עברית / Hebrew Bible History: updated 6/28/2016

Useful Resources

**List: Hebrew Ministry

Bible / Bible
*Book: DEFENDING THE KING JAMES BIBLE (1992, 1999)   D. A. Waite
A four-fold superiority:
[] Texts {pp. 20-37 O.T. Hebrew Text.}
[] Translators
[] Technique
[] Theology

Booklet/*File: "FOUR REASONS for DEFENDING THE KING JAMES BIBLE" (7-21-1993)   D. A. Waite   [brief summary]   [ DKJB ]
["The true text of Ben Chayyim on which our KJB is based is also available. It is called the Daniel Bomberg edition or the Second Great Rabbinic Bible (1524-25). We carry this Hebrew Bible in the BIBLE FOR TODAY ministry. It is the Letteris text, printed in 1866. It has the Masoretic Hebrew text in the center and the KJB in the margins. This Ben Chayyim Masoretic Hebrew text was the unquestioned Hebrew text for the next 400 years."]
["The Ben Chayyim Hebrew Old Testament Text Is Available Today. I hope that the Ame. Bible Society and the Bri. and For. Bible Society keep printing and circulating this Letteris Hebrew text. That's what they call it, the Letteris text of 1866."]

Hebrew...
"Hebrew, one of the official languages of the State of Israel (the
other is Arabic, is spoken by 2.5 million native and immigrant
Jewish Israelis.   Ancient Hebrew is a northwestern Semitic
tongue, closely related to Canaanite and the other languages of
Syria and Palestine [Land of Israel] - Edomite, Moabite, Ugaritic, and
Phoenician.   The earliest example of Hebrew, outside the Bible,
is the calendar (from the 9th century B.C.) found at Gezer.
Certain dialectal differences can be discerned by comparing the
few extant examples of early Hebrew, and a hint of these
differences can be found in the "Shibboleth Episode" recorded
in Judges 12:6.   It is evident that Hebrew was a spoken language
until the period of the Babylonian Captivity (586-538 B.C.).
During the years that the Jews lived in Mesopotamia, they
abandoned Hebrew for the related Aramaic tongue spoken
there.   Thus we are told that when they returned from exile to
Jerusalem after the Edict of Cyrus, they needed interpreters to
understand the Law which Ezra read to them (Nehemiah 8:6-8).
Thereafter Aramaic remained the everyday language of the
Jews until their dispersion from the Holy Land.

Middle Hebrew is generally considered to have been an academic
idiom, used by the Jewish scholars who produced the laws of the
Mishnah and the medieval Rabbinic Bible commentaries.   The
revival of Hebrew has been termed the most successful ‘lin-
guistic experiment’ ever undertaken.   The achievement is due
primarily to a Lithuanian immigrant to Palestine named Eliezer
ben Yehudah (Perelmann), who arrived in the Holy Land in
1881 and immediately set out to ‘modernize’ and reinstate
Hebrew as a living language.   He added at least 2,000 new words
based on original Hebrew roots.   The Hebrew Language
Council he founded became in 1953 the Academy of the Hebrew
Language, which promotes and regulates this young-old tongue.

The Hebrew alphabet developed from the Phoenician script.
Thus it has a common origin with the Greek alphabet, on which
the scripts of the modern European languages are based.
Employing 32 consonantal letters, Hebrew is written from right
to left.   Modern Hebrew has no vowel markings, although a
system of ‘points’ indicating the vowels has been in use since
early in the Christian Era.   The first use of these points is noted in
the 9th- and 10th-century manuscripts of the ben Asher family,
although the origin of these Masoretic marks (from the Hebrew
word Masora, meaning ‘tradition’) is much older.
The New Testament is the only actual translation of the Script-
ures with which we are here involved, since the Old Testament
was composed in Hebrew, with the exception of passages of
Ezra, Jeremiah, and Daniel, which were written in Aramaic.
The Hebrew Old Testament text now used by students and

translators is the result of both past and continuing scholarly
effort.   ....   Jewish scribes were, how-
ever, very careful about the written form of the Old Testament
text and by the time of Christ there were scribes who went so
far as to count the number of letters in the Scriptures in an
attempt to preserve them from change, and the Masorete scribes
took great pains to avoid corruption of their texts.   Yet there are
certain differences in the extent early Hebrew manuscripts.
Early printed Hebrew Scriptures were usually based on those
manuscripts which were available to the editors or printers."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"Unfortunately the number of early
Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Testament is not great, as
compared to the many manuscripts available to Greek scholars
seeking the New Testament text.   The most important early
Hebrew manuscripts are the texts from the Cairo Genizah,
(fragments dating from the 9th century A.D. and earlier) and the
Dead Sea Scrolls (dating from the first century B.C. and the
first century A.D.).   Other important manuscripts reflect versions
attributed to scholars known as ben Asher and ben Naphtali
(both of the 10th century A.D.).   Thereafter there are more
Hebrew manuscripts, but most of them are of little value in
seeking the original text of the Old Testament."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: God has preserved His words.   See Ben Chayyim Masoretic Text in green.]

"The Aramaic Targums also provide
valuable insight into the state of the text.   These Scriptures in
Aramaic, the vernacular of the Near East at the time of Christ
and for some time thereafter, were translations made in Palestine
and Babylonia for oral delivery in synagogues.   Extant manu-
scripts of the Targums date from the 2nd century.   Finally, the
Peshitta (the Syriac translation), the Latin Vulgate, the Coptic,
and other early translations of the Old Testament cast light on
the possible state of the early stages of the Hebrew texts.

A number of scholarly texts of the Hebrew Old Testament have
been published, of which some of the more important are listed
below.   Also included are some translations of the New Testament
into Biblical Hebrew."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1477 Psalms Bologna
Edited, with commentary, by four orthodox Jews; it is the earliest of
three Hebrew Psalters which appear before 1480.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Joseph and Neriah Chayim, Mordecai and Hezekiah Montro.]

"1482 Pentateuch A[braham]. ben Chayim [dei Tintori], Bologna
The first printed Pentateuch in Hebrew.   Published at the expense of
Joseph ben Abraham Caravita.
  Contains the Rashi commentary and
the Targum of Onkelos.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Hebrew Character   First Printed Hebrew Pentateuch Exodus 19:22-20:10 unknown.]

"1485-1486 Prophets J[oshua]. Solomon, Soncino
First edition of the Prophetical books (including Joshua, Judges,
1 Samuel-2 Kings), published by a Jewish refugee from Spain, who
settled in Soncino and adopted the place name as his own.   The

Hagiographa[, Samuel b. Samuel Romano] was printed in Naples in 1487, completing the publica-
tion of the Hebrew O.T.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1488 Old Testament Soncino
First complete Hebrew O.T.; other editions by the Soncino publishing
family appeared in 1491, Naples ?; 1492 and 1494, Brescia; and
possibly 1511, Pesaro.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1514-1517 Old Testament Alcala
The Complutensian Polyglot, first of the great polyglots.   The Hebrew
text (vols. 1-4) was edited by Juan and Pedro de Vergara, Alphonso de
Zamora, Alphonso de Alcala, and Pablo Coronel.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Complutensian Polyglot 1514-1517 1st page of Genesis unknown.
Polyglot 1514.   http://www.bibles.org.uk/Complutensian-1514.djvu]

"1516 Old Testament D. Bomberg, Venice
The first of several important editions prepared and printed by Daniel
Bomberg.   The 1517 edition was known as the first Biblia Rabbinica,
edited by Felix Pratensis.   The 1525 edition (2nd Biblia Rabbinica),
was the first to include the Masora, edited by Jacob ben Chayim; the
1528 edition combined elements of the Pratensis and ben Chayim texts
and was influential among the Reformers.   A 3rd Biblia Rabbinica,
edited by C. Adelkind, appeared in 1548.   The 4th, edited by A. ben
Joseph Salam and Isaac ben Gerson, was published in 1568.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1537 Matthew H[enricus]. Petrus, Basel
First portion of the N.T. published in Hebrew, edited from the 14th-
century translation of Shem Tob ben Shaprut, by Sebastian Münster.
Another version, prepared by J. Quinquarboreus, was published in
Paris in 1551.   A rendering from another Ms., edited by J. du Tillet,
was published in Paris, 1555.   In 1599 the compete N.T. was
published in Nürnberg.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: 1599 Hutter {Hugh} Polyglot, http://www.bibles-online.net/hutter/]

    "Shem Tob b. Shaprut, a Jew of Tudela in Castile, Spain, in the middle of the 14th century[.]
    First New Testament, Nuremberg, 1599, translated and published by Elias Hutter.
    "
    --1000 Tongues, 1939

"1572 Old Testament C. Plantin, Antwerp
The Antwerp Polyglot.   The Hebrew section was edited from the text of
the Complutensian Polyglot and 2nd Biblia Rabbinica by Benedictus
Arias.   This Hebrew text was later reprinted in the 1584 polyglot of C.
Plantin; the Paris Polyglot, 1645, followed the same text.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1661 Old Testament J. Athias, Amsterdam
Edited by Joseph Athias, this well executed edition was based on
Buxtorf's text.   It was the first to have numbered verses throughout.   It
served as a basis for most editions until the appearance of the van der
Hooght text of 1705.
"
-- 1000 Tongues   [Info only: the manual edition of J. Buxdorf (Basel, 1611).
See Yiddish 1679 O.T.]

    "Athias Bible: Amsterdam, at the expense of the editor, Joseph Athias,
    1661; proof-read by J. Leusden.   Revised by Leusden in 1667,
    this became the standard for many subsequent editions, including that
    edited by E. van der Hooght (1705); J. H. Michaelis (1720); Benjamin
    Kennicot (1780); August Hahn (1831); Meyer Levi Letteris (1852)
    "
    -- 1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

"1790 Pentateuch Oxford
The first printing of the Samaritan Pentateuch, edited by B. Blayney.

To be differentiated from the Samaritan Targum, treated under
Samaritan.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Pentateuchus hebreao-samaritanus, charactere hebraeo- chaldaico; ed. cura et studio Benjamini Blayney... (Oxonii, ex typographeo Clarendoniano, 1790)
http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001925060]

"1865-1895 Old Testament (incomplete)   Leipzig
Edited by S. Baer and Franz Delitzch; Exodus-Deuteronomy were
never published.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Delitzch {Lutheran}.]

"1877 New Testament BFBS, Leipzig
Translated by F. Delitzch, first on the basis of Codex Alex-
andrinus,
later to conform to the Textus Receptus.
  Revised editions
appeared in 1878, 1880, and 1892.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: "{Delitzsch's Hebrew New Testament. Printed for the British and foreign Bible society. (Leipzig, Ackermann}, 1877)"
http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009030689]

    "Ginsburg: London (Vienna printed), [1894] Trinitarian

    Bible Society, edited by Christian David Ginsburg, based on the Second
    Rabbinic Bible.
      .... Other versions of the
    New Testament: London Jews Society: London, 1817; tr. by T. Fry and
    G. B. Collyer and a group of scholars, several times revised.     Salkin-
    son: Romans, R. Young, Edinburgh, 1855; tr. by Isaac Salkinson; New
    Testament, Trinitarian Bible Society, London, 1885; completed by Chris-
    tian David Ginsburg.     Delitzsch: Romans, Leipzig (privately pub-
    lished), 1870; tr. by Franz Delitzsch: New Testament, BFBS, Leipzig,
    [1878].
        CP: ABS, BFBS.
    "
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

**Book: INTRODUCTORY Guide to the Old Testament (1951)   Merrill F. Unger (SB)   [Info only: o.k. if KJV.]

**File: Hebrew Critical Text History

"Biblia hebraica, secundum ultimam editionem Jos. Athiae, a Johanne Leusden denuo recognitam, recensita atque ad Masoram, et correctiores Bombergi, Stephani, Plantini, aliorumque editiones, exquisite adornata variisque notis illustrata ab Everardo van der Hooght. (Londini, B.R.Goakman, prostant venalia apud Gale, Curtis, & Fenner, 1812- 14)"
http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009707182   [Info only]

"Torah Neviʾim u-Khetuvim = Biblia Hebraica... / secundum ultimam editionem Jos. Athiae a Johanne Leusden ... ; notis illustrata ab Everardo Van der Hooght ... (Londini : Impensis Ogle, Duncan et sociorum ;, 1822)"
http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009716280   [Info only]

"Sefer Torah : kerah Nevi?im ?e-Khetuvim. ([London : Bagster, For the Brit. & For. Bible Soo.], 1830)"
http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008410115   [Info only]

"[New Testament in Hebrew (Berlin : Trowitzsch & son], printed for the British and foreign Bible society, 1883)"
http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009404769   [Info only: ?]

"Siphre hab-B'rith ha-Hadashah ... ([Berlin : Printed for the British and foreign Bible society, by Trowitzsch son], 1886)"
http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008002216   [Info only: N.T.]

"The Holy Scriptures of the Old Testament, Hebrew & English. (Berlin, British & foreign Bible society, 1903)"
http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001937916   [Info only]

*File: Hebrew Delitzsch N.T. (1901)   BFBS
http://www.archive.org/details/hebrewnewtestament00deli.pdf   [Trowitzsch & Son, Berlin]   [Scan.]

*File: A Brief History of the Hebrew Bible (n.d.)   Debra E. Anderson, TBS   [Info only: DEA claims that there are only 8 "differences".   Is this true?]

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