Bible Dictionary: Z. 1840
- ZA'BAD, [h] (fear, terror, or emotion),
called Jozachar, 2 Kings 12:21, an officer
at court, and one of the conspirators who
killed Joash, king of Judah, 2 Chron.
- ZAB'DI, [h] (a portion or dowry), grand-
father of Achan, and the chief of a family
in the tribe of Judah, Josh. 7:1.
- ZABDI, one of the storekeepers of king
David, 1 Chron. 27:27.
- ZAB'UD, [h] (portion or endowed), a
favourite of king Solomon, 1 Kings 4:5.
- ZACCHE'US, Ζακχαιος (pure or clean),
the chief collector of the Roman taxes
at Jericho, at whose house our Saviour
staid for the day when He passed through
that town, Luke 19:1-10. Jesus calling
that notorious character, and the obedi-
ence of Zaccheus, dedicating himself to
the service of God in the ways of justice
and holiness, deserve special attention,
on account of the extraordinary circum-
stances attending that dispensation of
- ZACHARI'AH, [h] (memory of the Lord,
or man of the Lord), a wicked king of
Israel, who reigned only six months,
being killed by Shallum, who seized the
vacant throne: thus Divine providence
accomplished the prediction regarding
the race of Jehu, 2 Kings 15:8-12; 10:30.
- ZACHARIAS, the same as Zachariah, a
pious priest, and the father of John the
Baptist: his wife Elizabeth was worthy
in her character of such a husband, and
in honour of their faith and prayers they
were blessed with being the parents of
the herald of the Messiah, Luke 1:5, 25,
- ZACHARIAS, son of Barachias, Matt.
23:35. See ZECHARIAH.
- ZA'DOK, [h] (just or justified), a high-
priest of Israel, holding that office under
king David and part of the reign of
Solomon, having for his colleague Abia-
thar, called also Ahimelech, of the house
of Ithamar, Zadok being of the family
of Eleazar, 2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chron. 24:
3; 1 Sam. 22:2; 1 Kings 1:1-8; 2:26,
27; 4:4. See AHITUB.
- ZADOK, the father of Jerusha the
mother of Jotham, king of Judah,
2 Kings 15:32, 33. Zadok was a com-
mon name among the Israelites, Neh. 3:
4; Ezek. 40:46-48.
- ZAL'MON, [h] (his shade or his image),
a high mountain near Shechem, abound-
ing in timber, and sometimes covered
with snow, Judg. 9:48: it is called
Salmon, Psal. 68:14.
- ZALMUN'NA, [h] (shadow, image, or
idol forbidden), a prince of the Midianites,
who with Zeba, another chief of that
people, was defeated and slain by Gideon,
Judg. 8:5, 21. Their destruction be-
came proverbial, Psal. 83:11.
- ZAMZUMMINS. See ZUZIMS.
- ZAPHNATH-PAANE'AH, [h] (a re-
vealer of secrets, or he to whom secrets are
revealed), a title of honour given to
Joseph by Pharaoh, king of Egypt, Gen.
- ZA'RAH, [h] (east or brightness), a twin-
born son of Tamar by Judah, Gen. 38:
30; 46:12; Matt. 1:3.
- ZAR'EPHATH, [h] (of the blowers or
narrows of swelling), a seaport town on
the coast of the Mediterranean, midway
between Tyre and Sidon: it is famous
for the retreat here of the prophet
Elijah, 1 Kings 17:9, 10, 24; Obad. 20;
Luke 4:26. See SAREPTA.
- ZEAL, ardour of mind: this may be a
furious passion, as in king Jehu, 2 Kings
10:16, and in the persecutor Saul, Phil.
3:6; Acts 9:1; or it may be a holy
concern for the honour of God, Psal.
69:9; 2 Cor. 9:2; Col. 4:13. God's
zeal is His holy regard for His own
honour, 2 Kings 19:31; Isa. 9:7; Ezek.
5:13. The Jews had a zeal for God,
but it was superstitious, and regarded
tradition more than truth, Rom. 10:2.
- ZEALOUS, ardent in mind, Num. 25:
11-13; Acts 21:20; Rev. 3:19.
- ZEALOUSLY, ardently, devotedly, Gal.
- ZE'BA, [h], or ZEBAH (victim, sacrifice,
or immolation), one of the princes of the
Midianites, slain by Gideon, Judg. 8:
5-21. See ZALMUNNA.
- ZEBADI'AH, [h] (portion of the Lord),
an adherent of David in his persecutions,
1 Chron. 12:7. This was a common
name in Israel, 1 Chron. 8:15, 17;
26:2; Ezra 8:8.
- ZEB'EDEE, Ζεβεδαιος (liberal or munifi-
cent), a fisherman of Galilee, father of
the apostles James and John, Matt. 4:
2: his wife is believed to have been
Salome, who attended Christ at His cruci-
fixion, Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; 16:1.
- ZEBO'IM [h] (deer or goats), one of the
four polluted cities which was destroyed
in the overthrow of Sodom, Gen. 14:2;
19:24, 25; Deu. 29:23.
- ZE'BUL, [h] (habitation), a governor of
Shechem, appointed by the usurper
Ahimelech, Judg. 9:28, 30, 41.
- ZEB'ULUN, [h] (dwelling or habitation),
the sixth son of Jacob, Gen. 30:19, 20;
35:23. Moses gives no record of
particulars regarding the personal his-
tory of Zebulun.
- ZEBULUN, TRIBE OF: Jacob in his
dying benediction says, "Zebulun shall
dwell at the haven of the sea, and he
shall be for a haven of ships, and his
border shall be unto Sidon," Gen. 49:
13. This prediction was fulfilled in
Zebulun, as his portion lay across the
country from the sea of Galilee on the
east, to the Mediterranean sea on the
west, Josh. 19:10-16; Deut. 33:19;
Isa. 9:1. "Treasures hid in the sand"
is supposed to refer to the discovery and
working of glass, which was made from
sand found at the mouth of the river
Belus, near Acre. This river was reck-
oned within the limits of Zebulun, though
Accho belonged to Asher, Judg. 1:31.
- ZECHARI'AH, as ZACHARIAH, one of
the twelve minor prophets: he returned
from captivity in Babylon with the
prince Zerubbabel, and commenced his
prophetical ministry about the same time
as the prophet Haggai, with whom he
laboured in encouraging the Jews to
prosecute their work of rebuilding the
temple, which he is supposed to have
seen completed, Ezra 5:1, 2; Zech. 1:1.
- ZECHARIAH, BOOK OF: Zechariah's
discourses are considered in two parts;
the first including six chapters, which
encourages by various instructions the
Jews in the rebuilding of the temple;
and the last eight chapters contain a
series of prophecies chiefly regarding
the ministry, death, and kingdom of
Messiah. See Zech. 9:9, 10; Matt. 21:
5; Zech. 11:13; Matt. 26:14; 27:
3, 10. See Commentary.
- ZECHARIAH, a prince of the Reubenites,
1 Chron. 5:7.
- ZECHARIAH, a Levite, and learned as
a doctor, sent by king Jehoshaphat to
teach the people the law of God, 2 Chron.
- ZECHARIAH, a faithful prophet of God,
whom king Joash ordered to be put to
death, on account of his fidelity in pro-
testing against idolatry: this act of cru-
elty was the more atrocious, as the
prophet's father, Jehoiada, had been the
preserver of the king's life in his infancy,
2 Chron. 22:11, 12; 23:11; 24:1,
2, 17, 20, 25. Our Saviour is believed to
refer to this guilty act "between the
temple and the altar[,]" Matt. 23:35.
- ZEDEKI'AH, [h] (the justice of the Lord),
the last king of Judah before the destruc-
tion of Jerusalem and the captivity in
Babylon. He was a son of Josiah, and
named Mattaniah; but his nephew Jehoi-
achi[n] having been taken and carried
captive by Nebuchadnezzar, he set him
on the throne, changing his name to
Zedekiah, 2 Kings 23:30, 31; 24:
17-20. Zedekiah committed all the crimes
of his predecessors, and revolted against
Nebuchadnezzar, who again besieged and
took Jerusalem, and captured the king,
whose children he slew before his face
at Riblah, and carried him in chains to
Babylon, 24:1, 7, 10; Jer. 32.
- ZEDEKIAH, a false prophet of Samaria,
by whom king Ahab was counselled to
prosecute the war against the Syrians,
1 Kings 22:11, 24. Zedekiah was op-
posed by the faithful prophet Micaiah,
whose predictions were fulfilled, while
Ahab was deluded to his ruin.
- ZEDEKIAH, a false prophet at Jeru-
salem, who violently opposed the minis-
try of Jeremiah: he is supposed to have
been carried captive to Babylon, and
there to have been put to death for some
crime against the state, according to the
prediction of Jeremiah,--"Zedekiah and
...Ahab, whom the king of Babylon roasted
in the fire[,]" Jer. 29:21, 22.
- ZEEB, [h] (a wolf), a prince of the
Midianites, defeated by Gideon and slain,
- ZELO'PHEHAD, [h] (the shade, or the
fear of being burnt), a chief of a family
in the tribe of Manasseh, whose five
daughters obtained their father's inherit-
ance, on condition of their marrying in
their own tribe, Num. 26:33; 27:7;
- ZEL'OTES, Ζηλωτης (jealous or full of
zeal), a surname of Simon the apostle,
Luke 6:15. See SIMON ZELOTES.
- Zelotes. See THE TWELVE.
- ZEL'ZAH, [h] (noontide), a town near
Ramah, supposed to be the same as Zelah,
Josh. 18:28; 1 Sam. 10:2; 2 Sam. 21:14.
- ZEMARA'IM, [h] (wool, sap, or succour),
a city of the Benjamites near Bethel, so
named from the Gemarite descending
from Canaan, Josh. 18:22; 2 Chron.
13:4; Gen. 10:18.
- ZE'NAS, Ζηνας (living), a doctor of Jew-
ish law, supposed to have become a
Christian, Tit. 3:13.
- ZEPHANI'AH, [h] (the secret of the Lord),
one of the minor prophets, who flourished
in the reign of Josiah, as appears, some
years earlier than Jeremiah, Zeph. 1:1.
- ZEPHANIAH, BOOK OF: this short book
was designed to denounce the judgments
of God on the wicked Jews and the
surrounding nations, to excite to repent-
ance, and to console the penitent.
- ZEPHANIAH, the second or assistant
priest with Seraiah, 2 Kings 25:18.
He was several times sent by king
Zedekiah to consult Jeremiah on public
matters, Jer. 21:1; 29:25-29; 37:
3: but the prophet's counsel being re-
jected, after the taking of Jerusalem,
Zephaniah, Seraiah, and many others,
were put to death at Riblah, by order
of the king of Babylon, 2 Kings 25:18-
21; Jer. 52:24.
- ZE'RAH, as Zarah, a son of Esau by
Reul, Gen. 36:13, 33.
- ZERAH, a chief of a family in the
tribe of Simeon, Num. 26:13.
- ZERAH, an Ethiopian prince, who
invaded Judah with a vast army in the
reign of king Asa, 2 Chron. 14:9, 13.
- ZE'RESH, [h] (dispersed inheritance, or
crown of misery), the wife of Haman,
whose malicious counsel remotely occa-
sioned her husband to be hanged on his
own gallows, Est. 5:10; 7:9, 10.
- ZERU'AH, [h] (aprons, wasp, or hornet),
the mother of Jeroboam, the first king
of the ten tribes of Israel, 1 Kings 11:
26; 12:2, 20.
- ZERUB'BABEL, [h] (a stranger at
Babel), a prince of Judah, who led back
to Jerusalem the first company of the
Jews from their captivity in Babylon,
Ezra 2:2; 4:2; Hag. 1:1; Zech. 4:6.
He is believed to have been the same
person as Sheshbazzar, one being his
Jewish and the other his Chaldean name,
Ezra 1:8. See SHESHBAZZAR.
- Zerubbabel. See Revival.
- ZERUI'AH, [h] (tribulation of the Lord,
or chains of the Lord), a sister of David,
and mother of Joab, Abishai, and Asahel,
2 Sam. 2:18; 1 Chron. 2:16.
- ZE'THAR, [h] (olive of vision, or olive of
the turtle), one of the seven chamberlains
or eunuchs of king Ahasuerus, Est. 1:
- ZI'BA, [h] (army, fight, or strength), the
steward of Mephibosheth, the son of
Jonathan, the son of Saul: he was dis-
tinguished for his crafty duplicity, by
which he deceived David and injured
his master, 2 Sam. 9:2, 12; 16:1, 4;
19:17, 24, 30.
- ZIB'IAH, [h] (deer, honourable, or the
Lord dwells), wife of king Ahaziah, and
mother of Jehoash, king of Judah, 2
Kings 11:1, 2; 12:1.
- ZIB'EON, [h] (iniquity that dwells, or
elevation), a Hivite chief, whose grand-
daughter became wife to Esau, Gen.
- ZI'DON, a seaport of great fame, called
Sidon, Isa. 23:2-4. See SIDON.
- ZIDON, a son of Canaan, Gen. 10:15.
- ZIDO'NIANS, citizens of Zidon, Judg 10:
12. See SIDONIANS.
- ZIFF, the second month of the sacred
year of the Israelites, 1 Kings 6:1, 37.
- ZIK'LAG, [h] (measure pressed down), a
city in the south of Judah, but possessed
for a long time by the Philistines, 1 Sam.
27:6; 2 Sam. 4:10.
- ZIL'LAH, [h] (shadow, or tingling of the
ear), one of the two wives of Lamech,
and mother of Tubal-Cain, Gen. 4:19,
- ZIL'PAH, [h] (distillation), Leah's maid,
and secondary wife of Jacob, the mother
of Gad and Asher, Gen. 30:9; 46:18.
- ZIM'RAN, [h] (song, singer, or vine), the
eldest son of Abraham by Keturah, Gen.
- ZIM'RI, [h] (my field, my vine), a grand-
son of Judah, 1 Chron. 2:6.
- ZIMRI, a young prince of the tribe of
Simeon, who was slain with Cozbi, a
Midianitess, in a daring act of wicked-
ness during the plague of Baal-peor,
- ZIMRI, a general of Elah, king of
Israel, whom he murdered, and usurped
his throne, which he enjoyed only seven
days, having set fire to his own palace
in his frenzied guilt, 1 Kings 16:9,
- ZIN, [h] (buckler or coldness), a desert in
the south of Idumea, Num. 13:21; Josh.
- ZI'ON, [h] (a tower, monument, or sepul-
chre), the highest hill in the city of Jebus,
on which the royal palaces of Judah
were erected by David, whence it was
called the "city of David" in Jeru-
salem. Moriah, on which the temple of
Solomon was built, was a part of the
same elevation, or an adjoining mount,
2 Sam. 5:7; 1 Kings 8:1; 2 Chron. 3:1.
The temple itself, and the worshippers
in it, sometimes have this name or title
of Zion, Psal. 48:12; 69:35; Isa.
1:27; Jer. 3:14; and it is frequently
applied to the [people] of God, both on
earth and in Heaven, Rom. 9:33; 11:26;
Heb. 12:22 [city]; Rev. 14:1 [144,000]. Jerusalem
having been several times laid in ruins,
Zion must have lost some of its natural
magnificense: still it retains much which
interests the traveller. Mr. Chateau-
briand thus describes its recent appear-
ance:--"Mount Sion, of a yellowish
colour, and barren appearance, is open
in form of a crescent towards Jerusalem.
This sacred summit is distinguished by
three monuments, or more properly by
three ruins: the house of Caiaphas, the
place where Christ celebrated his Last
Supper, and the tomb or palace of David,
From the top of the hill you see, to the
south, the valley of Ben-Hinnom; beyond
this the Field of Blood, purchased with
the thirty pieces of silver given to Judas;
the Hill of Evil Counsel, the tombs of
the judges, and the whole desert towards
Hebron and Bethlehem. To the north
the wall of Jerusalem, which passes over
the top of Sion, intercepts the view of
the city, the site of which gradually
slopes from this place towards the valley
- ZIPH, [h] (this mouth or mouthful), a city
of Judah, famed for its being the retreat
of David, with its suburbs and wilder-
ness, when pursued by Saul, Josh. 15:55;
1 Sam. 23:14-26; 26:1.
- ZIP'POR, [h] (bird, crown, or desert),
father of Balak, king of Moab, Num.
- ZIPPO'RAH, [h] (beauty or trumpet),
daughter of Jethro of Midian, and wife
of Moses, Exod. 2:15, 22. Nothing par-
ticular is recorded concerning her, ex-
cepting what is said regarding their son
Eliezer, 4:24-26. Miriam and Aaron
appear to have been jealous of her influ-
ence over their brother, as on her account
there arose some serious altercation
between them and Moses, Num. 12:
- ZO'AN, [h] (motion), a very ancient
royal city of Egypt, situated near to the
Mediterranean sea, called in Greek Tanis,
Num. 13:22; Isa. 19:11; 30:1; Exod.
- ZO'AR, [h] (small or poor), a guilty city
in the plain of Jordan, but spared at the
prayer of Lot, Gen. 14:8; 19:22: it
became of some note in subsequent ages,
as it is referred to by the prophets,
Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:34.
- ZO'BAH, [h] (an army or warring), a
royal city in part of Syria, having its
king independently of another reigning at
Damascus, 1 Sam. 14:47; 2 Sam. 8:3.
- ZO'HAR, [h] (white, shining, or dryness),
a chief of the Hittites, Gen. 23:8.
- ZO'PHAR, [h] (rising early, or little bird),
one of the sympathising friends of Job,
Job 2:11; 20:1; 42:9.
- ZOROB'ABEL, the same as Zerubbabel,
Matt. 1:12; Luke 3:27. See ZERUB-
- ZUPH, [h] (that beholds or watches, or
covering), a head of a family in the tribe
of Levi, ancestor of the prophet Samuel,
1 Sam. 1:1; 9:5.
- ZUR, [h] (stone, rock, or that preaches),
a prince of Midian, Num. 25:15;
- ZUR, a son of Jehiel at [Gibeon], 1 Chron.
- ZURISHAD'DAI, [h] (the Almighty is
my strength), the prince of the tribe of
Simeon, when the Israelites came out of
Egypt, Num. 1:6.
- ZU'ZIMS, [h] (posts of a door, splendour,
or beauty), an ancient gigantic race of
daring people dwelling east of Jordan:
they were conquered by Chedorlaomer,
Gen. 14:5. These are supposed to be
the same people as the Zamzummims,
Deut. 2:10, 20.
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