2 Kings 12:4, 18.
Ahaz was a gross idolator; and he
stripped the temple to procure the assist-
ance of Assyria, against the king of Syria,
16:1-18; and for a long time the doors
were closed, 2 Chron. 18:21, 24. Heze-
kiah repaired the temple, replacing such
of the sacred vessels as were wanting;
but he was obliged to give much of its
gold and silver to propitiate Sennacherib
king of Assyria, 29.; 30.; 2 Kings 18:
4, 14-16. Manasseh, in the former part
of his reign, appeared as a monster of ini-
quity: he even reared altars to the host
of heaven and to idols in the courts of
the temple: but he afterwards repented,
and restored the true worship of God,
21:2, 11; 2 Chron. 33:14-19. Amon's
was a reign of destructive wickedness:
but Josiah repaired the temple and re-
placed the ark of God in the most noly
place, 2 Kings 23.; 2 Chron. 34.;
35. Idolatry and wickedness con-
tinued to prevail among the people, who
profaned the house of the LORD, and,
with every species of abuse, rejected the
ministry of his faithful servants the pro-
phets; when, in the year 606 B.C.,
Nebuchadnezzar was permitted to gratify
his ambition, by seizing Jerusalem, and
carrying away the sacred vessels to Baby-
lon; and, the people continuing to reject
the counsels of the prophet Jeremiah,
that proud monarch returned to the holy
city in the year 588 B.C. and utterly
destroyed the magnificent temple of
Solomon, with the whole city of Jerusa-
lem, 2 Kings 25:1, 9; 2 Chron. 36:
10-20; Jer. 52:12, 27.
- TEMPLE, THE SECOND. Zerubbabel,
the prince of the Jews, led back nearly
50,000 of the people from Babylon to
Jerusalem, under the decree of Cyrus,
and rebuilded the temple of God, Ezra 1.
2. 3. Vehement opposition was made
by powerful enemies; but the work was
of God; and, encouraged by the prophets
Haggai and Zechariah, and sanctioned by
new decrees of Artaxerxes and Darius,
the temple was finished in about twenty
years, and dedicated in the year 515 B. C.
Though larger in its dimensions than the
temple of Solomon, it was incomparably
less splendid in appearance; and it
wanted, as the Jews acknowledge, five
things, which the former possessed: 1,
the Ark and its furniture; 2, the She-
chinah, or cloud of the Divine presence;
3, the Holy Fire; 4, the Urim and
Thummim; and 5, the Spirit of prophecy;
Ezra 1. 3. 5. 6. This temple underwent
various changes, as the people obeyed or
provoked the LORD. Antiochus Epi-
phanes king of Syria, about the year 167
B. C., plundered the temple of about 800
talents of gold, and abolished the services
of Divine worship, under circumstances
of extraordinary impiety and cruelty.
Judas Maccabeus recovered the city after
three years, repaired the temple, and
restored the ordinances of God. Herod
the Great, however, finding it much di-
lapidated, after it had stood nearly 500
years, began to rebuild it in the year 17
B. C., for the purpose of securing the
favour of the Jews. The temple was
rendered fit for Divine worship in the
ninth year; but Herod continued to
enlarge and embellish it to the end of his
reign; and its magnificense and splen-
dour, in white marble and gold, as de-
scribed by Josephus, rendered it one of
the most astonishing structures in all the
world, Matt. 24:1, 2; Mark 13:1;
John 2:20. Messiah appearing personally
in this second temple, it was filled with
greater glory than the temple of Solomon,
Hag. 2:9: and having completed his
ministry, thereby superseding the typical
institutions of the Levitical law, and the
Jews having rejected the gospel dispen-
sation of mercy, crucifying the Lord of
glory, and persecuting His apostles, and
still proceeding in their national crimes,
God permitted the city and temple to be
utterly destroyed by the Romans, under
circumstances of unparalleled sufferings,
as predicted by Christ, A. D. 70. Jeru-
salem still continues, as our Saviour fore-
told, "trodden down of the Gentiles,"
Luke 21:24: and a temple to the false
prophet now pollutes the consecrated
summit of Mount Moriah, into which no
Jew or Christian is allowed to enter on
pain of death, or a solemn surrender as a
[radical] disciple of Moh_mm_d!
- TEMPLES, the upper parts of the sides
of the head, Judg. 4:21; 5:26.
- TEMPORAL, measured by or relating to
time, 2 Cor. 4:18.
- TEMPT, to try, or exercise with a trial;
as God exercised Abraham, to illustrate
his fidelity and obedience, in relation to
the Divine promises, Gen. 22:1: to
endeavour to deceive or ensnare, as the
devil seeks to delude the people of God,
Matt. 4:: or as the hypocritical Jews
sought to overreach our Saviour, Matt.
22:18. Men tempt God, by provo-
cation, requiring His miraculous inter-
position, Exod. 17:2, 7: exposing them-
selves presumptuously to danger, Matt.
4:7: or daringly transgressing His law,
Mal. 3:15; Acts 5:9.
- TEMPTATION, a state of trial, as the
sojourning of the Israelites in the wilder-
ness, Psal. 95:8; or a series of perse-
cution, Luke 8:13: danger, as of
suffering, Rev. 3:10; or of allurement,
Matt. 6:13; 1 Tim. 6:9: suffering, Jam.
1:12; Acts 20:19.
- TEMPTATION OF CHRIST, the trial
which He endured from the attacks of
the devil, who laboured to draw Him into
the commission of evil, Luke 4:13: the
series of persecution and trial which He
endured throughout His ministry, Luke
- TEMPTED, did tempt or provoke, Exod.
17:7; Num. 14:22.
- TEMPTED, tried, as by grievous afflic-
tion, Heb. 11:37; or by the malicious craft
of men, Luke 10:25; or by the wiles of
the devil, Matt. 4:1; Heb. 4:15; or by
the unsubdued corruptions of the heart,
- TEMPTER, a title of the devil, as the
malicious and vigilant enemy of man,
Matt. 4:3; 1 Thess. 3:5.
- TEMPTING, endeavouring to ensnare,
Matt. 16:1; Mark 10:2; John 8:6.
- TEN, twice five in number, Gen. 16:3;
1 Kings 7:38; Ezek. 45:14.
- TEND, to incline or move towards, Prov.
- TENDER, young and fatted, as for food,
Gen. 18:7: weak and feeble, as children
in relation to fatiguing journeys, 33:
13: nice or excessively effeminate, Deut.
28:54, 56: sympathising or com-
passionate, Luke 1:7; Jam. 5:11: inex-
perienced, 1 Chron. 22:5; 2 Chron. 13:
7. God is said to be of tender mercy, to
denote His being pitiful and forgiving,
- TENDERNESS, extreme sensitiveness or
effeminacy, Deut. 28:56.
- TENONS, the ends of wooden beams
cut to fit into other pieces of timber,
- TENOR, the sense or general drift of an
argument or discourse, Gen. 43:7; Exod.
- TENT, a lodging-place or temporary
dwelling, made of cloth or skins, sup-
ported by poles, Gen. 4:20; 9:21; Num.
1:52: the outward covering of the taber-
nacle, Exod. 40:19. Most habitations
in the early ages were tents, especially
of those who did not reside in cities,
Gen. 13:12-18; Heb. 11:9. The [O.T.] church
of God is signified by a tent, Isa. 54:2.
- TENTH, the next after nine in number,
the ordinal of ten, Jer. 32:1; John 1:
39: the tithe or tenth part, Lev. 27:
32; Num. 18:21.
- TE'RAH, [h] (to breathe or to scent), the
father of Haran, Nahor, and Abraham:
he and his family were idolators in
Chaldea; but it is believed that he was
converted to God by the ministry of his
son Abraham. Terah died at Haran, on
the way to Canaan, aged 205 years, when
Abraham was 75 years old; so that he
must have been 130 years old at the
birth of Abraham, Gen. 11:26, 32; 12:4;
- TER'APHIM, [h] (images), Judg. 17:
5; 18:14-20; Hos. 3:4. This word
is translated images, Gen. 31:19, 34,
35; 2 Kings 23:24; Ezek. 21:21:
image, 1 Sam. 19:13-16; and idols,
Zech. 10:2. It is evident that they were
instruments of idolatry; and it has been
supposed that they represented angels,
cherubim or seraphim; such images were
very common with those who had de-
parted from the purity of the Divine
worship, as was the case with Laban,
Gen. 31:19-35; Nebuchadnezzar con-
sulted his teraphim, Ezek. 21:21; and
this form of idolatry was almost uni-
versal among the heathen, as is evident
from their household gods, or Dii Penates.
- TER'ESH, [h] (heir, miserable, or ban-
ished), one of the chamberlains of king
Ahasuerus, who had conspired against
his life, when the design was defeated
by the diligent zeal of Mordecai, Est. 2:
- TERMED, named or called, Isa. 62:4.
- TERRACES, elevated walks, 2 Chron.
- TERRESTRIAL, earthly, consisting of
earth, 1 Cor. 15:40.
- TERRIBLE, dreadful, as God is, on
account of His infinite justice and power,
and His awful judgments upon the
wicked, Exod. 34:10; Deut. 7:21;
Job 37:22: frightful, as the moun-
tainous desert of Arabia, Deut. 1:19; or
a savage beast, Job 41:14; Dan. 7:7;
or cruel enemies, Hab. 1:7.
- TERRIBLENESS, a quality or character
exciting terror, Deut. 26:8; Jer. 49:
- TERRIBLY, dreadfully, Isa. 2:19: vio-
lently, Nah. 2:3.
- TERRIFIED, shocked with fear, Deut.
20:3; Luke 21:9.
- TER'TIUS, Τερτιος (the third), the amanu-
ensis of the apostle Paul, Rom. 16:22.
Tertius is supposed to have been Silas,
a companion of the apostle; especially
as his name in Hebrew is of the same
signification as Tertius, which is Latin,
- TERTUL'LUS, [g] (a liar, an im-
postor, or a teller of stories), an eloquent
advocate employed by the Jews to plead
against the apostle Paul before Festus,
governor of Judea, Acts 24:1-8. Ter-
tullus's fulsome flattery seems to have
had but little effect on the assembly,
while Paul's upright statement and holy
reasonings vindicated his cause, and
made the judge himself to tremble, 10-
- TESTAMENT, the act of a person in the
prospect of death, by which he declares
how he wishes to dispose of his property
or estate, Heb. 9:16, 17; Gal. 3:15.
Hence our Saviour appointed the Lord's
supper, as His testament, to declare His
legacy of peace and salvation, by the
remission of sins through His blood, to
all [N. T. church] believers, Matt. 26:28; Luke 22:
20; John 14:27. The Greek word ren-
dered testament properly means cove-
nant, as it is generally translated; and
conveys the idea of obligation to observe
the wishes of the testator. Such a testa-
ment, especially when written, had been
regarded by all nations as sacredly to be
observed by the appointed executors.
- TESTAMENT, NEW. See NEW TESTA-
- TESTAMENT, OLD. See OLD TESTA-
- TESTATOR, one who makes a testament,
as a dying man in disposing of his pro-
perty by will. Christ is represented to
us in this character, freely bequeathing
the riches of His grace and His inherit-
ance of glory to His true disciples, Heb.
9:16, 17; John 14:27.
- TESTIFIED, did declare as a witness,
John 4:39, 44: did show evidence, Acts
18:5: did protest, Neh. 12:15.
- TESTIFIED, declared on evidence, Exod.
21:19; Acts 8:25: published, 23:11;
1 Tim. 2:2.
- TESTIFY, to bear witness, Num. 35:
30; Acts 26:5: to publish or make
known, as by preaching, Acts 2:40; 20:
24: to protest, Deut. 8:19.
- TESTIFYING, declaring with evidence,
Acts 20:21; 1 Pet. 5:12: giving manifest
evidence, Heb. 11:4.
- TESTIMONY, a witnessing evidence,
Ruth 4:7; Matt. 8:4: the law of God,
as written on the two tables of stone,
Exod. 16:34; 25:16; 30:6; 31:18:
the declaration of a witness or of a mes-
senger, John 3:32, 33; Acts 13:22:
the gospel, as the testimony of Christ,
2 Tim. 1:8. The tabernacle, as contain-
ing the tables of the law of God in the
sacred ark, and as the place where the
daily and other sacrifices were offered
by the priests, was called the testimony,
Num. 1:50; Psal. 122:4. The Divine
laws and ordinances are called the testi-
monies of God, Deut. 6:17-20; Psal.
- TETRARCH, a sovereign prince that
has the fourth part of a state, province,
or kingdom, under his dominion, without
wearing the diadem, or bearing the title
of king, Matt. 14:1; Luke 3:1.
- THADDE'US, Θαδδαιος (that praises and con-
fesses), the surname of the apostle Jude,
Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18. See JUDAS.
- Thaddeus. See THE TWELVE.
- THANK, personal merit, Luke 6:32,
- THANK, to gratefully acknowledge a
favour, Luke 17:9; more particularly
from God, as the author of all good,
1 Chron. 16:4; 23:30; especially of
grace and salvation by Jesus Christ,
1 Cor. 1:4.
- THANKED, did thank or acknowledge
a favour, 2 Sam. 14:22: did praise, Acts
- THANKED, praised and honoured, Rom.
- THANKFUL, grateful under a sense of
favours received, Psal. 100:4; Rom. 1:21.
- THANKFULNESS, a sense of obligation
for favours received, Acts 24:3.
- THANKING, praising for mercies re-
ceived, 2 Chron. 5:13.
- THANKS, acknowledgments for favours
and mercies, Dan. 6:10; Rom. 14:6;
- THANKSGIVING, the act of Divine
worship in which the mercies and bless-
ings of God are acknowledged with an
intelligent and grateful mind, Neh. 11:
17; 12:46; Rev. 7:12. Thanksgiving
for spiritual blessings in Christ Jesus is
especially required, both in public and
in private, from all believers, as a part
of their acceptable worship, Psal. 100:4;
2 Cor. 9:12; Phil. 4:6; Col. 2:7.
- THANKWORTHY, deserving commenda-
tion, 1 Pet. 2:19.
- THAR'SHISH or TARSHISH. See TAR-
- THEATRE, a public place where the
people assembled to behold plays and
exhibitions, especially combats with wild
beasts, Acts 19:29-31. Some suppose
that Paul had been so exposed in the
theatre at Ephesus; but he seems rather
to refer to brutal men in that city, 1 Cor.
- THE'BEZ, [h] (muddy, eggs, or fine linen),
a city of Ephraim, near Shechem, noted
for its tower, in besieging which Abime-
lech was killed, Judg. 9:50-54.
- THEE, a governed case of thou, as
"to thee," Philem. 11; or "with thee,"
- THEFT, the act of stealing, Exod. 22:
3; Rev. 9:21: the thing stolen, Exod.
- THEIRS, of them, as their own, Gen.
15:13; 34:23; Matt. 5:3.
- THEM, a governed case of they, as
"before them," Gen. 18:8; or "against
them," Rom. 2:2; Col. 3:19.
- THEMSELVES, those very persons, Gen.
43:32; 2 Tim. 2:25, 26; or things,
- THEN, at that time, Gen. 4:26; Judg.
5:8; Rom. 6:21: in that case, Matt. 12:
37; 1 John 3:21: afterwards, Heb. 7:27.
- THENCE, from that place, Gen. 24:
7; Matt. 6:11.
- THENCEFORTH, from that time, John
- THEOPH'ILUS, Θεοφιλος (a lover of
God), an honourable person to whom the
evangelist Luke addressed his Gospel
and the Acts of the Apostles, Luke 1:3;
Acts 1:1. Some suppose that Theophilus
was an Egyptian nobleman; but we know
only that he was probably a man of
rank, who lived out of Palestine, and
had abjured paganism to embrace the
doctrine of Christianity.
- THERE, in that place, Gen. 2:8; Num.
21:26; Acts 20:2.
- THEREABOUT, concerning that, Luke
- THEREAT, at that place, Exod. 30:
19: in that way, Matt. 7:13.
- THEREBY, by means of that, Prov. 20:
1; John 11:4; Eph. 2:16.
- THEREFORE, for that, Gen. 2:24: for
that reason, 1 Cor. 6:20.
- THEREFROM, from that, Josh. 23:6;
2 Kings 3:3.
- THEREIN, in that place, Luke 21:21.
- THEREOF, of that, Gen. 2:17; Eccles.
- THEREON, on that, Exod. 20:24; Matt.
- THEREOUT, out of that, Lev. 2:2.
- THERETO, to that, Lev. 5:16; Matt.
- THEREUNTO, unto that, Exod. 32:8.
- THEREUPON, upon that, 1 Cor. 3:10:
in consequence of that, Ezek. 16:16.
- THEREWITH, with that, 1 Sam. 17:
51; 1 Tim. 6:8.
- THESE, the persons, Gen. 10:5; 1 Kings
11:2; or things, now spoken of, Gal. 5:
17-19; Heb. 9:23.
- THESSALONIANS, inhabitants of the city
of Thessalonica, especially those who had
become Christians by the ministry of the
apostle Paul, A.D. 50, Acts 17:1; 1 Thess.
1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1.
- THESSALONIANS, I. EPISTLE TO THE:
Paul's ministry having been blessed to
the gathering of a church at Thessa-
lonica, the infidel Jews, inflamed with
malice, persecuted him, and he fled to
Berea and Athens, whence he sent Timo-
thy back to encourage the young be-
lievers. Timothy reported to Paul at
Corinth their steadfastness in the gospel,
and he wrote this epistle to confirm
them in tneir belief of the truth, and
to direct them in their Christian course:
it contains various consolatory statements
of doctrine, with practical counsels, and
declares the safe and blessed condition
of the godly who may be living at the
period of the resurrection, 4:17. This
epistle is believed to have been written
early, A.D. 52. See Commentary.
- THESSALONIANS, II. EPISTLE TO THE:
this second letter was written to the
church at Thessalonica, probably but a
few months after the former, to remove
some misapprehensions that were enter-
tained by certain members of that society:
they were expecting the near approach
of the day of judgment, and the appear-
ance of Christ, through which they had
neglected their worldly callings. To
rectify this mistaken notion, and to
guide them in the discharge of their
duties as Christians, the apostle was
again inspired to write to this church.
This epistle contains a most remarkable
prophecy concerning "antichrist," under
the character of the "man of sin[,]" the
"son of perdition[,]" the "mystery of
iniquity[,]" and "that Wicked[,]" 2 Thess.
2:3-8. Commentators the most wise
and learned regard this prediction as
fulfilled in the Romish priesthood, with
its pontifical head, pretending to be the
"Vicar of Christ;" by that body cor-
rupting the doctrine of Christ, and per-
verting the instituted worship of God,
and by the worshipping of angels, saints,
images, and the bread and wine of the
Lord's supper. "[E]xalt[ing] himself above
all that is called God, or that is worshipped[,]"
denotes the pope's assuming authority
over all the ministers of Christ, and
even over kings and emperors, so at to
dispose of kingdoms at his pleasure.
"[S]itt[ing] in the temple of God," denotes
the inauguration of the pope, as in St.
Peter's church at Rome, where he is
seated on the high altar, making the
table of the Lord his footstool, receiving
adoration in that position. "[S]hewing
himself that he is God[,]" intends his
affecting divine titles, as "Your Holiness,"
and "Our lord god the Pope."
- THESSALONI'CA, [g] (victory of
Thessaly), a city and seaport of Mace-
donia, situated at the head of the Ther-
maic gulf. It was anciently called Halia,
Eurathia, and Therma; but called Thes-
salonica by Philip, father of Alexander
the Great, to commemorate his victory
over the Thessalians. Æmilius Paulus,
having conquered Macedonia, divided it
into four districts, making this the capi-
tal of the second division, and the station
of a Roman governor. Paul introduced
the gospel into Thessalonica, A.D. 50;
and to the believers here wrote two
epistles. See THESSALONIANS. This
city was the most populous in Mace-
donia: it was taken by the Saracens,
about A.D. 800; and at length fell into
the hands of the Turks: it is still very
large, containing about 60,000 inhabitants,
and called Salonichi.
- THEU'DAS, [g] (a false teacher), an
ambitious imposter, called Judas, by
Josephus; after the death of Herod he
raised an insurrection in Galilee, aiming
to get the sovereignty of Judea; but he
was defeated and put to death, Acts 5:
- THEY, those persons, Num. 16:33;
Acts 11:2, 9; or those things, John 5:39;
- THICK, large in bulk, as the trunk of
a tree, Psal. 74:5; or bushy and
spreading, 2 Sam. 18:9; Ezek. 19:11:
crowded, as people, Luke 11:29: wealthy,
as a nation, Deut. 32:15.
- THICKER, more bulky or heavy, as to be
burdensome or oppressive, 1 Kings 12:10.
- THICKET, a wood or copse full of trees,
Gen. 22:13; Jer. 4:7, 29.
- THICKNESS, substance, 2 Chron. 4:5;
Jer. 52:21; Ezek. 41:9.
- THIEF, one who steals, or takes un-
lawfully the property of another, Exod.
22:2, 8; Matt. 24:43.
- THIEVES, robbers, Luke 10:30; 1 Cor.
6:10: violent oppressors, Isa. 1:23.
- THIGH, the limb of the human body
above the leg, Gen. 24:2; Exod. 28:
42; Judg. 3:16-21. "Smiting on the
thigh," denotes grief, Ezek. 21:12.
"Having a name written on the thigh,"
denotes great fame, Rev. 19:16.
- THIN, small in substance, Exod. 39:
3: diminutive in size, Gen. 41:6, 27:
depressed in condition, as were the idol-
atrous Jews, Isa. 17:4-8.
- THINE, belonging to thee, thy own,
Gen. 14:23; Matt. 25:25.
- THING, a substance, not a person,
Judg. 8:27; Rom. 9:20: an action,
Exod. 18:11, 17; Acts 10:28: an event,
Num. 16:30; Heb. 10:31: information,
2 Sam. 15:3; Acts 17:21. "All things
in heaven and on earth," denote Jews
and Gentiles, as equally members of the
church of Christ, both in this world and
in Heaven, united with the holy angels,
Eph. 1:10, 22; Col. 1:20.
- THINK, to imagine or consider, Num.
36:6; Est. 4:13: to reflect, Phil. 4:
8: to suppose, John 16:2; Gal. 6:3: to
remember, Gen. 40:14: to purpose, Neh.
6:6; Dan. 7:25: to conceive, Eph. 3:
- THINKING, supposing, 2 Sam. 4:10;
- THIRD, the next after the second, Gen.
32:19; Ezek. 10:14; Dan. 2:39; John
- THIRDLY, in the third rank or order,
as teachers or pastors of churches, to
continue after the abolition of the minis-
try of the extraordinary officers, apostles
and prophets, 1 Cor. 12:28; Eph. 4:11.
- THIRST, want of drink, Exod. 18:3;
Judg. 15:18; 2 Cor. 11:27.
- THIRST, to desire drink, John 4:13, 15:
to desire eagerly, as men desire happi-
ness, Isa. 55:1; as the godly desire the
blessings of grace, Psal. 42:2; Matt. 5:6.
- THIRSTED, did thirst, as for water,
- THIRSTY, suffering for want of water,
Judg. 4:19; Matt. 25:35, 37: barren,
being destitute of water, Psal. 63:1;
- THIRTEEN, ten and three, Gen. 17:
25; 1 Kings 7:1.
- THIRTEENTH, the third after the
tenth, Gen. 14:4; Jer. 1:2; 25:3.
- THIRTIETH, the tenth thrice told,
Neh. 5:4; 2 Kings 15:13.
- THIRTY, three times ten, Gen. 6:15;
41:46; Matt. 27:3.
- THIS, the person or thing present,
Gen. 15:4; Matt. 13:55.
- THISTLE, a large prickly weed which
grows among the corn, Gen. 3:18; 2
Kings 14:9; Matt. 7:16.
- THITHER, to that place, Gen. 19:20,
22; Acts 8:30; 16:13.
- THITHERWARD, towards that place,
Judg. 18:15; Jer. 50:5.
- THOM'AS, Θωμας (a twin), called Didy-
mus, one of the twelve apostles of Christ,
Matt. 10:3; John 11:16; 20:24: he is
supposed, like the others, to have been
a Galilean; but the place of his birth
and his occupation are not recorded.
Thomas is mentioned but seldom in the
evangelical history: he hesitated to be-
lieve, at first, the resurrection of Christ;
but, on beholding his Lord, his doubts
vanished, and he became a devoted
labourer after the day of Pentecost,
according to tradition, in Ethiopia, and
among the Parthians and Medes. Some
suppose that he suffered martyrdom in
India, in some parts of which there are
certain persons who call themselves
"Christians of St. Thomas."
- Thomas. See THE TWELVE.
- THONGS, leathern straps, Acts 22:25.
- THORNS, a general name for several
kinds of prickly plants, Gen. 3:18;
Judg. 8:7-16: those of the smaller
kind are called briers, Isa. 27:4; 55:
13; Heb. 7:8. "Hedging up the way
with thorns," denotes God restraining
men by afflictions and trials, Hos. 2:6;
in allusion to the common fences in
Syria. "As we rode through Riphah,"
says a modern traveller in Judea, "we
perceived it to be a settlement of about
fifty dwellings, all very mean in their
appearance, and every one fenced in
front with thorn-bushes, while a barrier
of the same kind encircled the whole of
the town. This was one of the most
effectual defences which they could have
raised against the incursions of horse
Arabs, the only enemies whom they
have to dread, as neither will the horse
approach to entangle himself in these
thickets of brier, nor could the rider,
even if he dismounted, get over them,
or remove them to clear a passage, with-
out assistance from some one within."
Paul's "thorn in the flesh" is believed
to have been some bodily ailment that
affected his speech, and perhaps dis-
figured his face, 2 Cor. 12:7.
- THOSE, the others, persons, 1 Kings
2:7; 9:21; 2 Pet. 2:6; or things, Heb.
- THOU, thyself, Gen. 3:12; 20:7; Acts
- THOUGH, if, Gen. 40:10; 1 Pet. 4:12:
notwithstanding that, Neh. 1:9; 2 Pet.
- THOUGHT, the act of thinking, Job
42:2; Prov. 24:9; 2 Cor. 10:5: reflec-
tion, Rom. 2:15: purpose, Ezek. 38:
10: opinion or judgment, Job 12:5:
anxious care, Matt. 6:25.
- THOUGHT, did think, Gen. 20:11;
1 Sam. 1:13.
- THOUGHT, considered, Heb. 10:29.
- THOUGHTS: this word is used to de-
note all the operations and exercises of
the human mind; as incipient reasonings,
Gen. 6:5; intentions, purposes, and de-
signs, Psal. 56:5; Prov. 12:5; Isa. 55:
7-9; Heb. 4:12. God's thoughts are His
infinitely wise and holy purposes and
decrees, Psal. 92:5; 139:17; Jer.
- THOUSAND, ten hundred, Gen. 20:16;
Eccles. 6:6; 7:28; Rev. 20:2, 7. "The
little one becoming a thousand," denotes
the increase of the church in the times
of Christ, Isa. 60:22. "The city going
out by a thousand and leaving a hundred,"
denotes destructive calamities, Amos 5:3.
- THOUSANDS, vast multitudes, Exod.
20:6; 34:7; Dan. 7:10; Rev. 5:11.
- THREAD, a fine twist, as for sewing,
Gen. 14:23; 38:28: a rope or cord,
- THREATEN, to menace, or terrify, by
the fear of punishment, Acts 4:17, 29.
- THREATENED, menaced or denounced,
1 Pet. 2:23.
- THREATENING, menacing with pun-
ishment, Eph. 6:9.
- THREE, two and one, Gen. 18:2;
Exod. 25:32, 33; 2 Sam. 23:9, 22;
Dan. 3:24; 1 Cor. 13:13.
- THREEFOLD, three united, or an asso-
ciation, Eccles. 4:12.
- THREESCORE, sixty, Gen. 25:26;
- THREE-TAVERNS, a place on the road
to Rome, Acts 28:15. See TAVERNS.
- THRESH, to beat corn out of the straw,
Jer. 51:33; 1 Cor. 9:10: to afflict, Hab.
3:13: to repulse or subdue, Isa. 41:15;
- THRESHED, did thresh, as corn, Judg.
- THRESHING, adapted for the operation
of beating out corn, 2 Sam. 24:18, 22.
- THRESHING-FLOOR, a plot of ground
on a hill, levelled and rolled hard, as a
floor; it was exposed to the wind for
the purpose of driving away the chaff:
on this the corn-sheaves were thrown,
and the grain beaten out by a machine,
or by the feet of oxen, Gen. 50:10; Deut.
- THRESHING-INSTRUMENT, a sort of
cart for the threshing of corn, Isa. 41:
15. One of these is thus described by a
Syrian traveller, in 1839 :--"It is a board
about three feet wide, six or eight feet
long, and three inches thick. On the
lower side many holes are made, from
an inch and a half to two inches, in
which are fastened pieces of stone, flint,
or iron. These project, it may be, from
a half to three quarters of an inch from
the face of the board, and serve as teeth
to tear the beards of the grain in pieces.
Oxen are fastened to the forward end
of the boards, and driven round the
floor, drawing it after them. The driver
of the oxen usally stands or sits on the
instrument. This is the common thesh-
ing-instrument in these countries. I
saw it everywhere, and I have seen no
other. The oxen are usually without
muzzles, and are often as they pass
around taking up from time to time a
few straws and feeding on them," 1 Cor.
- THRESHOLD, the step under the door
or gate, 1 Sam. 5:4, 5; 1 Kings 14:17;
- THREW, did throw, 2 Sam. 16:13: did
put, Mark 12:42.
- THRICE, three times, Exod. 34:23;
Matt. 26:34: many times or repeatedly,
2 Cor. 11:25.
- THROAT, the fore-part of the neck,
Prov. 23:2; Matt. 18:28: the passage
to the stomach, Psal. 69:3, especially as
the means of speech, 115:7; Rom. 3:13.
- THRONE, a royal seat; the magnificent
chair on which a sovereign sits to transact
the high affairs of a nation, or to give
audience to foreign ambassadors, 1 Kings
10:18-20: the government or authority of
a sovereign, as indicated by the throne,
Gen. 41:40; Prov. 20:8; Hag. 2:22.
Throne, as it relates to God, denotes His
infinite sovereignty and righteous ad-
ministration in the world, Psal. 11:4;
47:8; Isa. 6:1. Having given His
Son to be our Mediator, and set Him
forth as a propitiation for our sins, He
is represented as seated on a throne of
grace, waiting to show mercy to penitent
sinners, Heb. 4:16; Rom. 3:24-26;
1 John 2:1, 2.
- THRONES, the royal seats of sovereign
princes, Isa. 14:9; Ezek. 26:16: seats
of honour allotted to the twelve apostles
of Christ at the judgment-day, Matt.
19:28: a title or designation of an
order of angels, on account of their
being employed in the administration
of the Divine government, Col. 1:16.
- THRONG, to crowd around, Mark 3:9;
- THRONGED, did throng or crowd, Mark
- THRONGING, crowding, Mark 5:31.
- THROUGH, from one side to the other,
as a sword through the body, Num. 25:
8: down, as by a passage, Ezek. 46:
19; or through a casement, 2 Kings 1:2:
across, as in a river, Ezek. 47:4: by
means of; as believers have reconcilia-
tion with God, and peace and eternal
life, through, or by means of, the righte-
ousness and sacrifice of Christ, Rom. 5:
1; 6:23; Heb. 9:14; and as they are
sanctified by means of divine truth, John
- THROUGHLY, perfectly, Exod. 21:19:
completely, Psal. 51:2; 2 Tim. 3:17:
sincerely and uprightly, Jer. 7:5.
- THROUGHOUT, quite through, Josh.
24:3: universally, Mark 14:9; Rom.
- THROW, to cast forcibly, 2 Kings 9:
33: to demolish, as a building, Judg. 6:
25; Mal. 1:4; Ezek. 16:39.
- THROWING, flinging or casting with
force, as a stone, Num. 35:17.
- THROWN, cast with violence, Exod.
15:1; 2 Sam. 20:21: demolished, Judg.
6:32; Matt. 24:2.
- THRUST, to push or force, as a weapon
into the body, Num. 25:8; Judg. 3:21;
2 Sam. 18:14: to compress, Judg. 6:
38: to drive or force, Exod. 11:1; Acts
16:24: to dismiss, 1 Kings 2:27; Acts
16:37: to debase, Job 32:13.
- THUMB, the short strong finger equal
to the other four on the hand, Exod. 29:
20; Judg. 1:6, 7.
- THUM'MIM, [h] (perfections), with
URIM, which pertained to the breast-
plate of the high-priest of Israel; it
formed the oracle of God, Exod. 28:
30; Lev. 8:8; Deut. 33:8; Ezra 2:
63; Neh. 7:65. See URIM.
- THUNDER, the noise made by the
sudden explosion of electric clouds:
lightning and thunder are, therefore,
inseparable, Job 28:26. Thunder
and lightning formed one of the dreadful
plagues of Egypt, Exod. 9:23, 29, 33.
"The thunder of Jehovah's power" is His
omnipotence, a small part of which ap-
pears in the works of nature, Job 16:14.
- THUNDER, to make the noise of
thunder, 1 Sam. 2:10; Job 37:4, 5.
- THUNDER-BOLTS, flashes of lightning,
Psal. 78:48; Exod. 9:23.
- THUNDERED, did thunder, 1 Sam. 7:
10; John 12:29.
- THUNDERING, the sounds of thunder,
Exod. 9:28; with flashes of lightning,
- THUS, in this manner, Gen. 6:22;
- THYATI'RA, [g] (fragrance of la-
bour), a city of Asia Minor, between
Sardis and Pergamos, on the confines of
Mysia and Lydia, on the river Lycus:
this city was famous for the art of dyeing
purple, and hence the occupation of
Lydia, Acts 16:14: it became still
more celebrated in Christian history, for
its containing one of the distinguished
apostolic churches, to whom an inspired
letter was addressed by the apostle John,
Rev. 1:11; 2:18-29.
- THYINE-WOOD: this is from the thya-
tree, which rises with a strong woody
trunk to the height of more than thirty
feet: the wood is hard, receives a fine
polish, and is a valuable article of com-
merce, Rev. 18:12. Jackson, in his
"Account of Morocco" says that, "be-
sides producing the gum sandrac, the
wood of the thya is invaluable, being
somewhat like cedar, having a similar
smell, and being impenetrable to the
worm. The roofs of houses, and the
ceilings of houses, are made of this
- TIBE'RIAS, [g] (good sight, or break-
ing), a city of Galilee, founded by Herod
Agrippa, in honour of his patron, the
emperor Tiberius, John 6:23. It lay
on the western shore of the lake of
Gennesareth, about twelve miles south
of the place where it receives the river
Jordan. At the destruction of Jeru-
salem, Tiberias was the capital of Gali-
lee, and it became famous afterwards
for a flourishing academy, and the seat
of Jewish learning. This city still exists,
with about 2000 inhabitants, and is called
- TIBERIAS, SEA OF, the lake or sea of
Gennesareth is so called, John 5:1. See
GALILEE, SEA OF.
- TIBE'RIUS, [g] (son of Tiber), the
step-son and successor of Augustine Cæsar,
as emperor of Rome, he having married
his mother Livia. Tiberius succeeded
to the empire A.D. 14; and after a cruel
reign of twenty-two years and a half,
he died A.D. 37. Pontius Pilate was
appointed by Tiberius, as governor of
Judea, in the thirteenth year of his
reign; John entered on his ministry in
the fifteenth year, Luke 3:1; and Jesus
Christ was crucified in the nineteenth
year, by Pontius Pilate, the power of
putting criminals to death having been
taken away from the Jews by Tiberius.
This emperor is said to have heard of
the miracles of Christ, and to have pro-
posed that he should be enrolled among
the divinities of Rome: this is said to
have been rejected by the senate; yet
that Tiberius favoured his disciples
threatening with death any that injured
- TIB'NI, [h] (straw, understanding, or
filiation), the son of Ginath, competitor
with Omri for the throne of Israel: he
is supposed to have died by the sword
as Omri prevailed against the people
that followed Tibni, 1 Kings 16:21, 22.
- TI'DAL, [h] (that breaks the yoke, or
knowledge of elevation), one of the confede-
rated kings who went against the kings
of Sodom and the neighbouring cities;
but was overcome and slain by Abra-
ham, Gen. 14:1, 7, 17. He is thought
to have been called "king of nations,"
as several tribes had placed themselves
under his government.
- TIDINGS, news, reports of recent events,
Exod. 33:4; Dan. 11:44; Acts 11:22.
The gospel is glad tidings of great joy
to all people, and glad tidings of the
kingdom of God, as it proclaims Christ
to be the Saviour of all that believe
throughout the world, Luke 2:10; 8:1;
- TIE, to bind or fasten, 1 Sam. 6:7, 10.
- TIED, did tie or fasten, Exod. 39:
- TIED, bound or fastened, 2 Kings 7:
10; Matt. 21:2.
- TIG'LATH-PILE'SER, [h] (that
binds, or takes away into captivity), a king
of Assyria, son and successor of Sarda-
napalus: he is called Tiglath-pilneser,
1 Chron. 5:6; 2 Chron. 28:20, 21.
Ahaz, king of Judah, gave him all the
gold and silver found in the treasuries
of the temple and the palace, to hire
him against Rezin king of Syria, and
Pekah king of Israel: he killed Rezin,
and plundered Damascus, and then
marched into the territories of Israel,
many of the inhabitants he carried cap-
tive into Assyria, and even distressing
Judah and king Ahaz, 2 Kings 15:29;
16:7-10; 1 Chron. 5:6:26; 2 Chron.
28:16-23. He was succeeded by his
son Shalmanezer. See SHALMANEZER.
- TILE, a thin plate of baked clay, or
perhaps flag-stone, used for the roofs of
houses, Ezek. 4:1.
- TILING, the roof of a house, made of
tiles: the Jewish houses having flat
roofs, the tiling is thought to have been
made of a kind of flag-stone, Luke 5:19.
- TILL, to dress or cultivate the ground,
as for a garden, or for the growth of
corn, Gen. 2:5; 4:12; 2 Sam. 9:10.
- TILL, until, to the time that, Gen. 19:
22; Acts 7:18; 23:12.
- TILLAGE, husbandry, cultivation of
land, Neh. 10:37.
- TILLED, cultivated, as for the growth
of corn, Ezek. 36:9, 34.
- TILLER, a husbandman, a cultivator
of the ground, Gen. 4:2.
- TIMBER, wood of large trees, fit for
building, 1 Kings 5:18; Neh. 2:8: beams
of wood in a house, Ezra 6:11.
- TIMBREL, a musical instrument, a
kind of tambourine, consisting of a brass
hoop covered with parchment, and hung
round with bells, to be struck with the
hand, Exod. 15:20; 2 Sam. 6:5.
- TIME, measure of duration, Judg. 18:
31; Rev. 10:6: season, as for the accom-
plishment or doing of a thing, Num. 13:
20; Neh. 2:6; Eccles. 3:1, 2. "The
fulness of the time," is the period de-
creed and prepared for, Gal. 4:4. "The
accepted time," is the present season
under the gospel dispensation, 2 Cor. 6:
2. To "gain the time," is to profit or
secure advantage by delay, Dan. 2:8.
To "redeem the time," is to use and
improve present advantages, especially
avoiding excessive sleep, indolent habits,
formal visits, vain conversation, trifling
reading, useless recreations, and officious
employment, Eph. 4:16.
- TIMES, seasons or opportunities, Judg.
13:25. "The last times," the latter
years of the Jewish state before the
destruction of Jerusalem, Acts 1:7; or
of the duration of the world, 2 Tim. 3:
1; 2 Pet. 3:3. To "discern or know the
times," is, from a comprehensive view
of past events, to perceive the indications
of the present, so as to take advantage of
circumstances, Est. 1:13; Matt. 16:3.
- TIME'US, [g] (honourable), the father
of the blind beggar of Jericho, restored
to sight by Jesus Christ, Mark 10:46.
- TIM'NA, [h] (hinderance or prohibition),
a wife of Eliphaz, the son of Esau, and
mother of Amalek, Gen. 36:12.
- TIMNA or TIMNAH, a duke or chief in
Idumea, descended from Esau, Gen.
36:40; 1 Chron. 1:51.
- TIM'NATH, [h] (image or enumera-
tion), a city of the Philistines, allotted to
Judah, Gen. 38:12; Judg. 14:1.
- TIM'NATH-SE'RAH, [h] (image of
the lady, or of the morning-star), a city of
Ephraim, given to Joshua, Josh. 19:50;
- TI'MON, [g] (honourable), one of the
first seven Grecian deacons in the Chris-
tian church at Jerusalem, Acts 6:5.
- TIMO'THEUS, Τιμοθεος, or TIMOTHY
(honour of God), an eminent Christian
evangelist: his father was a Greek, but
his mother Eunice, and his grandmother
Lois, were pious Jewesses, by whom he
was carefully trained in the knowledge
of the Scriptures; and he embraced the
doctrine of Christ, as preached by the
apostle Paul, as he calls him his own
son in the faith, and a witness of his
sufferings at Iconium, Lystra, &c., Acts
14:19-23; 1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 1:2-5;
3:10, 11, 15. Timothy, though young,
was recommended by the church at
Lystra to the apostle, who took him as
his assistant in my. labour; and
he was ordained by the apostle and the
elders to the work of the ministry, as an
evangelist, A.D. 52, Acts 16:1-3; 1 Tim.
4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6. He was with Paul,
the next year, at Berea, Acts 17:14:
he followed him to Athens, 1 Thess. 3:
13, whence he was directed to return,
to comfort the persecuted believers at
Thessalonica, whose condition he re-
ported to the apostle, A.D. 54, at Corinth,
whence Paul wrote the Epistles to the
Thessalonians, Acts 18:5; 1 Thess. 1:1;
2 Thess. 1:1. With the apostle he pro-
ceeded to Ephesus, Acts 19:1, whence
he was again sent into Macedonia, 10-22,
A.D. 56: he returned to Ephesus, and
was then sent to visit the Corinthian
church, 1 Cor. 4:17, A.D. 59, whence he
returned, and was one of the seven who
accompanied the apostle into Macedonia,
Acts 21:1-5, where, at Berea or Phi-
lippi, Paul wrote his second Epistle to
the Corinthians, 2 Cor. 2:12, 13; 7:5, 6;
A.D. 60. Timothy returned with Paul
to Troas, and went with him to Miletus,
Acts 20:6; to Tyre, to Ptolemais, and
to Jerusalem, 21:3, 7, 17. How Timo-
thy was employed for the next two years,
24:27, is not recorded: but he attended
the apostle at Cesarea, and, A.D. 62,
accompanied him in his dangerous voy-
age to Rome, 27:1; 28:1-11;
where he appears to have been impri-
soned, but after a short time liberated,
Phil. 1:1; Col. 1:1; Heb. 13:23. Paul
having gained his liberty, A.D. 64, Timo-
thy accompanied him in his my.
travels, and while the apostle went into
Macedonia, he sent the evangelist to
visit the church at Ephesus, A.D. 65,
where he wrote to him his first Epistle,
1 Tim. 1:3; and, having visited Troas,
Miletum, Corinth, and other places, he
was again imprisoned and brought before
Cæsar, at Rome, A.D. 66, where he wrote
to Timothy his second Epistle, charging
him to fulfil his work as an evangelist,
and desiring him to visit him, now in
close confinement, ready to be sacrificed
by the savage Nero, for the doctrine of
Jesus Christ, 2 Tim. 4:5, 10, 13, 20.
Timothy is supposed to have returned
to Ephesus, after the martyrdom of his
father in the gospel; but we have no
certain record of the time, place, or
manner of his death; though uncertain
tradition, which also calls him "bishop
of Ephesus," states that he suffered mar-
tyrdom for Christ at Ephesus.
- TIMOTHY, I. EPISTLE TO: this epistle
was written, A. D. 65, by the apostle
Paul, to Timothy, to encourage and in-
struct him generally, while labouring as
an evangelist at Ephesus, and to direct
him especially in the ordination of suit-
able persons as bishops, the pastors of the
churches; and as deacons, to take care
of the poor members of the Christian
congregations, 1 Tim. 3. See Commentary.
- TIMOTHY, II. EPISTLE: this epistle
was written by the apostle Paul, during
his last imprisonment at Rome, to inform
Timothy of his circumstances, and of his
state of mind in prospect of his approach-
ing martyrdom, desiring also his presence
with him. The epistle affords a most
striking illustration of the exalted piety,
the benevolent affection, and the apos-
tolical fidelity of this eminent servant of
God, in the anticipation of martyrdom
for his Lord and Saviour, 2 Tim. 1. 4.
- TIN, a well-known white metal of great
ductility and usefulness, Num. 31:22:
it was an article of commerce at Tyre,
obtained, as some suppose, in the time of
Ezekiel, from the mines of Cornwall, by
the merchants of Phenicia, Ezek. 22:18,
20; 27:12. Tin is commonly found
mixed with some silver; in renders that
pure metal brittle, and hence the ex-
pression in Isaiah, Isa. 1:22, 25.
- TINGLE, to feel a piercing with the
sensation of sound, 1 Sam. 3:11.
- TINKLING, sounding sharply, as with
small bells, Isa. 3:16, 18; 1 Cor. 13:1.
- TIP, the end or extremity, Luke 16:
- TIPH'SAH, [h] (a passage or ford), the
ancient Thapsacus, a city of Syria, on
the Euphrates, on the north-eastern
boundary of the dominions of Solomon,
1 Kings 4:24.
- TIPHSAH, a city of Samaria, the scene
of horrid cruelties of Menahem, 2 Kings
- TI'RAS, [h] (that destroys), a son of
Japheth, supposed to be the ancestor of
the Thracians, Gen. 10:2.
- TIRE, a woman's head-dress, or an
ornamental bandage for the head, Ezek.
24:17, 23; Isa. 3:18.
- TIRED, did dress the head with orna-
ments, 2 Kings 9:30.
- TIR'HAKAH, [h] (inquirer or examiner),
a king of Ethiopia in Arabia, who pre-
pared to aid king Hezekiah when be-
sieged by Sennacherib, king of Assyria.
He is called Thearchon by Strabo, 2
- TIR'SHATHA, [h] (that overthrows the
foundation), the title given to Zerubbabel
and Nehemiah, as governors or commis-
saries, deputed by the kings of Persia, to
regulate the affairs of Jerusalem and in
the province of Judea, Ezra 2:63; Neh.
7:70; 8:9; 10:1.
- TIR'ZAH, [h] (benevolent or pleasant), a
daughter of Zelophehad, Num. 26:33.
- TIR'ZAH, a famous city of Canaan, Josh.
12:24: it became the royal residence of
several kings of Israel, 1 Kings 14:17;
15:21; 16:8, 15, 17.
- TISH'BITE, an inhabitant of Thisbe,
a city of Galilee, as Elijah is called, 1
- TITHE, the tenth part: a sort of con-
tribution, voluntarily devoted to the
purposes of religion and beneficence, and
practised in some of the most ancient
nations: hence Abraham, on returning
from the slaughter of the kings, being
met and blessed by Melchisedec, gave him
the tenth part of the booty taken from
the enemies, as priest of the Most High
God, Gen. 14:18, 20; Heb 7:4. Jacob
also vowed to give the tenth part of all
the property he might possess to the ser-
vice of God, Gen. 28:22.
- TITHE OF LEVI. Canaan was granted
to the people of Israel as the sovereign
donation of Jehovah; but the tribe of
Levi, being devoted to the service of God,
had no part granted to them, except forty-
eight cities with their suburbs, Deut. 10:
9; 18:1, 2; Num. 35:7. They were
to be the priests, physicians, instructors,
and literati, of the nation; and for their
services they were to receive a tenth
portion of the produce of the land, of the
cattle, and of the fruits, Num. 18:23,
24: out of this tithe, a tenth was paid to
the priests, who were of the family of
Aaron, 25, 28. The nine parts were again
tithed for the feasts of the Lord, to be
eaten and enjoyed before the tabernacle:
but if the distance was too great to carry
it, the several articles were to be sold,
and the proceeds, with one-fifth in amount
added, were to be expended at the annual
feasts before the Lord, Lev. 27:31;
Deut. 12:17, 18; 14:22, 27. Some sup-
pose there was a third tithing every three
years, for the use of the poor and aged at
home, Deut. 14:28, 29. Mint, anise, and
other garden herbs, were tithed by the
Pharisees; but for this there appears no
Divine command, though their hypocri-
tical neglect of the commands of God is
condemned by our Saviour, Matt. 23:
23. Tithes are not commanded by our
Saviour or His apostles to be paid to the
ministers of the gospel, as they are not
priests nor Levites; nor are they pro-
hibited, like them, from possessing landed
property. Nevertheless, our Saviour's
maxim is, "the labourer is worthy of his
hire," in relation to his servants, Luke 10:
7; and the inspired apostle has established
it, that "they who preach the gospel should
live of the gospel," as the ordinance of
Christ, 1 Cor. 9:14.
- TITHE, to tithe, or appropriate the
tenth part, according to the ordinance of
God for the support of the Levites, Deut.
- TITHING, collecting the tithe for the
Levites, Deut. 26:12.
- Tithing. See Storehouse Tithing.
- TITLE, a name or style of address, Job
32:21, 22: a motto or inscription, as
on a tombstone, 2 Kings 23:17; or on
a cross, John 19:19, 20.
- TITTLE, the least part, Matt. 5:18;
- TI'TUS, Τιτος (honourable), an eminent
evangelist, who assisted the my.
labours of the apostle Paul. Titus was a
Greek, probably of Antioch: as he is first
mentioned as accompanying Paul, his
father in the gospel, A.D. 52, from that
city to Jerusalem, Gal. 2:1; Acts 15:2.
Some years after Paul sent him, it is sup-
posed, from Ephesus to Corinth, where
his zeal, piety, and talents, procured him
respect, as a minister of Christ, 2 Cor. 10:
11-18. Having carried a favourable re-
port of the Corinthians to the apostle in
Macedonia, Paul sent him back again to
Corinth, with the second Epistle, 7:6,
13-15; 8:6, 16, 17, A. D. 60. Paul left
Titus at Crete, perhaps, after his first
imprisonment at Rome, though some
think it was when he returned from
Macedonia into Greece, Acts 20:1, 2, and
commissioned him to complete the or-
ganisation of the infant [young] churches, where
there were converts to Christ in the
cities of that island, especially ordaining
bishops [pastors] in the several congregations, Tit.
1:5, 7; and for his direction in his work
he wrote to him the Epistle, A. D. 65,
desiring him to meet him at Nicopolis,
3:12. Titus complied with that request;
and the apostle sent him, A. D. 66, into
Dalmatia, 2 Tim. 4:10: after this we
hear no more of him: but uncertain tra-
dition says that he returned to Crete,
and preached the gospel in the islands
- TITUS, EPISTLE TO: this letter was
written by the apostle Paul, to serve as a
directory in several parts of his evange-
lical ministry, especially in relation to
the qualifications of Christian pastors,
and to request him to meet the apostle
at Nicopolis, Tit. 3:12. See TITUS.
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