Aramaic Bible History (1)

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**List: Aramaic Ministry

Bible ( Ktaba )
"Aramaic, previously known as Chaldean, was [one of] the language[s]
spoken by Christ.   Portions of the Old Testament are written in
it, and the Old Testament Patriarchs are associated with the
Aramaeans, not only by Abraham’s origins (in Haran, an
Aramaean center), but by the return of Isaac to take a wife
(Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramaean, Gen 25:20).

Aramaic came into use as a lingua franca of Near Eastern official
circles during the Assyrian Period (1100-605 B.C.).   Its wide-
spread use is attested by the reference in the Old Testament to
Eliakim, a general of Hezekiah, asking the Assyrian functionary
not to make his humiliating demand for the surrender of
Jerusalem ‘in the Syrian language; for we understand it: and talk
not with us in the Jews'; language in the ears of the
.   (2 Kings 18:26).

After the fall of Samaria to the Assyrians in 721 B.C., Aramaic-
speaking settlers were installed in the place of the Israelites, who
had been carried into captivity.   By the time the Babylonian
exiles were repatriated in 538, Aramaic had become the ver-
nacular in Palestine as well as the acquired language of the exiles.
Thus Aramaic was the popular language of the Holy Land, as well
as the Near East, at the time of Christ, although Koiné Greek
was the international trade language.   Aramaic continued in use

as a spoken tongue until the 8th to 9th centuries A.D., when it
was displaced by Arabic.   There are, however, a few Christian
villages in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains where a language
descended from Eastern Aramaic is still spoken as the mother
tongue; and Eastern Aramaic (i.e. Syriac) survives in the Modern
of Iraqi Kurdistan."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
Jewish Palestine, Land of Israel.]

"Important for Biblical scholarship are the Aramaic Targums of
the Old Testament, which were used by the Jews, who no longer
understood Hebrew, in the synagogues.   At first simply oral
paraphrases, the Targums later became more formal and were
committed to writing.   The most important Targums are:
Pentateuch, the Palestinian Pentateuch Targum, and the Targum
of Onkelos (probably prepared in Palestine, but re-edited by the
Babylonian scholars); Prophets, the Jonathan bar-Uzziel Targum
(also of Palestinian origin, but now known only in a Babylonian
recension); and Hagiographa, of which numerous versions pro-
vide incomplete texts.   The Targum assumed a fixed, traditional
form in the course of time and passed out of use when they could
no longer be readily understood.

Printed, critical editions of the Targums, of which there are a
number, seldom occur without the Hebrew text."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

       "The Aramaic vernacular which superseded Hebrew among the Jewish
    population of Palestine and Babylon.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

       "First publication, the Targum
    of Onkelos on the Pentateuch in 1482 at Bologna, with the Hebrew
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

       "The Targums for all the Old Testament, except Daniel, Ezra and
    Nehemiah, were published in the first Rabbinic Bible, Venice, printed

    by Daniel Bomberg, 1517.   The Targums are translations or para-
    phrases of the Hebrew text intended to be read in the synagogue, made as
    Hebrew came to be less well understood than the vernacular.   The dates of
    their composition and their authorship are uncertain.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: RB1.]

CHALDEE   Complutensian Polyglot--1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: Hebrew characters   "1517" Deuteronomy 6:13-17 unknown.]

**File: Aramaic Bible History (3)--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only: Chaldee.]

   "The most ancient Targum now extant is that written by Onkelos, a disciple of Hillel, who died
60 B.C.   This Hillel is by some supposed to have been the grandfather of Gamaliel, Paul’s instructor.
In purity of style Onkelos equals the Chaldaic sections of Ezra and Daniel, and his fidelity to the
Hebrew text, which he generally follows almost word for word, is so great, that he deserves to be
looked upon as a translator, rather than as a paraphrast.   No writings of his
are extant except his
Targum of the books of Moses, which has been printed with a Latin translation in the first volume of
the London Polyglot;"
--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only]

ARAMAIC--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: HEBREW CHARACTER   "1959" Genesis 1:1-4 unknown.]

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