Bible Dictionary: P.   1840

  1. PA'ARAI, [h] (opening), one of David's
    mighty captains, 2 Sam. 23:35, called
    Naarai, 1 Chron. 11:37.
  2. PACE, a step, a measure of about five
    feet, 2 Sam. 6:13.
  3. PACIFIED, made peaceful, as the death
    of the atrocious Haman, appeased the
    king's wrath, Est. 7:10.
  4. PACIFY, to satisfy so as to remove
    anger, Prov. 16:14.
  5. PA'DAN-A'RAM, (the field of
    ), the Hebrew name of Mesopo-
    tamia, Gen. 24:10; 25:20; 28:6.
  6. PADDLE, a small spade-like instru-
    ment, Deut. 23:13.
  7. PA'DON, [h] (his redemption), a chief of
    the Nethinims, Ezra 2:43, 44.
  8. PA'GIEL, (prayer of God), a prince
    of Asher, Num. 7:72-77.
  9. PA'HATH-MO'AB, [h] (the governor
    of Moab
    ), a chief of a Jewish family
    among the captives, Ezra 2:6; Neh. 10:14.
  10. PAID, did pay, as a price, Jon. 1:3, or
    tithes, Heb. 7:9.
  11. PAIN, sensation of uneasiness, Job 14:
    22: grief, Psal. 55:4: misery, Jer. 15:
    18: fear, Ezek. 30:4: care and anxiety,
    Job 15:20: mortal humiliation, Acts 2:
  12. PAINED, grieved, Isa. 23:5: put in
    pain, Rev. 12:2.
  13. PAINFUL, difficult or perplexing, Psal.
  14. PAINFULNESS, laboriousness, 2 Cor.
  15. PAINTED, coloured to beautify, 2 Kings
    9:30; Jer. 22:14; Ezek. 23:40.
  16. PAINTING, colouring to beautify, Jer.
  17. PAIR, a couple, Luke 2:24: a set, Rev.
  18. PALACE, a royal dwelling, 1 Kings 16:
    18; Dan. 5:1-5: a magnificent building,
    2 Chron. 36:19.   Solomon's temple,
    as the residence of God, 1 Chron. 29:
    1-19: a meeting place of the church,
    Psal. 48:3-13.
  19. PALE, whitish or deathly, Isa. 29:
    22; Rev. 6:8.
  20. PALENESS, deathliness of countenance,
    Jer. 30:6.
  21. PAL'ESTINA, [h] (which is covered, or
    watered, or to bring ruin), Palestine, the
    land of Canaan, Exod. 15:14, Isa. 14:
    29-31; but properly the country of the
    Philistines.   See
    and JUDEA.
    • Palestine, the Land of Israel.
  22. PALM, the hollow of the hand, Lev.
  23. PALM-BRANCHES, boughs of the palm-
    tree, Neh. 8:15.
  24. PALMER-WORM, a destructive species
    of caterpillar, Joel 1:4; 2:25.
  25. PALMS, the hands, 2 Kings 9:35:
    branches of the palm-tree, Rev. 7:9.
  26. PALM-TREE, a tall, fruit-bearing, sha-
    dowy tree, whose fruit is the date: it
    arrives at perfection in about thirty
    years, and thus continues about seventy
    years, bearing fifteen or twenty clusters
    of dates, each cluster weighing from
    fifteen to twenty pounds, Exod. 15:27.
    The palm-tree is held in great estimation
    by the inhabitants of Arabia, Egypt, and
    Persia, on account of its adaptation to
    various valuable purposes.   The Arabs
    celebrate its three hundred and sixty
    uses to which the different parts may be
    applied: they used the leaves for making
    ropes, sacks, mats, hats, sandals, and
    other things; and many people subsist
    almost entirely on its fruit.   Palm-
    branches were carried as tokens of vic-
    tory or joy, Lev. 23:40; John 12:13;
    and the beasty of this tree is made an
    emblem of the active virtues of a Chris-
    tian, Psal. 92:12.
  27. PALSY, a disease by which the limbs
    are paralyzed, deprived of motion or
    feeling, or both.   Grievous cases of
    palsy are common in eastern countries,
    and such were among the miraculous
    cures of our Saviour, Matt. 4:24; 8:6;
    9:2; John 5:5-14.
  28. PAL'TI, [h] (deliverance or flight), one
    of the twelve spies sent by Moses to
    search the land of Canaan, Num. 13:9.
  29. PAL'TIEL, [h] (deliverance of God),
    the prime commissioner of Issachar, for
    dividing the land of Canaan, Num. 34:
  30. PAMPHYL'IA, [g] (of every tribe),
    a hilly province of Asia Minor, having
    Cilicia on the east, Pisidia on the north,
    Lycia on the west, and the Mediterranean
    on the south.   Perga and Attalia were
    its chief cities, Acts 13:13; 14:24, 25.
  31. PAN, a vessel of iron or brass, for
    baking or boiling food, Lev. 2:5; 7:9.
  32. PANGS, extreme pains, Isa. 13:8.
  33. PANNAG, supposed to be myrrh, cassia,
    or balm, an article of commerce at Tyre,
    Ezek. 27:17.
  34. PANT, to beat, as the heart with
    anxiety or thirst, Psal. 41:1; or as the
    covetous with desire for wealth, Amos
  35. PANTED, did pant, as the pious for
    the consolations of God, Psal. 42:1; or
    in apprehension of the Divine judgments
    in calamities, Isa. 21:4.
  36. PAPER, the material on which we
    write, 2 John 12; so called as made from
    the papyrus, or paper-reed of Egypt, Isa.
  37. PAPER-REED (Cyperes papyrus of Lin-
    neus), the bulrush growing in Egypt,
    Isa. 19:7; Job 8:11: it grows to the
    height of eighteen feet, and in such
    quantities as to seem "a forest without
    branches, a thicket without leaves, a
    harvest of the waters, and an ornament
    of the marshes."
      Writing-paper was
    made of the rind of this reed, which
    being esculent, it is scarcely surprising
    that the prophets should speak of books
    being eaten, Job 15:16; Ezek. 3:1; Rev.
    10:10.   See BULRUSH.
  38. PA'PHOS, [g] (which boils, or is hot), a
    maritime city on the west of Cyprus, Acts
    13:6-16: it is now a miserable village
    of about thirty huts, and called Baffa.
  39. PAPS, the [mastos] of the breasts, Luke
    11:27: the breast, Rev. 1:13.
  40. PARABLE, a comparison or similitude,
    ingeniously and impressively represent-
    ing moral or religious truth, Matt. 13:
    3, 10, 18, 23.   Jotham's parable is the
    most ancient on record, Judg. 9:7-15.
    Saviour's parables are most instruc-
    , Matt. 13:53, 54; and the following
    are the principal recorded

    1. Building on rock and sandGalilee . . .Matt. 7:24.
    2. Blind leading the blindDo.Luke 6:39.
    3. Two debtorsDo.Luke 7:41.
    4. Evil spirit returningDo.Matt. 12:43.
    5. Sower and the seedDo.Matt. 13:3.
    6. Tares in the fieldDo.Matt. 13:25.
    7. Growth of seedDo.Mark 4:26.
    8. Grain of mustard seedDo.Matt. 13:31.
    9. Leaven in mealDo.Matt. 13:33.
    10. Treasure hid in the fieldDo.Matt. 13:44.
    11. Pearl of great priceDo.Matt. 13:45.
    12. Net cast into the seaDo.Matt. 13:47.
    13. Good householderDo.Matt. 13:52.
    14. Who need a physicianDo.Matt. 9:12.
    15. Bridegroom's attendantsDo.Matt. 9:15.
    16. New cloth on an old garmentDo.Matt. 9:16.
    17. New wine in old bottlesDo.Matt. 9:17.
    18. Bread of lifeDo.John 6:32.
    19. What defiles a manDo.Matt. 15:11.
    20. Lost sheepDo.Matt. 18:12.
    21. The lord and unmerciful servantDo.Matt. 18:23.
    22. Good SamaritanJerusalem . .Luke 10:30.
    23. Rich foolGalilee . . .Luke 12:16.
    24. Lord and his servantsDo.Luke 12:36.
    25. Barren fig-treeDo.Luke 13:6.
    26. Ambitious guestsDo.Luke 14:7.
    27. Great supperDo.Luke 14:16.
    28. Hating father and motherDo.Luke 14:26.
    29. Building a towerDo.Luke 14:28.
    30. King going to warDo.Luke 14:31.
    31. Lost sheep, with additionsDo.Luke 15:3.
    32. Lost piece of silverDo.Luke 15:8.
    33. Prodigal sonDo.Luke 15:11.
    34. Unjust stewardDo.Luke 16:1.
    35. Rich man and LazarusDo.Luke 16:19.

    36. Master and servantGalilee . . .Luke 17:7.
    37. Unjust judge and widowJerusalem . .Luke 18:1.
    38. Pharisee and publicanDo.Luke 18:9.
    39. SheepfoldDo.John 10:1.
    40. Good shepherdDo.John 10:11.
    41. Labourers in the vineyardBeyond JordanMatt. 20:1
    42. Ten pounds for tradingJericho . . .Luke 19:11.
    43. Two sonsJerusalem . .Matt. 21:28.
    44. Husbandmen and vineyardDo.Matt. 21:33.
    45. Haughty buildersDo.Matt. 21:42.
    46. Marriage feastDo.Matt. 22:1.
    47. Wedding garmentDo.Matt. 22:11.
    48. Budding of treesDo.Matt. 22:29.
    49. Wicked servantDo.Matt. 24:44.
    50. Ten virginsDo.Matt. 25:1.
    51. Talents for tradingDo.Matt. 25:14.
    52. Sheep and goatsDo.Matt. 25:31.
    53. True vineDo.John 15:1.

  41. PAR'ADISE, Παραδεισος (a delightful gar-
    or park): this word is found only in
    the New Testament, signifying the bliss-
    ful regions of
    Heaven, Luke 23:43;
    2 Cor. 12:4; Rev. 2:7   The garden of
    Eden is commonly called Paradise, Gen.
    2:8.   See EDEN.
  42. PARAMOUR, a lover, Ezek. 23:20.
  43. PA'RAN, [h] (beauty, glory, or ornament),
    a district of Arabia Petrea, south-east
    of Canaan, comprehending "the wilder-
    of Kadesh and of Zin, in which
    the Israelites excamped thirty-eight
    years on their way from Egypt, Gen.
    21:21; Num. 10:12; Hab. 3:3.
  44. PARCEL, a part or portion, as of land,
    Gen. 33:19; Ruth 4:3.
  45. PARCHED, scorched, as corn prepared
    for food, 1 Sam. 17:17: sun-burnt, as
    land, Isa. 35:7.
  46. PARCHMENT, skins of sheep or goats
    prepared for the writer:
    Paul refers to
    some parchments which probably con-
    tained some of the original copies of the
    sacred Scriptures
    , 2 Tim. 4:13.
  47. PARDON, to forgive crimes, Exod.
    34:9: to excuse a fault, 1 Sam. 15:
    God is ready to pardon, and He will
    abundantly pardon, the sins of men,

    through the infinitely precious propitia-
    tion of Christ
    , Isa. 53:5; 55:7; Rom. 3:
    24-26.   See FORGIVENESS.
  48. PARDONED, forgiven, as transgressions
    of the law of God, Isa. 40:2; Num. 14:20.
  49. PARE, to cut round, as the nails, Deut.
  50. PARENTS, fathers and mothers, Matt.
    10:21; Heb. 11:23.
  51. PARLOUR, a chamber for repose or
    entertainment, Judg. 3:20-24.
  52. PAR'MENAS, Παρμενας (that is perma-
    ), one of the seven Grecian deacons
    in the first Christian church, Acts 6:5.
  53. PART, a division, as of land, Exod. 19:
    17: a share, 29:36: a portion, Lev. 2:
    16; 7:33.
  54. PART, to divide, Lev. 2:6: to share,
    Psal. 22:18; Matt. 27:36.
  55. PARTAKER, a sharer of anything, Rom.
    15:27.   Believers are partakers of Christ,
    by receiving the grace of his Spirit, and
    thus become heirs of the kingdom of God,
    Heb. 3:1-14; 1 Pet. 5:1.
  56. PARTED, did part or divide, 2 Kings
    2:11-14; Acts 2:45.
  57. PARTED, separated, Luke 24:51.
  58. PARTH'IANS, [g] (horsemen), native
    Jews of Parthia, who had come to Jeru-
    salem to celebrate the feast of Pentecost,
    Acts 2:9.   Parthia was a country east
    of Media, and once a province of it; but
    it became an independent kingdom for
    about 500 years, until, about A.D. 226, it
    was reunited with Persia.
  59. PARTIAL, regarding only a part, Mal.
  60. PARTIALITY, favour towards a party,
    1 Tim. 5:21; Jam. 3:17.
  61. PARTICULAR, special or single, 1 Cor.
    12:27; Eph. 5:33.
  62. PARTICULARLY, specially or singly,
    Acts 21:19; Heb. 9:5.
  63. PARTIES, persons concerned in differ-
    ent interests, Exod. 22:9.
  64. PARTING, a division or separation,
    Ezek. 21:21.
  65. PARTITION, a separation, 1 Kings 6:
    21; Eph. 2:12.
  66. PARTLY, in part, Dan. 2:42; Heb. 10:33.
  67. PARTNER, a sharer, Prov. 29:24,
    especially in business, Luke 5:7-10: a
    colleague in service, 2 Cor. 8:23.
  68. PARTRIDGE (perdix petrosa, or the Bar-
    bary partridge), a mountain bird, some-
    what different from the game-bird so
    called in Europe, 1 Sam. 26:2; Jer.
    17:11.   The Arabs pursue them till
    they are weary with flying, and then
    kill them with the hand as alluded to
    by David.
  69. PASH'UR, [h] (that extends the hole), a
    priest, governor of the temple at Jerusa-
    lem, and a bitter enemy of the prophet
    Jeremiah.   His awful doom was threat-
    ened by divine inspiration, Jer. 20:1-6.
  70. PASS, to go forward, as on a journey, Gen.
    18:5: to happen, 41:32: to remove,
    Matt. 26:39: to occupy, 1 Pet. 1:17.
  71. PASSAGE, a road or way, 1 Sam. 13:23;
    14:23: a ferry over a river, Josh. 22:11.
  72. PASSED, moved, Gen. 15:17: travelled,
    Josh. 24:17: exceeded, 2 Chron. 9:
    22: advanced, Heb. 4:14.
  73. PASSENGER, a traveller, Prov. 9:15:
    Ezek. 39:11, 15.
  74. PASSING, traveling, Judg. 19:18:
    exceeding, 2 Sam. 1:26.
  75. PASSION, suffering and death; thus the
    word is used in reference to Christ, Acts
  76. PASSIONS, emotions of the mind, as
    anger, love, zeal, &c., Acts 14:15; Jam.
  77. PASSOVER, a feast of the Israelites, so
    called and kept, in commemoration of the
    destroying angel passing over the Israel-
    ites on the night of their deliverance
    from Egypt, Exod. 12:11-21; John 2:
    13-23.   The term "Passover" is, in strict
    propriety of speech, applicable only to
    the meal of the paschal lamb, eaten on
    the fourteenth day of the month, after
    which, on the fifteenth day, commenced
    the feast of unleavened bread, for seven
    days, Exod. 12:6, 21; Lev. 23:5, 6;
    Josh. 5:10, 11; but the whole of both
    these festivals was afterwards included
    in the term as it is used in the New
    Testament, Luke 2:41-43; 22:1.
  78. PASSOVER, a title of Christ, given to
    indicate the benefit which we derive from
    Him as our Redeemer
    , 1 Cor. 5:7.
    John 19:14; Matt. 27:62, the [four-
    teenth, or day preceding the evening of
    the feast of unleavened bread: this, at
    the time of our Saviour's death, was the
    day which preceded the Sabbath.   Our
    Lord, therefore, ate the passover in the
    evening of the preparation after sunset,
    at the beginning of the fourteenth, in the
    night of which He was betrayed, early in
    the morning condemned, before noon]--Tho. Tim.

    crucified, and in the evening buried, Luke
  80. PAST, properly passed, ended, Gen. 50:
    4: formerly, Job 9:10: beyond, 2 Sam.
  81. PASTOR, a shepherd, a title given to a
    religious instructor and guide of a con-
    gregation, in allusion to the office of a
    keeper of sheep, Jer. 17:16; 23:1, 2;
    Eph. 4:11.   See
  82. PASTORS, religious instructors, Jer. 2:
    8; 23:1, 2: Christian
    ministers, bishops
    of congregations, Eph. 4:11.
  83. PASTURE, grass land on which cattle
    feed, Gen. 47:4; 1 Kings 4:23: need-
    ful provision for body and soul, John 10:9.
  84. PAT'ARA, [g] (which is trodden under
    ), a sea-port of Lycia, on the Mediter-
    ranean, Acts 21:1.
  85. PATE, the upper part of the head,
    Psal. 7:16.
  86. PATH, a road or way, Num. 22:22:
    a course of life, Psal. 16:11; 27:11:
    Divine providence, 25:10; 65:11.
  87. PATH'ROS, [h] (mouthful of dew), Upper
    Egypt, sometimes regarded as Egypt pro-
    per, the original location of the first
    colonists, Jer. 44:1-15; Ezek. 29:14;
  88. PATHRU'SIM, [h] (mouthful of dew),
    the fifth son of Mizraim, and great-grand-
    son of Noah: he is believed to have
    colonized the upper province of Egypt,
    called Pathros, Gen. 10:14.
  89. PATHWAY, a narrow road for travellers
    on foot: the more retired course of wis-
    dom and righteousness, Prov. 12:28.
  90. PATIENCE, endurance of evil or suffer-
    ing, Rom. 5:3: perseverance in duty,
    Jam. 5:7-10.
  91. PATIENT, calm under affliction or sor-
    row, Rom. 12:12.
  92. PATIENTLY, calmly, especially in afflic-
    tion, Psal. 37:7; 1 Pet. 2:20.
  93. PAT'MOS, [g] (mortal), a small rocky
    island, about twenty-five miles in circuit,
    in the Egean sea, to which
    John is sup-
    posed to have been banished, A.D. 94, by
    Domitian, emperor of Rome, and where
    he was inspired to write the book of
    Revelation, Rev. 1:9: it is a poor place,
    and called Patmo.
  94. PATRIARCH, the father, chief, or ruler
    of a large family, as David, Acts 2:29,
    or Abraham, Heb. 7:4; and the sons of
    Jacob are called "the twelve patriarchs,"
    Acts 7:8, by way of distinction, as the
    ancestors of the several tribes of Israel.
    Mankind originally lived in societies
    under patriarchal authority and govern-
    ment; and many of the ancient patriarchs
    lived to an extraordinary age, as the
    means of conveying knowledge to man-
    kind; and thus the merciful purposes of
    God were answered in the transmission
    of his revealed will before the writing of
    the Holy Scriptures.



    Adam . . . . 930
    Seth . . . . . 912
    Enos . . . . . 905
    Cainan . . . . . 910
    Mahalaleel . . . 895
    Jared . . . . . 962
    Enoch . . . . 365
    Methuselah . . . . 969
    Lamech . . . . 777
    Noah . . . . . 950
    Shem . . . . 600
    Arphaxad . . . . 438
    Salah . . . . 433
    Eber . . . . . 464
    Peleg . . . . 239
    Reu . . . . . 239
    Serug . . . . 230
    Nahor . . . . . 148
    Terah . . . . 205
    Abraham . . . . 175
    Isaac . . . . . 180
    Jacob . . . . . 147
    Joseph . . . . 110

  95. PATRIMONY, goods possessed by inhe-
    ritance, Deut. 18:8.
  96. PATTERN, a model of an article of
    manufacture, Exod. 25:9, 40: an exam-
    ple, 1 Tim. 1:16; Tit. 2:7.
  97. PAUL, Παυλος (a worker), the Roman
    and common name of
    Saul the apostle:
    this eminent servant of Christ was a
    Hebrew by both parents, of the tribe of
    Benjamin: he was born at Tarsus in
    Cilicia, but finished his education under
    the celebrated doctor Gamaliel, at Jeru-
    salem.   On entering public life, Paul was
    a furious bigot for the Jewish forms of
    religion as observed by the Pharisees,
    and sought the death of the Christians
    by every possible means: yet Divine
    mercy was magnified in his conversion to
    Christianity, by the miraculous appear-
    ance and the [saving] grace of the Lord
    Jesus, Phil. 3:5, 6; Acts 9:1, 30.   Paul
    was a most exemplary, laborious, and
    successful minister of Christ for about
    thirty years, and his life and writings
    require a volume worthily to review them:
    he is believed to have died at Rome, a
    martyr for Christ, A.D. 67, by order of
    the monster Nero, the Roman emperor.


    Where written.
    For whose use.
      1. Thessalonians I.Corinth. Gentile Christians . . . . 52
      2. Thessalonians II.Do.Do. Do. .. 52
      3. Galatians.Do.Do. Do. .. 53
      4. Corinthians [I].Ephesus.Do. Do. .. 57
      5. Romans.Corinth.Do. Do. .. 58
      6. Corinthians II.Macedonia.Do. Do. .. 60
      7. Ephesians.Rome.Do. Do. .. 63
      8. Philippians.Do.Do. Do. .. 63
      9. Colossians.Do.Do. Do. .. 63
    10. Philemon.Do.Philemon of Colosse . . . 62
    11. Hebrews.Italy.Hebrew Christians . . . 63
    12. Timothy I.Macedonia.Timothy the Evangelist . . 65
    13. Titus.Do.Titus the Evangelist . . . 65
    14. Timothy II.Rome.Timothy the Evangelist . . 66

  98. PAU'LUS, Παυλος, the Latin form of the
    name Paul, the name of a Roman deputy
    of Cyprus, Acts 13:7.   See PAUL, and
  99. PAVED, laid with brick or flag-stone,
    as the floor of a court or hall, Exod.
  100. PAVEMENT, the paved floor of a court,
    2 Kings 16:17; 2 Chron. 7:3.   The
    floors of oriental princes were paved with
    the most costly marble or painted tiles,
    Est. 1:6.
  101. PAVEMENT, a court hall at Jerusalem;
    so called on account of its beautiful floor
    of tesselated pavement, John 19:13.
  102. PAVILION, a splendid tent, as of a
    king, 1 Kings 20:12; Jer. 43:10: the
    gracious protection of God, Psal. 27:
    5; 31:20.
  103. PAW, the foot of a beast, 1 Sam. 17:
  104. PAWETH, striking the feet as beasts,
    Job 39:21.
  105. PAY, to recompense as by the price of
    anything, Exod. 21:19, 22, 36: to give
    tribute or toll, Ezra 4:13: to discharge
    debts, Matt. 18:25-34: to fulfil a pro-
    mise or vow, Deut. 23:21.
  106. PAYMENT, the discharge of a debt,
    Matt. 18:25.
  107. PEACE, quietness or stillness; in a
    nation, it is public tranquillity, Lev. 26:
    6: between kings, it is a respite from
    war, with friendly relations, 1 Kings 5:
    12: in a family, it is harmony and love,
    Judg. 19:20: in a
    church, it is union of
    sentiment and affection, 2 Cor. 13:11.
    Peace in the soul is a fruit of the Holy
    , relieving the conscience of the
    true believer from guilt, and inspiring
    him with assurance of the favour of God,
    forgiveness of all sin, and hope of eternal
    glory through the propitiation of Christ
    Gal. 5:22; Rom. 5:1-3.   Peace, as desired
    for the churches by the apostle in his
    epistles, means the possession of all
    spiritual consolations, Rom. 1:7; Col. 1:2.
    "Christ is our peace," as He has made
    peace by the blood of His cross, Eph. 2:
    14-17, and given that blessing as a legacy
    to all believers, John 14:27.
  108. PEACEABLE, harmless, inoffensive, 1
    Tim. 2:2; Jam. 3:17: quiet, Isa. 32:
  109. PEACEABLY, in a friendly manner, Gen.
    37:4: without contention, Judg. 11:
  110. PEACEMAKER, one who reconciles per-
    sons alienated by differences, as between
    friends or neighbours, Matt. 5:9.
  111. PEACOCK, a large fowl, eminent for
    the beauty of its feathers: it is a native
    of India, and it formed an article of com-
    merce in the days of Solomon, 1 Kings
  112. PEARL, a beautiful gem generated in
    a species of oyster, found especially in
    the Indian seas, on the coast of Scotland,
    and the gulf of Mexico.   The finest
    pearls are found near Baharen, in Arabia
    Felix, in the Persian gulf: they are
    roundish, with a rich polished gloss, white
    with an elegant blush of red: some are
    of great value.   A sceptre in the British
    regalia is tipped with a pearl that was
    once pawned to Holland for L18,000:
    Philip II. of Spain had one valued at
    144,000 ducats, or L34,900.   Cleopatra,
    queen of Egypt, had one estimated at
    L80,000; and the Persian emperor is
    said to possess a pearl worth L100,000.

    Job 28:18; Matt. 13:45, 46; Rev.
    21:21.   To "cast pearls before swine,"
    is to offer the precious doctrines and pro-
    mises of the
    gospel to profane scoffers at
    religion, Matt. 7:6.   Divine truth in
    the gospel is the pearl of great price,
    13:46; and the gates of the celestial
    city are represented as formed of inesti-
    mable pearls, Rev. 21:21.
  113. PECULIAR, special, Exod. 19:5: spe-
    cially devoted, Tit. 2:14; 1 Pet. 2:9.
  114. PED'AHZUR, [h] (saviour, or stone of
    ), a prince of Manasseh, Num.
    1:10; 2:20; 7:54.
  115. PED'AHEL, [h] (redemption of God), a
    prince of Naphtali, and commissioner
    for dividing Canaan, Num. 32:28.
  116. PADAI'AH, [h] (redemption of the Lord),
    the maternal grandfather of king Jehoi-
    akim, 2 Kings 23:36.
  117. PEDAIAH, a son of king Jeconiah, 1
    Chron. 3:18, 19.
  118. PEDIGREE, genealogy, family descent,
    Num. 1:18.
  119. PEELED, stripped of property or cloth-
    ing, as a tree of its bark, Isa. 18:2;
    Ezek. 29:18.
  120. PEEP, to look with affected wisdom, as
    the ancient soothsayers did, Isa. 8:19.
  121. PE'KAH, [h] (he that opens the eye, or that
    is at liberty
    ), a wicked king of Israel: he
    had been Pekahiah's general before he
    slew his royal master, and usurped the
    throne, 2 Kings 15:25-38.
  122. PEKAHI'AH, [h] (the Lord that opens), a
    wicked king of Israel, who was murdered
    after a reign of two years, 2 Kings 15:
    22, 23.
  123. PELAI'AH, (miracle, mystery, or secret
    of the Lord
    ), a principal Levite at the
    return from Babylon, Neh. 8:7; 10:10.
  124. PELATI'AH, [h] (let the Lord deliver),
    a Simeonite captain, 1 Chron. 4:42,
  125. PELATIAH, a prince of Judah, who
    opposed the counsel of Jeremiah, Jer.
    36:14; Ezek. 11:1, 13.
  126. PE'LEG, [h] (division), one of the patri-
    archs, so named as he lived in the time
    of the confusion of languages at
    and the division of the families, Gen. 10:
    25; 11:17-19.
  127. PE'LETHITES, [h] (judges or destroyers),
    royal messengers or guards of David,
    2 Sam. 8:18, as the Cherethites were
    the royal executioners.   See CHERE-
  128. PELICAN, a large aquatic voracious
    bird, measuring nearly six feet from
    its bill to its tail, and from ten to twelve
    in the expanse of its wings: it lives
    upon fish, which it preserves for a time
    in a pouch under its bill, so large as to
    contain from two to three gallons of
    water; the rosy colour of its breast
    feathers occasioned the fable of the peli-
    can feeding its young with its own blood.

    Its solitary life is alluded to by the
    Psalmist, Psal. 102:6; Lev. 11:18.
  129. PEN, an instrument for writing, as
    pointed iron, a reed, or a quill, Job 19:
    24; Isa. 8:1; Judg. 5:14.   Writing
    materials in the early ages were mostly
    hard substances, as stone, or metallic
    plates, which required an "iron pen," or
    rather a graving tool, as represented by
    the prophet, Jer. 17:1: wax tablets
    required a stylus of metal, having one
    end pointed for tracing the letters, and
    the other for smoothing the surface,
    flattened and broad.   The natives of
    Ceylon use a copper stylus several inches
    long, in their writing on the leaves of
    trees.   The reed pen is still used by the
    Arabs, Persians, Syrians, Abyssinians,
    and other orientals.
  130. PENCE, pennies, Luke 7:41; 10:35.
  131. PENI'EL, [h] or PENUEL (vision of
    , or face of God), a place east of Jordan,
    near the brook Jabbok, where Jacob saw
    a vision of God, and prevailed in prayer
    for the Divine blessing, and had his name
    changed to Israel, Gen. 32:22-31.
  132. PENIN'NAH, [h] (pearl or precious stone),
    one of the wives of Elkanah, a woman of
    a vain and haughty spirit, 1 Sam. 1:2-6.
  133. PENKNIFE, a small knife to cut pens,
    Jer. 36:23.
  134. PENNY, a Roman denarius, or Greek
    drachma, a coin worth about seven pence
    halfpenny sterling, Matt. 20:2, 13.
    Three hundred pence would, therefore, be
    L9. 7s. 6d., John 12:2-5.
  135. PENNYWORTH, the value of a penny:
    two hundred pennyworth would be equal
    to L6. 5s., Mark 6:37.
  136. PEN'TECOST, Πεντηκοστη (the fiftieth), a
    Greek name to the national festival of
    the Israelites, called the feast of weeks,
    held the fiftieth day after the second day
    of the passover, in thanksgiving for the
    blessings of harvest, and in grateful com-
    memoration of deliverance from Egyp-
    tian slavery, Lev. 23:15-21; Deut. 16:
    9-12.   At this memorable Jewish festival,
    the apostles of Christ were qualified to
    execute their evangelical commission,
    they being enabled to understand the
    Scriptures, and to
    preach in all languages,
    by the miraculous endowments of the
    gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit, Acts
    2:1; Eph. 4:8-12.   Learned men have
    observed, that it was the anniversary of
    the giving of the law to Israel on Sinai,
    Exod. 19:11.
  137. PENUEL.   See PENIEL.
  138. PENURY, poverty, Prov. 14:23; Luke
  139. PEOPLE, a nation, Gen. 48:19; Exod.
    6:7: the inhabitants of a town or coun-
    try, Gen. 19:4; 41:40: the ignorant
    inhabitants, Luke 23:14: irrational
    creatures of remarkable instinct, Prov.
  140. PE'OR, [h] (hole or opening), a place in
    the country of Moab, where many Israel-
    ites were seduced to idolatry and various
    wickedness, by the atrocious counsel of
    Balaam, Num. 23:28; 25:1, 18.
  141. PERADVENTURE, if, Gen. 18:24-32:
    perhaps, Rom. 5:7.
  142. PERCEIVE, to understand, Deut. 29:
    4: to discover, 2 Sam. 19:6; 1 John 3:16.
  143. PERCEIVED, discovered, Judg. 6:22;
    Acts 4:13; 23:6.
  144. PERCEIVING, observing, Mark 12:28:
    discovering, Acts 14:9.
  145. PERDITION, utter ruin, Rev. 17:8-11:
    everlasting condemnation or damnation,
    2 Pet. 3:7.
  146. PERDITION, SON OF, a title given to
    Judas Iscariot, on account of his awful
    crimes, John 17:12.
  147. PE'RES, [h] (he is divided), the singular
    of the word Pharsin, one of the myste-
    rious words which doomed the wicked
    Belshazzar.   The letter "U" is a prefix,
    answering to the English word "and,"
    Dan. 5:28.   See UPHARSIN.
  148. PERFECT, full and correct, as weights
    or measures, according to the standard,
    Deut. 18:13: pure, as gold without
    alloy, 2 Chron. 4:21: without blemish,
    as an animal for sacrifice, Lev. 22:21:
    complete, as full information, Luke 1:3:
    upright with God and blameless with
    men, as a religious person, Gen. 6:9,
    Job 8:20: mature, as advanced Chris-
    tians, 1 Cor. 2:6; Eph. 4:13: knowledge
    and holiness without defect, as desired
    by Paul, Phil. 3:18: infinite in all ex-
    cellences, as
    God, whom we should
    imitate, Matt. 5:48.
  149. PERFECT, to complete, as in holiness,
    preservation, and salvation in Heaven,
    Psal. 138:8.
  150. PERFECTED, completed, as a building,
    2 Chron. 8:16; 24:13: as the work
    of our
    Saviour's ministry, Luke 13:32:
    as the work of redemption by the sacri-
    fice of Christ
    , Heb. 10:14.
  151. PERFECTING, completing, as perse-
    vering in holiness, 2 Cor. 7:1; Eph. 4:12.
  152. PERFECTION, maturity, as of corn
    grown from seeds, Luke 8:14: or of
    knowledge and holiness in Christians,
    2 Cor. 13:9; Heb. 6:1: absolute com-
    pleteness, Job 11:7: worldly riches and
    pleasures, Psal. 119:96.
  153. PERFECTLY, completely, Matt. 14:36:
    assuredly, 1 Thess. 5:1, 12.
  154. PERFECTNESS, completeness, Col. 3:
  155. PERFORM, to fulfil, as work, or duty,
    Num. 4:23: as a promise, Gen. 26:3;
    Deut. 4:13; Matt. 5:21; Rom. 4:21.
  156. PERFORMANCE, fulfilment, Luke 1:45.
  157. PERFORMED, executed, 1 Sam. 15:11:
    fulfilled, Luke 1:20.
  158. PERFORMING, fulfilling, Num. 15:3.
  159. PERFUME, a preparation of spices,
    compounded to give a strong scent:
    useful in destroying injurious effluvia:
    Moses prescribed two kinds, one for
    anointing oil, Exod. 30:23-32, and the
    other for incense, ver. 34-38.
  160. PERFUMED, scented, Prov. 7:17, es-
    pecially honoured with precious oint-
    ments or spices, Dan. 2:46; Luke 7:
    37-46; John 12:3.
  161. PER'GA, [g] (very earthy), a city of
    Pamphylia on the river Caystrus, near to
    which was a famous temple of Diana,
    Acts 13:14; 14:25.
  162. PER'GAMOS, [g] (height or elevation),
    a city of Asia Minor, famed for a temple
    to Esculapius, as the god of medicine,
    and for a library of 200,000 volumes, col-
    lected by its king, Attalus.   Pergamos is
    chiefly noted for its having one of the
    seven Christian
    churches to whom John
    addressed his epistles, Rev. 1:11; 2:12.
    This city is still a place of note, called
    Bergamo; having about 15,000 inhabit-
    ants, of whom not 2000 are professors of
  163. PERHAPS, possibly, Acts 8:22: it
    may be, 2 Cor. 2:7.
  164. PERIL, great danger, Lam. 5:9; 2 Cor.
  165. PERILOUS, dangerous, 2 Tim. 3:1.
  166. PERISH, to be destroyed, Exod. 21:
    26; 2 Kings 9:8: to die, 1 Sam. 26:
    10: to be
    damned, 1 Cor. 1:18; 2 Cor. 2:15.
  167. PERISHED, destroyed, Num. 16:33:
    become [ruined], 1 Cor. 15:18 [apollumi].
  168. PERISHING, being destroyed, Job 33:
  169. PER'IZZITES, [h] (dwellers in villages),
    a tribe of the ancient
    Canaanites, Gen.
    13:7; 15:20; Judg. 3:5.   Some of this
    people remained till the time of Solomon,
    2 Chron. 8:7.
  170. PERJURED, foresworn, 1 Tim. 1:10.
  171. PERMISSION, liberty granted, 1 Cor.
  172. PERMIT, to allow without a command,
    1 Cor. 16:7; Heb. 5:3.
  173. PERMITTED, allowed, Acts 26:1:
    customary, 1 Cor. 14:34.
  174. PERNICIOUS, destructive, 2 Pet. 2:2.
  175. PERPETUAL, enduring to the end of
    time, Gen. 9:12: during a dispensation,
    Exod. 29:9; 30:8: a period decreed,
    Jer. 25:9-12.
  176. PERPETUALLY, constantly, 1 Kings 9:
  177. PERPLEXED, agitated with conflicting
    anxieties, Est. 3:15; Luke 9:7.
  178. PERPLEXITY, anxiety of mind, Isa.
    22:5; Luke 21:25.
  179. PERSECUTE, to pursue with threaten-
    ing, to distress, Job 19:22; Psal. 32:
    3; Matt. 5:11.
  180. PERSECUTED, did threaten and injure,
    Acts 7:52; Gal. 1:13: did distress, Deut.
    30:7: did provoke, Gal. 4:29.
  181. PERSECUTING, injuring, destroying,
    Phil. 3:6.
  182. PERSECUTION, injury by severities or
    privations, especially on account of reli-
    gion, Acts 8:1; 2 Tim. 2:12.   The
    Acts of the Apostles and Church History
    generally, detail the persecutions endured
    by Christians.
  183. PERSECUTORS, enemies of the godly,
    seeking their injury, Jer. 15:15; Lam.
  184. PERSEVERANCE, constancy in progress,
    Eph. 6:18.
  185. PER'SIA, [h] (that cuts or divides, or a
    ), a large country of Asia, origi-
    nally called
    Elam, from a son of Shem,
    Gen. 10:22; 14:1.   It was bounded on
    the east by the river Indus, on the north
    by Media, on the west by Assyria, and
    on the south by the Persian gulf and
    Arabian sea.   Cyrus, the conqueror of
    Babylon, raised Persia to its highest
    glory, and gave freedom to the Jews,
    2 Chron. 37:20-23.   Persia was con-
    quered by Alexander the Great, Dan.
    8:20, 21; 11:2, and various has been
    its subsequent history: it now is a feeble
    monarchy, whose sovereign is called
    Shah, or Sophi; and the established
    religion is the Moh_mmedan, of a pecu-
    liar sect, differing from that called ortho-
    dox by the Turks.
    • Persian New Testament.   See Ministry.
  186. PERSIANS, the people of Persia, Dan.
  187. PERSIS, a Persian, a zealous matron of
    the Christian church at Rome, Rom. 16:
  188. PERSON, a particular individual, Gen.
    14:21; 1 Sam. 9:2: rank or condition
    of any one, Luke 20:21; Acts 10:34:
    name or authority, 2 Cor. 2:10.
  189. PERSUADE, to influence, 1 Kings 22:
    20-22; Matt. 28:14.
  190. PERSUADED, did persuade, 2 Chron.
    18:2: did exhort, Acts 13:43.
  191. PERSUADED, influenced, Acts 19:2:
    convinced, Luke 16:31; 20:6: assured,
    2 Tim. 1:12.
  192. PERSUADING, exhorting, Acts 19:8;
  193. PERSUASION, opinion, Gal. 5:8.
  194. PERTAIN, to belong, 2 Pet. 1:3; Heb.
  195. PERTAINED, belonged, Num. 31:43.
  196. PERTAINING, relating, Acts 1:3; Heb.
  197. PERVERSE, stubborn, obstinate in
    wrong, Num. 22:32.
  198. PERVERSELY, spitefully, 2 Sam. 19:
  199. PERVERSENESS, obstinate wickedness,
    Ezek. 9:9.
  200. PERVERT, to corrupt, Exod. 23:8;
    Deut. 27:19; Gal. 1:7.
  201. PERVERTED, violated or corrupted, 1
    Sam. 8:3.
  202. PESTILENCE, the plague, a contagious
    disorder, still common in Asia and Africa,
    Exod. 5:3; 9:15; 2 Sam. 24:13-15.
  203. PESTILENT, malignant or destructive,
    Acts 24:5.
  204. PESTLE, an instrument to bruise in a
    mortar, Prov. 27:22.
  205. PE'TER, Πετρος (a stone).   Cephas
    or Peter is the surname given by our
    Saviour to His apostle Simon.   Before
    his call to the ministry he was a fisher-
    man of Bethsaida, John 1:42-44.   Peter
    was a man of peculiar energy of mind;
    and although, as a fisherman, his manners
    were coarse and his language profane, as
    is concluded from his behaviour when
    tempted to deny his Lord, Mark 26:
    74, he became renovated in heart and
    life, and enjoyed the special regard of
    Christ; and his character and labours
    beautifully illustrate the power and holi-
    ness of Christianity, Acts 1:15; 3. 4. 5.
    8. 10. 12.   Rom. Cat.s say that
    Peter was the first bis. of Rome, and
    resided there for twenty-five years, until
    his martyrdom under Nero, about A.D.
    65 or 66.
      Peter was the "apostle of the
    and no evidence is found
    in Scripture that he ever was at Rome,
    much less a Christian pastor in that city,
    and no historical evidence exists of Peter
    being bishop of the Christians at Rome.
  206. PETER, FIRST EPISTLE OF: this epis-
    tle appears to have been written about
    A.D. 64, to the Jewish Christians, who
    had been scattered by persecution, and
    designed for their instruction in the pre-
    cious doctrines of the gospel, consoling
    them with the prospect of a glorious
    immortality, and animating them in the
    practice of every virtue, as the redeemed
    children of God.   See
  207. PETER, SECOND EPISTLE OF: this was
    addressed to the same persons as the
    first epistle, and written about a year
    after it, when Peter was anticipating
    martyrdom: it urges believers to main-
    tain the doctrines of Christ against false
    teachers, and to adorn their holy profes-
    sion, in the prospect of witnessing dis-
    solving nature at the awful manifestation
    of God our Saviour.   See
  208. PE'THOR, [h] (a divine oracle), the
    residence of the false prophet Balaam,
    near the river Euphrates, Num. 22:5;
    Deut. 23:4.
  209. PETITION, a prayer, 1 Sam. 1:17-27;
    1 John 5:15: a request, 1 Kings 2:16-20.
  210. PHAL'LU, [h] (admirable or hidden), a
    son of Reuben, and head of a family in
    Israel, Gen. 46:9; Num. 26:5.
  211. PHAL'TI, [h] (deliverance or flight), a
    courtier to whom king Saul had married
    his daughter Michal, after he had taken
    her from David, her husband, 1 Sam. 25:
    44; 2 Sam. 3:15.
  212. PHA'NUEL, [g] (face or vision of
    ), the father of the pious widow and
    prophetess Anna, Luke 2:36.
  213. PHA'RAOH, [h] (the revenger, the de-
    , the king, or the crocodile), in the
    Syriac, a common name of the kings of
    Egypt; but originally an Egyptian word
    for king, as king Hophra, Jer. 44:30:
    several of this name are mentioned in
    Scripture, as--
    1. PHARAOH who reigned when
    went down into Egypt
    , Gen. 12:
    10, 20.
    2. PHARAOH who honoured Joseph as
    the preserver and father of Egypt
    , Gen.
    39:1; 48:1.
    3. PHARAOH, probably Ramses, who
    oppressed the Israelites at the birth of
    , Exod. 1. 2.
    4. PHARAOH, probably Amenophis, who,
    after being compelled to allow the Israel-
    to leave Egypt, perished in the Red
    , Exod. 3. 15.: it is almost certain
    that this was another Pharaoh, as his
    death happened when Moses was eighty
    years of age
    , Acts 7:23; Deut. 34:7.
    5. PHARAOH, who protected Hadad
    the Edomite, in the early part of the
    reign of David
    , 1 Kings 11:19-21; 2 Sam.
    6. PHARAOH, probably Vaphres, [or]
    Osochos, who gave his daughter in mar-
    riage to king Solomon
    , 1 Kings 3:1; 9:
    7. PHARAOH SHISHAK, who besieged
    Jerusalem, and pillaged the temple of
    Solomon, in the fifth year of Rehoboam
    1 Kings 11:40; 14:25; 2 Chron. 12:
    2, 9.
    8. PHARAOH SO, who was in alliance
    with Hoshea, king of Israel
    , 2 Kings
    9. PHARAOH TIRHAKAH, who was in
    alliance with king Hezekiah
    , 2 Kings
    18:21; Isa. 37:9.
    10. PHARAOH NECHO, who slew king
    , 2 Kings 23:29-35; 2 Chron.
    11. PHARAOH
    HOPHRA, who entered
    into an alliance with Zedekiah, king of
    Judah, against Nebuchadnezzar
    , Jer.
    44:30; Ezek. 29.; 30.; 31.; 32.
  214. PHA'REZ, [h] (breach or rupture), a son
    of Judah by Tamar, the twin brother of
    Zarah, Gen. 38:29.
  215. PHARISEES, a denomination which
    formed one of the two principal sects in
    religion, into which the
    Jews were divided
    in the time of our Saviour, Acts 23:
    5-9: they were the chief body of the
    Jewish professors for more than a century
    before the birth of Christ: they derived
    their name from [h] perushim, or sepa-
    rated from others; and were remarkably
    precise in their observance of ceremo-
    nies, especially those prescribed by the
    elders in their traditions, generally re-
    garding their precepts more than the Di-
    vine institutions in the Scriptures.   They
    were proud, therefore, of their religious
    attainments, supposing that they merited
    the favour of God, haughtily despising
    the common people, as ignorant and ac-
    cursed.   They deluded the people by their
    pretences to sanctity and their corrupt
    interpretation of the Scriptures: hence
    our Lord manifested remarkable severity
    in his denunciation against the Pharisees,
    as full of hypocrisy and awfully guilty,
    less likely than the publicans and harlots
    to enter the kingdom of God, Matt. 15:
    1-14; 23:2; John 7:45-49.
  216. PHAR'PAR, [h] (that produces fruit, or
    the fall of a bull), a river of Damascus,
    2 Kings 5:12.   See ABANA.
  217. PHE'BE, Φοιβη (shining, or pure), an
    opulent matron at
    Cenchrea, Rom. 16:
    1, 2.   Some regard her as a "deaconess,"
    appointed to attend to strangers and the
    church's poor.   "And such," Dr. Gill
    remarks, "was this woman to the poor
    saints at Cenchrea, not as being in such
    office by the order and appointment of
    the church, but what she took upon her-
    self, and performed at her own expense,
    which deserved much notice, as worthy
    of commendation.   The apostle partook
    of her succour, which would hardly have
    been the case had she been one that had
    only the care of the poor sisters of the
    church, which was the office of a dea-
    coness, but she being a rich and generous
    woman, and the apostle having shared in
    her bounty, gratefully acknowledged it,
    as knowing it would endear her to the
    saints at Rome."
      Phebe appears to have
    taken a journey to that metropolis of
    the world on business, and to have been
    intrusted with the "Epistle of the
    an honour far greater than

    that of any ambassador, carrying the
    most important document to the noblest
    city, from the most distinguished of the
    Roman Cæsars.
  218. PHENI'CE, [g] (red or purple), a har-
    bour on the south-west of Crete, Acts
    11:20; 21:2.
  219. PHENI'CIA, [g], the territories of
    Tyre and Sidon, a country on the eastern
    shore of the Mediterranean sea, on the
    north-west of Canaan, and south of Syria.
    Tyre, Sidon, and Ptolemais, were its
    principal cities, and the Phenicians are
    celebrated for navigation and commerce,
    Acts 15:3.   A woman of this country is
    called a Syro-phenician, as it had become
    in her time a Roman colony of Syria,
    Mark 7:24-26.   See SYRO-PHENICIAN
    and TYRE.
  220. PHILADEL'PHIA, Φιλαδελφια (love of a
    ), a city of Lydia, chiefly famous
    as the site of one of the "seven churches
    in Asia"
    Minor, addressed by the apostle
    John, Rev. 1:11; 3:25.   Philadelphia
    still exists, called by the Turks All_h-
    shehr, or the city of God: it has about
    3000 houses, of which about 250 are occu-
    pied by Greeks, who have five churches,
    bearing the name of Christian, besides
    twenty old or small ones, which are not
    used: it is the seat of a Greek arch-
    bishop, with about twenty inferior clergy.
  221. PHI'CHOL, [h] (the mouth of all), the
    chief general of king Abimelech, Gen.
    21:22; 26:26.
  222. PHILE'MON, Φιλημων (that kisses, or is
    ), a citizen of note at Colosse,
    and an [important] Christian, at whose house
    the church assembled for worship, Phil.
    2.   Philemon held office in the church
    as a deacon or bishop, with Archippus
    and Epaphras, Col. 1:7; 4:17; Phil. 1, 2.
    was addressed by
    Paul to Philemon, on
    the return of Onesimus his slave, who
    had absconded from him, and by the
    apostle's ministry had been converted at
    Rome: it has always been admired as a
    fine specimen of Christian letter-writing.
    See Commentary.
  224. PHILE'TUS, Φιλητος (amiable or beloved),
    a professor of Christianity of some note,
    probably a teacher, who had corrupted
    the doctrine of the resurrection, 2 Tim.
  225. PHIL'IP, Φιλιππος (a lover of a horse), an
    apostle of Christ, John 1:43-45: although
    there is but little recorded of Philip, he
    appears to have been a man of great
    piety and modesty, Matt. 10:3; John 12:
    21, 22; 14:9.
  226. PHILIP, one of the seven Grecian
    deacons in the church at Jerusalem, Acts
    6:5: he became an [important] preacher of
    the gospel after the persecution about
    Stephen, 8:1, 5, 13, 26; and hence he
    was known as "the Evangelist," residing
    chiefly at Cesarea, ver. 40, 21:8.
  227. PHILIP, a son of Herod the Great, by
    his wife Cleopatra.   On the death of his
    father he became tetrarch of Iturea and
    Trachonitis, Luke 3:1.   He married
    Salome, the daughter of Herodias, who
    procured the murder of John, Matt. 14:
    1, 12.
  228. PHILIP, or HEROD, as he is called by
    Josephus, was also son of Herod the
    Great by his wife Mariamne, and the
    husband of Herodias: but living in retire-
    ment, he was abandoned by his wicked
    wife, she being ambitious of the crown
    and the palace of Herod Antipas, Matt.
    14:3, 4.
  229. PHILIP'PI, Φιλιπποι, a city of Macedo-
    nia, and a Roman colony: its original
    name was Dathos, but changed after
    being enlarged by Philip, father of Alex-
    ander the Great: it was seventy miles
    from Thessalonica, and famous for the
    defeat of the Roman generals Brutus
    and Cassius, when struggling for liberty
    against Octavius and Antony, but still
    more so for its Christian
    church, the
    fruit of the ministry of the apostle Paul,
    Acts 16:12, 40.
    epistle was written by
    Paul in return
    for the contribution of the church at
    Philippi, sent to him while a prisoner at
    Rome: it was designed to establish the
    saints in their belief of the sublime and
    saving doctrines of Christ, to guard them
    against the error of false teachers, and
    to encourage them in all holiness of life.
    See Commentary.
  231. PHILIS'TIA, [h] or PALESTINE, the
    southern part of
    Canaan along the east
    coast of the Mediterranean, from Joppa
    to the border of Egypt: their principal
    cities were Ashdod, Gaza, Askelon, Gath,
    and Ekron, Psal. 60:8; 87:4; 108:
    9; 1 Sam. 6:17.   See PALESTINE.
    • Philistia, the Land of Israel.
  232. PHILIS'TINES, [h] (dwellers in villa-
    ), a famous people of Canaan, descended
    from Mizraim, by his son Casluhim,
    after they had colonized Egypt, Gen. 10:
    13, 14: they were a powerful people in
    the time of Abraham, Gen. 21:34; and
    under five lords of their chief cities,
    Josh. 13:2, 3, they maintained their
    position to the time of Saul and David,
    1 Sam. 4. 5. 6. 19.; 2 Sam. 5:17-25, and
    continued a distinct people until the time
    of Alexander the Great.
  233. PHILOSOPHERS, lovers of wisdom: this
    is the proper meaning of the word, but
    it is applied by
    Luke to certain men who
    made such a profession at Athens, who
    yet opposed the apostle Paul in preaching
    the doctrines of Christianity.   There
    were various sects of philosophers among
    the Greeks, some of whom are mentioned
    in the New Testament as Epicureans and
    Stoics, Acts 17:18.
  234. PHILOSOPHY, the love of wisdom.
    Paul admonishes the Colossian Christians,
    "Beware lest any man spoil you through
    Col. 2:8: but he meant that
    of the popular philosophers of Greece,
    who inculcated the most absurd, contra-
    dictory, and pernicious doctrines under
    this ven. name.  
    Pagan philosophy,
    as taught by those proud professors of
    wisdom, is affectingly illustrated by the
    apostle in his Epistles to the Romans
    and the Corinthians, Rom. 1:18-25; 1 Cor.
    1:18-25.   Philosophy, in reality, embraces
    every science which can enrich and
    ennoble the human mind: that branch
    which relates to God is called Theology;
    that which regards the external world is
    called Physics, or Natural Philosophy;
    that which contemplates men, regards,
    either the mind, and is called Mental or
    Intellectual Philosophy, including Logic;
    and that which relates to manners or
    human duty, Moral Philosophy.
  235. PHILOL'OGUS, Φιλολογος (a lover of the
    or of learning), a Christian in the
    Roman church, Rom. 16:15.
  236. PHIN'EHAS, [h] (a bold countenance, or
    face of protection), a son of Eleazar the
    son of
    Aaron, Exod. 6:25: he was an
    upright man and zealous for God, and
    succeeded his father, as the third high-
    priest of Israel, Num. 25:11; Judg. 20:
  237. PHINEHAS, one of the wicked sons of
    Eli, the high-priest, 1 Sam. 1:3; 2:34.
  238. PHLE'GON, Φλεγων (zealous or burning),
    a Christian at Rome, Rom. 16:14.
  239. PHRYG'IA, Φρυγια (dry or barren), the
    largest province, and in the centre, of
    Asia Minor, having Bythinia and Gala-
    tia on the north, Cappadocia on the east,
    Lysia, Pisidia, and Isauria, on the south,
    and Mysia, Lydia, and Caria, on the west.
    Colosse, Hierapolis, and Laodicea, were
    its chief cities, Acts 16:6; 18:23.
  240. PHU'RAH, [h] (that bears fruit), the ser-
    vant of Gideon, Judg. 7:10, 11.
  241. PHUT, [h] (prayer, or big, or fat), the
    third son of Ham, Gen. 10:6.
  242. PHY'GELLUS, [g] (fugitive), a pro-
    fessed convert to Christianity, who for-
    sook the apostle Paul, 2 Tim. 1:15.
  243. PHYLACTERIES, things to be observed:
    they were texts of Scriptures written on
    slips of parchment, to be worn on the
    hem of the garment, on the forehead, or
    on the arm: those for the latter were
    rolled up in a case or box: the custom
    was founded on the language of Moses,
    Exod. 13:9, 16; Num. 15:37, 40; which
    enjoins an intimate practical acquaint-
    ance with the law of God.   The texts
    commonly used were, Exod. 13:8, 9, 14,
    16; Num. 15:41; Deut. 6:6, 9; 11:18,
    21.   Our Lord censures the hypocritical
    Pharisees for their vain glory in their
    phylacteries, Matt. 23:5.   See FRONT-
  244. PHYSICIAN, one who professes the art
    of healing, Matt. 9:12; Mark 5:26: an
    embalmer of dead bodies, Gen. 50:2: a
    teacher of divine doctrine to heal the
    mind, Job 13:40.  
    Christ is the great
    Physician of body and soul
    , Mark 2:17.
  245. PICK, to peck or eat slowly, Prov. 30:
  246. PICTURES, paintings, Isa. 2:16: those
    of the Canaanites were to be destroyed,
    being used to support idolatry, Num.
  247. PIECE, a part, Gen. 15:10-17: a piece
    of silver was a shekel, Matt. 17:27: a
    piece of bread denotes a trifling advan-
    tage, Gen. 37:28; 1 Sam. 2:36.
  248. PIERCE, to bore through, Judg. 5:26:
    to pain extremely, Luke 2:35; 1 Tim. 6:
  249. PIERCED, did pierce, John 19:34:
    pained with guilt and care, 1 Tim. 6:10.
  250. PIERCING, stinging or biting, Isa.
    27:1: penetrating, Heb. 4:12.
  251. PIETY, filial duty in the fear of God,
    1 Tim. 5:4.
  252. PIGEON, a name for birds of the
    Columbidæ, or dove family, of which
    there are many species: the turtle-dove
    is especially remarkable in every country,
    Gen. 15:9; Lev. 1:14; 5:7.
  253. PI-HAHI'ROTH, [h] (the mouth of
    , or the pass of Hiroth), the place at
    which the Israelites encamped to march
    across the
    Red sea, Exod. 14:2; Num.
  254. PI'LATE, [g] (who is armed with a
    ), the Roman governor of Judea,
    who basely ordered the
    crucifixion of
    Christ, to satisfy the malignity of the
    Jews, Luke 3:1; John 19:8-19; Acts
    3:13.   Pilate had been governor of
    Judea about four years: he is not again
    mentioned in the Scriptures, but history
    records his terminating his own life in
    , after a series of wickedness and
    miseries, which indicate the retribution
    of God.
  255. PILE, a heap, Isa. 30:33.
  256. PILGRIMAGE, a religious journey; the
    course of our present life in the service
    of God:
    Jacob spake thus of his own
    life and of his fathers', Gen. 47:9:
    such was that of the patriarchs, Exod.
  257. PILGRIMS, travellers to a sacred place;
    as the pious patriarchs confessed them-
    selves in seeking the heavenly country
    graciously promised of God, Heb. 11:13.
  258. PILLAR, a prop to support the roof of
    a house, Judg. 16:25, 29: a monumental
    memorial, Gen. 35:20; 2 Sam. 18:
    18: an influential person in a society, as
    a prophet, Jer. 1:18: an
    apostle, Gal. 2:
    9: the [N.T.] church, in holding forth the ex-
    clusive authority of the Scriptures
    , 1 Tim.
  259. PILLAR OF SALT: Lot's wife became
    a pillar of salt, at the overthrow of
    Sodom, when God "rained... brimstone
    and fire...out of heaven[,]"
    Gen. 19:[24-25], 26.
    It appears that she, looking back upon
    the devoted city with a lingering desire
    to return, was struck dead with the
    lightning, and stiffened in the place
    where she stood.   See SALT.
  260. PILLED, peeled or stripped, as bark
    from a tree, Gen. 30:37.
  261. PILLOW, a cushion on which to rest
    the head for sleeping, Mark 4:38; 1
    Sam. 19:13: an instrument of deceitful
    repose, Ezek. 13:18-30.
  262. PILOT, the director of a ship's course[,]
    Ezek. 27:8.
  263. PIN, a small wire peg used in dressing,
    or in fastening curtains, Judg. 16:14;
    Exod. 27:19.
  264. PINE, to waste, as by want, sorrow, or
    sickness, Lev. 26:39; Lam. 4:9.
  265. PINE, the pine-tree, Neh. 8:15.
  266. PINE-TREE, a species of the fir, lofty
    and beautiful in appearance, Isa. 41: 19;
  267. PINING, wasting or consuming, Isa.
  268. PINNACLE, a turret or decorated point
    on the top of a building: the pinnacle
    of the temple was the exceedingly lofty
    embattled roof of Solomon's porch, Matt.
  269. PI'NON, [h] (pearl or gem), an Arab
    chief, descended from Esau, Gen. 36:
  270. PIPE, a tube for the conveyance of
    water or oil, Zech. 4:2, 12: a musical
    instrument formed from a tube, 1 Cor.
    14:7; 1 Kings 1:40.
  271. PIPED, did pipe or play music with
    pipes, 1 Kings 1:10.
  272. PIPER, a musician using a pipe, as the
    instrument of his music, Rev. 18:22.
  273. PI'RAM, [h] (wild asses, or fierceness),
    a king of Jarmuth overcome by Joshua,
    Josh. 10:3, 24, 26.
  274. PIS'GAH, [h] (eminence or fortress), the
    highest point of mount Nebo, from which
    Balaam beheld Israel, Num. 23:14,
    Moses viewed the land of Canaan,
    Deut. 3:27; 34:1.
  275. PISI'DIA, [g] (pitch or pitchy), a
    province of Asia Minor, having Phrygia
    on the east and north, Lydia and Caria
    on the west, and Pamphylia on the
    south; its chief city was
    Antioch, Acts
    13:14: it is now called Natolia.
  276. PI'SON, [h] (extension of the mouth), one
    of the four rivers of Eden: some regard
    it as a branch of the existing Euphrates,
    which bounds
    Havilah in Arabia, Gen.
    2:11, 12.
  277. PIT, a hole in the ground, Exod. 21:
    31: the grave, Psal. 28:1: distress,
    42:2: Hell, Rev. 20:1.
  278. PITCH, bitumen, a combustible mine-
    ral tar, Gen. 6:16: in its liquid state it
    is called naphtha, when viscid, petroleum,
    and when hard, asphaltam.   The Greeks
    call it asphaltos; hence the name of
    Asphaltites given to the sea of Sodom,
    on account of abundance of it floating
    on its surface: pits of it were found
    near to Sodom and in Shinar; but the
    word is rendered slime, Gen. 11:3; 14:
    10.   This production was used by the
    builders of Babel, and large masses have
    been found in the ruins of Babylon: it
    is now used in boat-building and in
    careening ships by the Arabs.
  279. PITCH, to plaster or cover with slime
    or pitch, Gen. 6:14; Exod. 2:3: to fix or
    fasten, as a tent, Isa. 13:20: to settle,
    as in a camp, Num. 1:52.
  280. PITCHED, did fix, as a tent, Gen. 12:
    8; or a camp, Exod. 17:1.
  281. PITCHER, an earthen vessel for water,
    Gen. 24:15, 45: the vena cava supe-
    rior, one of the two great veins, which
    bring back the blood into the auricle of
    the heart, Eccles. 12:6.
  282. PI'THOM, [h] (their mouth, or dilation
    of the mouth
    ), a store city of Egypt, built
    by the captive Israelites, Exod. 1:11.
  283. PI'THON, [h] (his mouth), a descendant
    of king Saul, 1 Chron. 8:35.
  284. PITIED, compassionated, Psal. 106:46.
  285. PITIFUL, compassionate, disposed to
    show mercy, Lam. 4:10.
  286. PITY, tender sympathy with those in
    distress, Deut. 7:16; Job 19:21.
  287. PITY, to compassionate those in dis-
    tress, Prov. 28:8.
  288. PLACE, a spot of ground, Gen. 13:14;
    Deut. 11:24: a habitation, Gen. 30:25:
    a city or country, 18:24-26: situation
    or office, 2 Chron. 30:16: opportunity
    or advantage, Eph. 4:27: room or stead,
    Gen. 50:19: entertainment, John 8:37:
    a text, Acts 8:32.
  289. PLACE, to appoint, Exod. 18:21: to
    reveal, Isa. 46:13: to establish, Ezek.
  290. PLAGUE, a pestilence, Num. 16:46-49:
    a mortal disease, as the leprosy, Lev. 13:
    3, 44.
  291. PLAGUE, to distress or afflict, Psal.
  292. PLAGUED, did plague or distress, Gen.
    12:17; Josh. 24:35.
  293. PLAIN, smooth or level, Isa. 40:4:
    sincere or unostentatious, Gen. 25:27:
    evident, Psal. 27:11: distinctly, Mark
  294. PLAIN, a flat open country, Gen. 11:2:
    plains are extensive tracts of meadow
    land, sometimes near to rivers, especially
    those on the banks of the Jordan, Gen.
    13:10; Num. 22:1; 2 Kings 25:4.
  295. PLAINLY, legibly, Deut. 27:8: ex-
    plicitly, Exod. 21:5: evidently, Heb.
  296. PLAINNESS, fulness of meaning, 2 Cor.
  297. PLAISTER, a plaster, Isa. 38:21:
    cement on a wall, Dan. 5:5.
  298. PLAISTER, to cover, as walls with
    cement, Lev. 14:42.
  299. PLAISTERED, covered with plaster,
    Lev. 14:43.
  300. PLAITING, braiding, 1 Pet. 3:3.
  301. PLANES, carpenters' instruments for
    smoothing articles of wood-work, Isa.
  302. PLANETS, wandering stars, 2 Kings
    23:5.   See STARS.
  303. PLANKS, thick boards, 1 Kings 6:15;
    Ezek. 41:25.
  304. PLANT, a herb or tree, Gen. 2:5: a
    sapling, Job 14:9: a form of religion,
    Matt. 15:13.
  305. PLANT, to set trees or herbs, Deut.
    16:21: to locate, settle, or establish a
    people, as Israel in Canaan, Exod. 15:
    17; Psal. 44:2: to establish in a reli-
    gious society, 2 Sam. 7:10: to establish
    gospel privileges among a people, 1 Cor.
    3:7, 8.
  306. PLANTATION, land cultivated and
    planted with trees, Ezek. 17:7.
  307. PLANTED, did set in the ground, as
    trees for a garden, Gen. 2:8, or vineyard,
    Matt. 21:33.
  308. PLANTED, set, as a tree in a garden,
    Luke 13:6: established in religious
    society, Rom. 6:5; Psal. 92:13.
  309. PLANTING, fixing or establishing, as
    in religious society, Isa. 60:21; 61:3.
  310. PLAT, a piece of land, as a field, 2
    Kings 9:20.
  311. PLATE, a piece of beaten metal, as
    gold or silver, Exod. 28:36; Jer. 10:9.
  312. PLATTED, weaved or braided, Matt.
  313. PLATTER, a large earthen dish or
    wooden trencher, Matt. 23:25.
  314. PLAY, to sport or frolic, Exod. 32:
    6: to act, 1 Sam. 21:15: to perform, as
    on music, 1 Sam. 16:16, 17.
  315. PLAYED, acted, 1 Sam. 26:21: per-
    formed, as music, 2 Sam. 6:5.
  316. PLAYER, one who plays, as on a musi-
    cal instrument, 1 Sam. 16:16.
  317. PLAYING, sporting, Zech. 8:5: per-
    forming music, 1 Sam. 16:18.
  318. PLEA, argument, or a cause in judg-
    ment, Deut. 17:8.
  319. PLEAD, to argue, Judg. 6:31, 32: to
    reason, Isa. 43:26: to punish, Ezek.
  320. PLEADED, did plead or defend, 1 Sam.
  321. PLEADING, reasoning, Job 13:6.
  322. PLEASANT, agreeable, Gen. 2:9: beau-
    tiful, 2 Kings 2:19: delightful, Psal.
  323. PLEASANTNESS, what is delightful and
    satisfying, Prov. 3:17.
  324. PLEASE, to delight or to be agreeable,
    according to the disposition of men: as,
    to delight the benevolent, Gen. 45:16:
    to satisfy the wise, Josh. 22:30: to
    flatter the vain, Gal. 1:10: to gratify the
    malignant, Acts 12:3.   Christ, by His per-
    fect obedience as our Mediator, pleased
    the Father
    , John 8:29.   Enoch, by
    faith and uprightness in his service
    pleased God, Heb. 11:5: liberality in his
    people is well pleasing to God, 13:16.
  325. PLEASED, did please or delight, Matt.
    14:6; Acts 6:6: did flatter, Gal. 1:10.
  326. PLEASED, delighted, 1 Sam. 18:20,
  327. PLEASERS, those who court favour,
    Eph. 6:6.
  328. PLEASING, agreeable, Est. 8:5: ac-
    ceptable or approved, 1 John 3:22.
  329. PLEASURE, holy delight, Psal. 111:2:
    worldly gratification, Eccles. 2:1: animal
    [carnal] indulgence, 1 Tim. 5:6: authoritative
    desire, Ezra 5:17: settled purpose, as
    the decree of God, Isa. 46:10: free
    choice, Est. 1:8.   The pleasure of the
    LORD prospering "in the hand of Mes-
    is the salvation of sinners, the
    fruit of his redemption, Isa. 53:10.
  330. PLEASURES, the holy and blissful satis-
    factions of heaven, Psal. 16:11; 36:
    8: sensual gratifications, 2 Tim. 3:4;
    Tit. 3:3.
  331. PLEDGE, a pawn, something taken as
    security, Exod. 22:26; Job 34:3-9.
  332. PLEIADES, a brilliant cluster of seven
    stars appearing in the constellation Taurus,
    Job 38:31; Amos 5:8: their "sweet
    indicate their appearance at
    the opening season of spring in April.
  333. PLENTEOUS, abundant, as harvest,
    Gen. 41:34, 47.   God is plenteous in
    mercy, in regard to the magnitude of
    guilt, and the number of objects par-
    , Psal. 103:8.
  334. PLENTEOUSNESS, abundance, Gen. 41:
  335. PLENTIFULLY, abundantly, Luke 12:
  336. PLENTY, abundance or fruitfulness,
    Gen. 41:29-31.
  337. PLOT, a mischievous device, Psal.
  338. PLOUGH, an instrument to cut the
    ground in preparing it for the seed,
    Luke 9:62.   To "look back" from the
    plough would be injurious; so looking
    back from any undertaking indicates
    dislike or indecision; hence the pro-
    verbial expression of our Lord relating
    to half-hearted disciples being unfit for
    the kingdom of God.
  339. PLOW, to break up land with a plough,
    Deut. 22:10: to plot or contrive, Job
  340. PLOWED, laboured or practised, Judg.
    14:18; Hos. 10:13: tormented, Psal.
  341. PLOWING, labouring in the field with
    the plough, 1 Kings 19:19.
  342. PLOWMAN, the labourer who works at
    the plough, Isa. 28:24.
  343. PLOWSHARE, the iron cutting part of
    the plough, Isa. 2:4.
  344. PLUCK, to tear or pull with force, Lev.
    1:16: to demolish, Jer. 12:14.
  345. PLUCKED, did pluck or tear, Ezra 9:
    3; 2 Sam. 23:21.
  346. PLUCKED, torn, Gen. 8:11; Dan. 7:
  347. PLUMB-LINE, a builder's line with a
    weight upon it, used as a rule to try
    the exactness of his work, Amos 7:7.
  348. PLUMMET, the weight at the end of
    a line for discovering depths, or the
    perpendicularity of walls and pillars, 2
    Kings 21:13; Zech. 4:10.
  349. PLUNGE, to submerse or put suddenly
    into water, Job 9:31.

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