Bible Dictionary: O.   1840

  1. OAK, the noblest of plants, and hence
    called "king of the forest," Gen. 35:
    4-8; Amos 2:9.   It was so celebrated for
    its age and strength, that the tree under
    which Abraham entertained the angels
    was believed to be an oak which, as
    Josephus says, existed in his time near
    the city of Hebron, Gen. 18:4-8.   Idol-
    atry in Canaan was practised under the
    oak, Ezek. 6:13; as it was in Europe,
    by the ancient Druids.   That tree, how-
    ever, which is frequently called oak in
    the Scriptures, is thought to have been
    the terebinth, or turpentine-tree, which
    is as large as a small oak, and which
    abounds in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Pa-
    lestine
    , Isa. 6:13.
  2. OAR, an instrument of sailing in a boat,
    Ezek. 27:6, 29.
  3. OATH, a solemn declaration, with an
    appeal for its truth to the omniscience
    of
    Almighty God, Gen. 24:3-8.   Oaths
    may be taken with pious solemnity, as
    God has condescended to give us an
    example, binding himself by an oath to
    perform his gracious promises, thereby
    to engage our joyful confidence in his
    providence and grace, Heb. 6:16, 17:
    but no kind of oath should be sworn in
    a profane manner, or on a trivial occa-
    sion, Matt. 5:33-37; Jam. 5:12.
  4. OBADI'AH, [h] (labourer of the Lord),
    a pious nobleman in the court of Ahab,
    the wicked king of Israel: his character
    is evident from his protection of the
    prophets, and his interview with Elijah,
    1 Kings 18:1-16.
  5. OBADIAH, the prophet, flourished dur-
    ing the latter part of the ministry of
    Jeremiah, after the first siege of Jeru-
    salem, and before its destruction by Ne-
    buchadnezzar, 2 Kings 24.
  6. OBADIAH, THE BOOK OF: this short
    prophecy foretels chiefly the Divine
    judgments upon the wicked
    Edomites,
    and the blessings of evangelical prosper-
    ity among the godly.   See Commentary.
  7. OBADIAH, a valiant man in the army
    of David, 1 Chron. 12:9.
  8. OBADIAH, a prince and teacher of Judah,
    2 Chron. 17:7.
  9. OBADIAH, a nobleman of Judah after
    the return from Babylon, Neh. 10:5.
  10. O'BAL, [h] (trouble of old age), a son of
    Joktan, who peopled part of Arabia,
    Gen. 10:28.
  11. O'BED, [h] (a servant), the son of Ruth
    by Boaz, father of Jesse, and grandfather
    of David, Ruth 4:17.
  12. OBED-EDOM, [h] (labourer of Edom),
    a distinguished Levite, noted for having
    the ark of the Lord under his care, 2 Sam.
    6:10-12; 1 Chron. 15:18-25.
  13. OBEDIENCE, dutiful submission, 2 Cor.
    10:5, 6.  
    Christ, by His obedience, wrought
    righteousness for the justification of all
    believers
    , [Rom]. 5:19: believers are sanc-
    tified to yield holy obedience, and thus
    to glorify God, 1 Pet. 1:2.
  14. OBEDIENT, dutiful, Exod. 24:7; Rom.
    15:18.
  15. OBEISANCE, an act of civil reverence,
    as bowing the head, Gen. 37:7-9;
    Exod. 18:7.
  16. OBEY, to perform duty, Gen. 27:8;
    Exod. 5:2: to serve, Jam. 3:3.
  17. OBEYED, did obey, Gen. 22:18; Heb.
    11:8.
  18. OBEYING, performing, Judg. 2:17:
    practising, 1 Pet. 1:22.
  19. O'BIL, [h] (that weeps or is bewailed),
    an Ishmaelite, master of the camels of
    king David, 1 Chron. 27:30.
  20. OBJECT, to oppose, Acts 24:19.
  21. OBLATION, an offering, as for sacrifice,
    Lev. 2:4-12.   See OFFERING.
  22. OBSCURE, dark or gloomy, Prov. 20:20.
  23. OBSCURITY, darkness, Isa. 58:10:
    calamity, 59:9.
  24. OBSERVATION, worldly splendour, as
    by this vain minds are chiefly attracted,
    Luke 17:20.
  25. OBSERVE, to watch or regard atten-
    tively, 1 Kings 20:30: to practise, Exod.
    12:17.
  26. OBSERVED, did observe or consider,
    Gen. 37:11; Mark 6:26.
  27. OBSERVER of times, an astrologer, a
    vain pretender to the knowledge of futu-
    rity, Deut. 18:10-14.
  28. OBSTINATE, stubborn in disobedience[,]
    Deut. 2:30; Isa. 48:4.
  29. OBTAIN, to procure, Gen. 16:12: to
    possess, Dan. 11:21: to gain, as a favour,
    Heb. 4:16.
  30. OBTAINED, did obtain or procure, Neh.
    13:6; Heb. 11:2.
  31. OBTAINING, procuring, 2 Thess. 2:14.
  32. OCCASION, cause of complaint, Gen.
    43:18: opportunity, 2 Cor. 5:12.
  33. OCCASIONED, did occasion or cause,
    1 Sam. 22:22.
  34. OCCUPATION, trade or business, Gen.
    46:33; Acts 18:3.
  35. OCCUPIED, used, Exod. 38:24;
    Judg. 16:11.
  36. OCCUPIERS, traders, Ezek. 27:27.
  37. OCCUPY, to use, as in trade or business,
    Ezek. 27:9; Luke 19:13.
  38. OCCURRENT, happening, 1 Kings 5:4.
  39. ODD, additional, as the number 273 of
    the male Levites exceeded the number
    of the firstborn of Israel, Num. 3:39,
    46, 48.
  40. O'DED, [h] (to sustain or to lift up), a
    prophet in Samaria, who interposed
    against the captivity of the vanquished
    Jews, by Pekah, king of Israel, 2 Chron.
    28:9.
  41. ODED, father of the prophet Azariah,
    2 Chron. 15:1.
  42. ODIOUS, abhorred, 1 Chron. 19:6:
    hateful, Prov. 30:23.
  43. ODOUR, scent, as the fragrance of per-
    fume, John 12:3: holy benevolence is
    thus commended, Phil. 4:18.
  44. OFFENCE, crime, Hos. 5:15; such is
    human
    transgression against the law of
    God, Rom. 5:15-20: an occasion of
    offence, as Messiah's appearance in the
    humblest condition without worldly splen-
    dour was to the Jewish rulers, Isa. 8:
    14; Rom. 11:33; as the doctrine of re-
    demption by Christ crucified is to proud
    men, Gal. 5:11.
  45. OFFEND, to commit a fault, Jam. 2:
    10; 3:2: to injure, Matt. 18:6: to
    displease, John 6:61: to occasion error,
    1 Cor. 8:13.
  46. OFFENDED, transgressed, 2 Chron.
    28:13: made angry, Matt. 15:12:
    provoked, Prov. 18:19: surprised to
    cowardice, Matt. 26:31-33: discou-
    raged, John 16:1.
  47. OFFENDER, a transgressor, 1 Kings 1:
    21; Acts 25:11.
  48. OFFER, to present, as a gift, Exod.
    23:18; 29:36: to yield or permit,
    Luke 6:29.
  49. OFFERED, did offer or present, Gen.
    31:54; Ezra 6:17; Heb. 11:4.
  50. OFFERED, presented, Mal. 1:11: dedi-
    cated, 1 Cor. 8:8: sacrificed, Heb. 9:
    28: martyred, 2 Tim. 4:8.
  51. OFFERING, a sacrifice or gift presented
    in Divine worship, Gen. 4:3, 4; or for
    the service of God, Exod. 25:2,3; 30:
    13-15.   Offerings of various kinds were
    required by the law of
    Moses, as consti-
    tuting the chief services of religion; and
    they were highly significant, typical of
    Christ.   The whole tabernacle services
    of Israel must be regarded, the apostle
    declares, as "a figure for the time then
    present, in which were offered both gifts
    and sacrifices, that could not make him
    that did the service perfect, as pertaining
    to the conscience :--imposed on them
    until the time of reformation, when
    Christ, a high-priest of good things to
    come, not by the blood of goats and
    calves, but by his own blood, entered
    once into the holy place, having ob-
    tained eternal redemption for us,"
    Heb.
    9:9-12.   Moses ordained the following
    offerings:--
        1. Burnt-offering: this was a bullock, a
    he lamb, a kid, or a clean fowl, Lev 1:
    2-17: this was the most ancient sacrifice,
    as an atonement for sin, by the Divine
    appointment to our first parents, and
    offered in faith by Abel, Gen. 4:4; Heb.
    11:4.   Of this class was the daily sacri-
    fice for Israel, Exod. 29:38-42, "a
    whole burnt-offering,"
    Psal. 51:19.
        2. Sin-offering: this was a sacrifice of
    an animal as an atonement for sin,
    offered by the high-priest for himself,
    Exod. 29:10-14; for the nation, 30:
    10; Lev. 4:3; 16:9-15; for a ruler, Lev.
    4:22-26; or for a private person, Lev.
    4:27-33.
        3. Trespass-offering: this was a sacrifice
    of a sin-offering, presented by an indi-
    vidual who had committed any trespass,
    or contracted any ceremonial defilement,
    Lev. 5:1-19.
        4. Peace-offering: this was in the nature
    of a thank-offering for mercies received:
    it consisted of some animal, with various
    appendages, similar to those with other
    sacrifices, Lev. 3:1-17; 7:11-21.
        5. Meat-offering: this was a present of
    fine flour, or cakes of unleavened bread
    with oil, or first fruits, or green ears of
    corn dried, Lev. 2:1-16.   Meat-offerings
    accompanied most of the animal sacri-
    fices, Exod. 29:40, 41.
        6. Drink-offering: this was also a pre-
    sent of an appendage to a sacrifice,
    Exod. 29:40, 41; Num. 28:7-31;
    29:6-39.
        7. Heave-offering: this was part of the
    sacrifice, as the shoulder of the victim,
    heaved up towards heaven as a token of
    it being devoted to God, Exod. 29:27;
    or bread, Lev. 7:12-14; or the first
    produce of new corn, Num. 15:19-21;
    or the tithes, 18:19-29; or the captives
    in war, beasts and men, 31:28-41.
        8. Wave-offering: this also was a part
    of the sacrifice, and so called as it was
    waved before the Lord by the priest, in
    acknowledgment of the Divine gifts and
    blessings, especially the first fruits of har-
    vest, Exod. 29:22-27; Lev. 23:10-20.

       Oral instruction from the priests,
    doubtless, accompanied the sacrifices;
    but of this we have not particular in-
    formation, yet the form of acknowledg-
    ment, on presenting the first fruits, is
    given to us by Moses, Deut. 26:5-10.
    Some Hebrew doctors have given the
    following, as the form of confession by
    the priest on the day of atonement :--
    "O, Lord, thy people, the house of Israel,
    have done wickedly; they have trans-
    gressed before thee: I beseech thee now,
    O Lord, pardon the sins, iniquities, and
    transgressions, with which thy people,
    the house of Israel, have sinned, done
    wickedly, and transgressed before thee;
    as it is written in the law of thy servant
    Moses; that in that day he shall make
    an atonement for you, that he might
    cleanse you, and that you might be clean
    from all your transgressions before the
    Lord."
      Dr. Outram gives the following
    form of confession, as being used by a
    Jew at a private sacrifice :--"Now, O
    Lord, I have sinned, I have committed
    iniquity, I have rebelled; but I return
    in repentance to thy presence, and be
    this my expiation."

  52. OFFICE, a place of trust or responsible
    employment, Gen. 41:13; Exod. 28:
    1: service, Exod. 1:16: the place of pub-
    lic service, 2 Chron. 24:11.
  53. OFFICER, a public servant, as of a
    king, Gen. 37:36: as a magistrate,
    Deut. 1:15: a constable, John 7:3;
    Acts 5:22.
  54. OFFSCOURING, the part rubbed away
    in cleaning a floor; such were the apos-
    tles of Christ esteemed by the wicked,
    1 Cor. 4:13; and as such the conquered
    and captive Jews were regarded by their
    enemies, Lam. 3:45.
  55. OFFSPRING, produce of the earth:
    thus children are the offspring of their
    parents, Job 21:7, 8: men are the off-
    spring of God as his creatures, Acts 17:
    22.   Christ calls Himself "the root and
    offspring of David,"
    Rev. 22:15; the
    root, as being
    God, who gave existence
    to the king of Israel, and to all the
    families of the earth; and the offspring,
    as he took on him our nature
    of the
    virgin Mary.
  56. OFT, frequently, 2 Kings 4:8: many
    times, Acts 26:11.
  57. OFTEN, frequently, Mal. 3:16: repeat-
    edly, 2 Cor. 11:26, 27.
  58. OFTENER, more frequently, Acts 24:
    26.
  59. OFTENTIMES, many times, Rom. 1:13.
  60. OG, [h] (rake, or bread baked on the ashes),
    the famous giant king of Bashan con-
    quered by the Israelites, Num. 21:33;
    Deut. 3:1-13.
  61. O'HAD, [h] (that praises), a son of
    Simeon, who went with his father into
    Egypt, Gen. 46:10.
  62. OIL, the juice of olives, Exod. 27:
    20; Deut. 8:8; 28:40.   Oil was a
    great delicacy as an article of food in
    Canaan, Lev. 7:10; Deut. 12:17; 2
    Chron. 2:10: it was used also for lamps,
    Exod. 25:6; and especially for oint-
    ment on festive and joyous occasions,
    Psal. 23:5; 104:15.
  63. OILED, moistened with oil, as a cake of
    pastry, Exod. 29:23.
  64. OIL-TREE, the olive, Isa. 41:19.
  65. OINTMENT, perfumed oil, rendered
    fragrant with various spices, Exod. 30:
    23-32.   Ointment was used from the
    earliest period in the East, as a luxury
    and for health, Deut. 28:40; Luke
    7:38-46.   The olive-tree was regarded
    as an emblem of the Divine benignity;
    and anointing to the prophetic and regal
    offices denoted the necessity of the indi-
    viduals possessing the gifts and grace of
    the Holy Spirit, Psal. 45:7; Isa. 61:1.
    See
    ANOINT and CHRIST.
  66. OLD, advanced in age, Gen. 18:11-
    13: decaying, Heb. 1:9: useless, 8:13:
    pernicious, 1 Cor. 5:7, 8.
  67. OLD MAN, an aged person, Gen. 25:8:
    corrupt affections, Eph. 4:22; Col. 3:9.
  68. OLDNESS, ceremonial antiquity, Rom.
    7:6.
  69. OLD TESTAMENT, the dispensation of
    Divine mercy to mankind, which was
    taught by sacrifices, and established
    among the people of Israel by the Levi-
    tical priesthood; all of which were typi-
    cal of the promised Messiah, and were
    consummated in Christianity, 2 Cor. 3:
    6-14; Heb. 9:15.
  70. OLD TESTAMENT, the title given to
    the volume of the
    inspired writings of
    the prophets, and forming the first part
    of the HOLY BIBLE.
      See the following
    TABLE.

    OLD TESTAMENT BOOKS,

    HISTORICAL, MORAL, AND DEVOTIONAL.

    Names.
    Authors.
    Dates in years B.C.
    Genesis . . . . . . . Moses . . . . . . . . From 4004 to 1635
    Job . . Do. .   2180 or 2130
    Exodus . . Do. . From 1635 to 1490
    Leviticus . . Do. .   1490
    Numbers . . Do. . From 1490 to 1451
    Deuteronomy . . Do. .   1451
    Joshua . . Joshua . . From 1451 to 1425
    Judges . . Samuel . . -- 1425 to 1120
    Ruth . . Do. . -- 1241 to 1231
    1 Samuel} . .
    2 Samuel} . .
    {Samuel, Nathan, . . ..
    {   Gad, and others . . .
    -- 1171 to 1055
    -- 1055 to 1015
    Psalms . . David and others . .. {At various times.--Those by
    {   David from 1060 to 1015
    Solomon's Song . . . .. Solomon . . About 1010
    Proverbs . . Do.. -- 1000
    Ecclesiastes . . . . .. Do. . -- 977
    1 Kings} . . . . . . .
    2 Kings} . . . . . . .
    {Nathan, Gad, . . . ..
    {   Ahijah, Iddo, Isaiah,}
    {   and others . . . . }
    1 Kings from 1015 to 896

    2 Kings from 896 to 562

    1 Chronicles} . . . . .
    2 Chronicles} . . . . .
    Ezra and others . . . .. From 4004 to 562
    Ezra . . Ezra . . -- 536 to 456
    Esther . . Do.. -- 521 to 495
    Nehemiah . . . . . .. Nehemiah . . . . . . . -- 455 to 420

    PROPHETICAL BOOKS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.

    Name.
    Between the years
    B.C.
    Kings of Judah.
    Kings of Israel.
    Jonah . . . 856 and 784 {Joash, Amaziah, . . .
    {   or Azariah . . . ..
    Jehu and Jehoahaz,
     or Joash and Jeroboam II.
    Amos . . .. 810 and 725 Uzziah, 1:1 . . . . . Jeroboam II.
    Hosea . . . 810 and 725 {Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz,}
    {   Hezekiah . . . . .}
    Do.
    Isaiah . .. 810 and 698 {Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz,}
    {   Hezekiah . . . ..}
    {   and Manasseh . . ..
    Zechariah, Shallum, Me-
      nahem, Pekaiah,
      Pekah, and Hosea.
    Joel . . . .
    {810 and 660}
    {   or later .}
    Uzziah or Manasseh . . . Do.
    Micah . . .. 758 and 699 {Jotham, Ahaz, and He-}
    {   zekiah, 1:1 . . .}
    Pekah and Hosea.
    Nahum . . . 720 and 698 {Hezekiah, close of his
    {   reign.
     
    Zephaniah .. 640 and 609 Josiah 1:1.  
    Jeremiah . . 628 and 586 Josiah and Captivity.  
    Lamentations. About 588 Captivity.  
    Habakkuk . . 612 and 598 Jehoiakim.  
    Daniel . . .. 606 and 534 Captivity.  
    Obadiah . . . 588 and 583 {After Nebuchadnezzar's
    {   siege.
     
    Ezekiel . .. 595 and 536 Captivity.  
    Haggai . . 520 and 518 {After the return from
    {   Babylon.
     
    Zechariah .. 520 and 510 Do.  
    Malachi . . . 436 and 397 Do.  

  71. OLIVE, the oil-tree abounding in Ca-
    naan, Deut. 8:8; [28]:40: many spe-
    cies are enumerated, but only the culti-
    vated and the wild olive are mentioned
    in the Scriptures.   The cultivated olive
    is of a moderate height; its trunk is
    knotty, its bark is smooth, of an ash
    colour, with oblong leaves, nearly resem-
    bling those of the willow: in June it
    bears white bunches of flowers, which
    are succeeded by the fruit, oblong in
    form and plump, first green, then pale,
    and black when quite ripe, with a stone
    full of seeds.   The wild olive is smaller
    than that which is cultivated, Rom. 11:
    17-24.   Olive branches, from very ancient
    times, were commonly used as the sym-
    bol of reconciliation and peace: olive
    oil is now an important article of com-
    merce in Europe, Deut. 28:40.
  72. OLIVE-YARDS, plantations of olive-
    trees, which were numerous in many parts
    of Canaan, Exod. 23:11; Josh. 24:13;
    Neh. 5:11.
  73. OLIVES, THE MOUNT OF: this moun-
    tain lay on the east of
    Jerusalem, from
    which it was separated by a valley, and
    at the distance of from one mile to about
    two miles, on the sides of which were
    situated Bethany and Bethphage.   Mount
    Olivet was infamous, as the seat of Solo-
    mon's shameful idolatries; and therefore
    called the Mount of Corruption, 2 Kings
    23:13: but it is celebrated as the
    place of our Saviour's frequent retire-
    ment across the brook Cedron
    , John 8:
    1; 18:2; and as the place from which
    he ascended to heaven
    , Luke 24:50;
    Acts 1:12.
  74. OLYM'PAS, Όλυμπας (of mount Olympus),
    a Roman Christian, Rom. 16:15.
  75. O'MAR, [h] (he that speaks), a grandson
    of Esau, Gen. 36:11-15.
  76. OME'GA, Ω, ω, the last letter of the
    Greek alphabet, and assumed as a signi-
    ficant title by our Saviour
    , Rev. 1:8-11.
  77. OMER, a Hebrew measure of about
    three quarts, Exod. 16:32-36.   See
    MEASURES.
  78. OMITTED, left out or neglected, Matt.
    23:23.
  79. OMNIPOTENT, almighty, Rev. 19:6.
    See ALMIGHTY.
  80. OM'RI, [h] (sheaf, or bundle of corn), a
    king of Israel, and father of the wicked king
    Ahab, 1 Kings 16:16-28.

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