Hebrew Critical Text History

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Hebrew Ministry

was not until the 18th century that an effort was made to evalu-
ate the existing texts and to prepare a critical Hebrew version.

Scholars now have at their disposal textual readings from a
number of sources: Hebrew manuscripts, the early versions, and
the ‘daughter’ translations."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
Beware of Unholy hands on God's Holy Book!]

"1514-1517 Old Testament Alcala
The Complutensian Polyglot, first of the great polyglots.   The Hebrew
(vols. 1-4) was edited by Juan and Pedro de Vergara, Alphonso de
Zamora, Alphonso de Alcala, and Pablo Coronel.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
COMPLUTENSIAN POLYGLOT   "1514-1517" 1st page of Genesis unknown.]

Polyglot 1514.   [Info only]

       "First publication of any part of the New Testament: St. Matthew’s
    Gospel, in 1537 at Basle by Henricus Petrus; tr. by Shem Tob b.
    Shaprut, a Jew of Tudela in Castile, Spain
    , in the middle of the 14th
    century, edited by S. Münster.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only:
    1537 [m]atthew was Latin Vulgate based per S. Bagster]

"1537 [m]atthew H. Petrus, Basel
First portion of the N.T. published in Hebrew, edited from the 14th-
century translation of Shem Tob ben Shaprut
, by Sebastian Münster.
Another version, prepared by J. Quinquarboreus, was published in
Paris in 1551.   A rendering from another Ms., edited by J. du Tillet,
was published in Paris, 1555.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

   "A translation of the four [g]ospels into biblical Hebrew was made by Joannes Baptista Jonas,
a converted Jew, and Professor of Hebrew at the University of Rome: he dedicated it to Pope
Clement IX., and it was published at Rome in 1668, at the expense of the Congregation de Propaganda
--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only]

"1790 Pentateuch Oxford
The first printing of the Samaritan Pentateuch, edited by B. Blayney.

To be differentiated from the Samaritan Targum, treated under
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

Pentateuchus hebreao-samaritanus, charactere hebraeo-chaldaico; ed. cura et studio Benjamini Blayney... (Oxonii, ex typographeo Clarendoniano, 1790)   [Info only]

       "Other versions of the
    New Testament: Salkin-
    son: Romans, R. Young, Edinburgh, 1855; tr. by Isaac Salkinson; New
    Testament, Trinitarian Bible Society, London, 1885; completed by Chris-
    tian David Ginsburg
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only:
    I. Salkinson & C. D. Ginsburg NT has some CT.]

       "Old Testament: Rud. Kittel (1906, re-edited by P. Kahle, and A. Alt and O.
    Eissfeldt, 1937
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: CT.   See DAW below.]

"1905-1906 Old Testament Leipzig
Edited by a committee under the supervision of Rudolf Kittel; it
included V. Ryssel, J. W. Rothstein, W. Nowak, Fr. G. Beer,
G. Delman, M. Löhr, and Fr. Buhl.
- -1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
pro-Critical Text (CT) footnotes.]

"Torah, Neviʼim u-Khetuvim = Biblia hebraica adjuvantibus professoribus G. Beer, F. Buhl, G. Dalman, S.R. Driver, M. Löhr, W. Nowack, I.W. Rothstein, V. Ryssel edidit Rud. Kittel. (Lipsiae, J.C. Hinrichs, 1913 [c1912])"   [Info only:
Kittel, etc. had been seeking to change God's word (O.T.).]

       "An enlarged and improved edition in four volumes was
    published by the BFBS; the Prophets, 1911; the remainder of the Old
    Testament, 1926, completed after the death of Dr. Ginsburg by Rev.
    H. E. Holmes and Professor A. S. Geden.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only:
    What changes did BFBS print?]

"1908-1926 Old Testament BFBS, London
Edited by C. D. Ginsberg until his death in 1914, and thereafter by
H. E. Holmes and A. S. Geden.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
C. D. Ginsburg (1926)   Masorah notations & RB2.]

"1937 [o]ld [t]estament Württemberg BS, Stuttgart
The third edition of Kittel’s text, edited by P. Kahle, A. Alt, and O.
Eissfeldt.   Based on the Leningrad ben Asher text
[CHM note: REVISED ben Asher text], with critical
apparatus for Mss. and versional variants separated from the textual
emendations.   It became and remains the standard critical text.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
the false UBS Hebrew OT.   See DWC.
There are at least 8 differences between RB2 & Kittel's BHS3 per The KINGS BIBLE.]

HEBREW--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: KITTEL-KAHLE TEXT   "1951" Genesis 1:1-4 CT.]

"1958 Old Testament BFBS, London
Edited for the BFBS by Norman H. Snaith.   In 1959 an edition
consisting of the Snaith O.T. and the Delitzsch N.T., in one volume,
was published in Israel.   This was the first Hebrew Bible containing
both Testaments to be produced in that country.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

Hebrew N. H. Snaith O.T. (1958)   BFBS   [Info only: per USB, 2008.]
"The Hebrew Scriptures (Snaith)
This Hebrew text is the Ben Asher text, based
on Sephardic manuscripts, especially the
British Library Manuscript Or. 2626-8.
1958.   18.5 x 12 cm.   1362 p.
Cloth hardcover
BFBS 000299   0564000299"

M. Koren (1962)   [Info only: RB2.]

HEBREW--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: SALKINSON-GINSBURG TEXT   "1962" Mark 1:2 incorrect (ישעיה = Isaiah).]

CHM update: Mr. Kittel appears to have been an unbeliever.   See evidence below.

Booklet/*File: "FOUR REASONS for DEFENDING THE KING JAMES BIBLE" (7-21-1993)   D. A. Waite   [brief summary]   [ DKJB ]
["The Two Competing Hebrew Old Testament Texts. There are two basic texts in existence in Hebrew, the false one, edited by Ben Asher, and the true one, edited by Ben Chayyim. The Ben Asher is exhibited in Rudolf Kittel's BIBLIA HEBRAICA (BHK) (1937) with all of his suggested footnote changes, as well as in the Stuttgart edition of BIBLIA HEBRAICA (BHS) (1967-77) with all of their suggested footnote changes. The true text of Ben Chayyim on which our KING JAMES BIBLE is based is also available. It is called the Daniel Bomberg edition or the Second Great Rabbinic Bible (1524-25). We carry this Hebrew Bible in the BIBLE FOR TODAY ministry. It is the Letteris text, printed in 1866. It has the Masoretic Hebrew text in the center and the KING JAMES BIBLE in the margins. This Ben Chayyim Masoretic Hebrew text was the unquestioned Hebrew text for the next 400 years. Nobody questioned it. In fact, Rudolf Kittel, in his first two editions of 1906 and 1912, used that text in his BIBLIA HEBRAICA. It was not until 1937, that he switched Hebrew texts and substituted the spurious and inferior text which uses

the Leningrad Manuscript (B19a or "L"). He used this because he claimed it was the oldest single Hebrew manuscript, dating from about 1008 A.D.

Both of these false BIBLIA HEBRAICA (BHK & BHS) Hebrew texts offer in their footnotes about fifteen to twenty suggested changes per page. This adds up to about 20,000 to 30,000 changes in the entire Hebrew Old Testament text. One or the other of these false Hebrew texts, either BHK or BHS, are used as the basis for the Old Testament in virtually all modern versions, as can be shown by reading their introductory pages."]

CHM warning: A modern Hebrew NT (1976, 1995, 2010) with Isaiah at Mark 1:2 is from the wrong (W&H) text.   [www.biblesocietyinisrael.com]

*File: Ginsburg Hebrew New Testament (2004-2005)   [Info only: some "critical text" according to TBS in 1963.]