Bible Dictionary: An.   1840

  1. A'NAH, [h] (one who is poor), a Hittite,
    father of a wife of Esau, Gen. 36:
    14, 24.
  2. A'NAK, [h], or ONOK, (a collar, or chain),
    a famous giant of Canaan, dwelling at
    Hebron, Num. 13:22, 33.
  3. AN'AKIMS, [h], a race of giants in
    Canaan, descending from the sons of
    Anak, Josh. 14:12-15; 15:14.
  4. ANAM'MELECH, [h] (answer of the
    king and council
    ), an idol deity of the
    Sepharvites, supposed to denote the
    moon, as Adrammelech did the sun,
    2 Kings 17:31.
  5. ANANI'AS, [g] (the cloud of the Lord),
    a hypocritical professor of Christianity
    in the [early] church at Jerusalem,
    Acts 5:1-20.   See
  6. ANANI'AS, an [important] evangelist, who,
    by the direction of Christ, comforted
    Paul at Damascus, Acts 9:10-17.
  7. ANANIAS, a tyrannical high-priest of
    the Jews, and persecutor of the apostle
    Paul, Acts 23:2; 24:1.
  8. ANATH'EMA, [g] (accursed), 1 Cor.
    16:22; as the word is rendered, Rom.
    9:3; 1 Cor. 12:3; Gal. 1:8, 9; or a
    curse, as Acts 23:12.   See ACCURSED,
    and MARANATHA.
  9. AN'ATHOTH, [h] (answer, song, afflic-
    , or poverty), a grandson of Benjamin,
    1 Chron. 7:8.
  10. AN'ATHOTH, a city of Benjamin, given
    to the Levites, 1 Chron. 6:60; and the
    birth-place of the prophet Jeremiah, Jer.
    19:27; 32:7.
  11. ANCESTORS, forefathers, Lev. 26:45.
  12. ANCHOR, an instrument of stopping
    and fastening a ship at sea, when near
    the shore, Acts 27:20: hope is called
    the anchor of the Christian's soul in the
    course of this life, Heb. 6:19.
  13. ANCIENT, very old, Deut. 33:15;
    Ezra 3:12.
  14. ANCIENT OF DAYS, a title applied to
    God the Father
    , Dan. 7:9, 13, 22.
  15. AN'DREW, ’Ανδρεας (a strong man), an
    apostle of Christ, and brother of
    Matt. 4:18: very little is said of him in
    the New Testament; but tradition re-
    ports that he preached the gospel in
    Scythia and the adjacent countries, and
    was crucified by the proconsul Ægeus,
    at Petreae in Achaia.
  16. ANDRON'ICUS, [g] (a man excel-
    ling others
    , or a victorious man), a kinsman
    of Paul, a man of note among the Chris-
    tians at Rome, Rom. 16:7.
  17. A'NER, [h] (answer, song, affliction, or of
    ), a Canaanite chief, who aided Abra-
    ham in recovering Lot from the kings
    who had plundered Sodom, Gen. 14:24.
  18. ANGEL, Gr. ’Αγγελος, Heb. [h], MA-
    (a messenger), a title given to those
    intelligent spirits who surround the
    throne of the Creator, and are employed
    as His messengers in executing His works
    of providence, Gen. 19:1, 15; Psal. 8:
    5; 68:17; 103:20; Ezek. 1:5, 28.
    They were created by the Son of God
    before man, and of various ranks, Job
    38:6, 7; Col. 1:16: their holiness
    and ardent love to God are denoted by
    their title, Seraphim, or burning ones, Isa.
    6:2, 6; and their vast intelligence by
    their name, Cherubim, or knowing ones,
    Gen. 3:24: they are incorporeal and
    immortal, Luke 20:36: they are most
    benevolent beings, rejoicing in the wel-
    fare of mankind, Luke 2:9, 14; 15:10;
    16:22: they are innumerable, Dan. 7:
    10; and are constituted the guardian
    attendants of the godly, Heb. 1:14.
       Many of the angels became apostates
    from the faith and service of God; and
    these, with their guilty leader in rebel-
    lion, are held in chains, reserved unto
    judgment and eternal punishment, Jude
    6; Matt. 25:41.
  19. ANGEL, as a title of office, is applied
    to Christ, the Messenger, or Angel, of the
    , Mal. 4:1: it is applied also to
    the Christian pastors or bishops, as the
    messengers (Gr. angels) of the churches,
    Rev. 1:18; 2:1, 2; 2 Cor. 8:23.   Spies,
    Heb. 11:31, are called messengers, Jam. 2:
    25; but angels, in the Greek.   Angels, re-
    ferred to in Christian assemblies, 1 Cor. 11:
    10, is to be understood of spies, who might
    be awed or edified by a proper decorum
    observable in the worship of God.
       It may be remarked, that scarcely any
    subject is more worthy of study by
    Christians than the doctrine of angels,
    as it is contained in the Scriptures.
    JEHOVAH, is a title of the Son of God,
    as given in the Old Testament.
    Gen. 16:7, 13; 18:1, 13, 17; 32:
    24, 30; Hos. 12:4, 5; Exod. 3:2, 4, 14,
    15; Acts 7:30, 32.
  21. ANGER, displeasure, Gen. 27:45.
    Anger against sin, when governed by
    reason, is lawful and virtuous, Exod.
    32:19, 22.   Vehement anger is
    raging anger is fury; cherished anger
    against a person is hatred; and, settled
    in the mind, it is malice.
  22. ANGER, to provoke, or excite, Rom.
  23. ANGER OF GOD, is His holy displeasure
    sin and sinners, Num. 25:4;
    Deut. 29:20.   Yet God is long-suffering
    and slow to anger
    , Exod. 34:6, 7;
    Psal. 103:8.
  24. ANGLE, a fisher's rod with a line, Isa.
    19:8; Hab. 1:15.
  25. ANGRY, excited with anger, Lev. 10:
    16; 1 Kings 11:9; Psal. 2:12; John
  26. ANGUISH, excessive grief, or pain,
    Gen. 42:21; 2 Sam. 1:9.
  27. ANISE, a flowering aromatic plant,
    from which a cordial is prepared: [and]
    the herb DILL is intended by Matthew, 23:23.
  28. AN'NA, ’Αννα (gracious), a holy pro-
    phetess, who waited for the Messiah:
    some suppose that her "great age" was
    extended to about 116 years, as she was
    "a widow of about fourscore and four years,"
    Luke 2:36, 37.
  29. AN'NAS, ’Αννας (he that afflicts), a Jewish
    high-priest, who, and his deputy and
    Caiaphas, were both Sadducees,
    and determined enemies of Christ and
    His apostles, Luke 3:2; John 18:13;
    Acts 4:1, 6; 5:17.
  30. ANOINT, to pour oil on a person or
    thing, Gen. 28:18; 31:13; Luke 7:
    38.   Priests, prophets, and kings, were
    anointed to fulfil their several offices,
    Exod. 28:41; 30:30; 1 Sam. 9:16;
    1 Kings 1:34; 19:15, 16, indicating
    their need of the various gifts and graces
    of the Holy Spirit, to qualify them for
    their respective duties.
       Jesus Christ was anointed, not with
    material oil, but in an extraordinary
    manner and degree, with the Holy Spirit,
    to prepare Him for all His offices of
    prophet, priest, and king
    , Isa. 61:1;
    Psal. 45:7; Luke 4:18; John 3:34;
    Acts 4:27; 10:38.   On this account our
    Saviour is called the ANOINTED, or the
      See MESSIAH and CHRIST.
       Believers, partaking of the grace of
    the Holy Spirit, for their sanctification,
    are thus anointed with the unction from
    the Holy One, 1 John 2:20, 27.
  31. ANOINTED, oiled with a precious oint-
    ment, John 11:2; 12:3: oiled for an
    office, as a king, 1 Sam. 24:6, 10: con-
    secrated to God, Gen. 28:18; 31:
    13; Lev. 6:3; 7:36, 37: designated
    to a special service, as Cyrus to deliver
    the Jews from Babylon, Isa. 45:1:
    sanctified to holiness, 2 Cor. 1:21.
  32. ANOINTING, consecration, by the pour-
    ing on of oil, as that of priests, Exod.
    37:29: sanctification, as that of
    Christians, 1 John 2:27.   Our engraving
    represents the anointing of an Egyptian
    king, drawn from the representations
    most commonly found on ancient monu-
  33. ANSWER, a reply to a question, Prov.
    15:4; Luke 2:47: an evidence, 1 Pet.
  34. ANSWER, to reply, Gen. 45:3; 2 Kings
    18:3; 1 Pet. 3:15: to make a suitable
    return in the fruits of labour, Gen. 30:
    33: to grant blessings, Ezek. 14:4.
  35. ANSWERABLE, corresponding with,
    Exod. 38:18.
  36. ANSWERED, did answer, or reply,
    1 Sam. 3:4: did resume a discourse,
    Matt. 4:4; 11:25.
  37. ANT, a small insect, celebrated for
    industry and economy, Prov. 6:6; 30:
  38. ANTICHRIST (adversary of Christ), a
    teacher perverting the pure doctrines of
    Christ: such were numerous, even in the
    times of the apostles, as is evident by their
    epistles.   Diotrephes, 3 John 9, in his
    bigotry and intolerance, illustrates their
    spirit; and John complains of them as
    "many antichrists," 1 John 2:18; 4:3:
    this class continued and increased in the
    [nominal] Christian church, working towards the
    maturing of the enormities of the great
    antichrist, as predicted by Daniel, Paul,
    and John, Dan. 7:20-27; 2 Thess. 2:
    4-7; Rev. 11:7, &c.
  39. ANTICHRIST, the great antichrist is a
    pretended Christian priesthood, an anti-
    scriptural hierarchy, which arose gradu-
    ally in the [nominal] Christian church, through the
    ambition of unholy men, who assumed
    its sacred ministry: it prevailed chiefly
    in the West, as the imperial power of
    Rome declined, until it exhibited all the
    blasphemous extravagance of the papal
    , foretold by the apostles, as
    "already work[ing]" in their days, and
    described by them as the "man of
    [,]" "the son of perdition[,]" "the
    mystery of iniquity
    [,]" and "THE
    [,]" 2 Thess. 2:4-7;
    Rev. 17:5-7.   This antichristian hier-
    archy, in various forms, by establishing
    creeds, tests, and decrees, independently
    of, or
    contrary to, the oracles of God in
    the Scriptures, has raised all the perse-
    cutions ever known in Christendom, and
    it has been "drunk with the blood of the
    saints, and with the blood of the martyrs
    of Jesus--the blood of prophets--and of
    all that were slain upon the earth,"
       This terrible power of antichrist, in
    every form of error, is doomed--"whom
    the Lord shall consume with the spirit
    of his mouth, and shall destroy with the
    brightness of his coming:"
    2 Thess. 2:8:
    that is, the brightness of the manifesta-
    tion of the Lord Jesus, in the prevalence
    of pure Christianity, by the knowledge
    of the word of God in the Scriptures.
    • Antichrist, Eastern.   See Tract.
  40. AN'TIOCH, ’Αντιοχεια, ANTIOCHEIA,
    (instead of a chariot), the capital of Upper
    Syria, situated on the river Orontes,
    about twelve miles from the north-east
    corner of the Mediterranean sea, Antioch
    was built by Seleucus Nicanor, about the
    year B.C. 300, and so called after his
    father Antiochus: and this city was
    made the chief residence of the kings of
    Syria, the successors of Alexander the
    Great, and afterwards of the Roman
    governors in the East.   Luke was a
    native of this city; and here the disciples
    were first called Christians, Acts 11:19,
    26.   Being admirable for situation, con-
    taining about 500,000 inhabitants, it was
    chosen as a principal missionary station
    for the apostles, Acts 13:1; 14:26.
    Christianity flourished at Antioch for
    several ages; but its church became
    corrupted with false doctrine, and torn
    with heresies: the city, from the greatest
    magnificence, fell by luxury, and a suc-
    cession of wars, famines, &c.   In A.D. 588,
    an earthquake destroyed most of the city,
    and 60,000 of its inhabitants: yet it was
    rebuilt, and continued a place of great
    note, but suffered grievously under the
    Saracens [Musl_ms] and crusaders.   Antioch has
    long belonged to the Turks, who call it
    Antakia; and it is governed by the pasha
    of Aleppo.   In 1822, it was reduced to a
    heap of ruins by an earthquake: from
    this it partly recovered, so as to contain
    about 20,000 inhabitants; but its houses
    being rebuilt of mud and straw, its narrow
    streets exhibit scenes of the deepest
    misery and wretchedness.   Our engraving
    represents modern Antioch: in the fore-
    ground, a Turkish burial-place; and on
    the hill-tops the walls of the ancient city.
  41. ANTIOCH in Pisidia was a town of
    some note, the capital of Pisidia, in Asia
    Minor, Acts 13:14.
  42. ANTIPAS, ’Αντιπας (against all), a martyr
    for Christ in the apostolic age, and sup-
    posed to have been the first bishop of
    the Christian church at Pergamos, in
    Asia Minor, Rev. 2:13.
  43. ANTIP'ATRIS, ’Αντιπατρις (on behalf of
    the father
    ), a city in Samaria, about 42
    miles from Jerusalem, on the road to
    Cesarea.   It was so named by Herod the
    Great, after his father Antipater, Acts
  44. ANTIQUITY, great age, remote origin,
    Isa. 23:7.
  45. ANVIL, the iron block on which the
    smith lays his metal to forge, Isai. 41:7.
  46. ANY, one, whoever or whatever, Exod.
    11:7; Luke 8:4; 2 Pet. 3:9.
  47. APART, separately, Lev. 15:19: speci-
    ally, Psal. 4:3.
  48. APE, a species of monkey, 1 Kings 10:
    22; 2 Chron. 9:21.   Dr. Harris distin-
    guishes this tribe into, 1. monkeys, those
    with long tails; 2. apes, those without
    tails; 3. baboons, those with short tails.
    Apes are worshipped as sacred animals
    in India and Japan.
  49. APIECE, each, Num. 3:47: belonging
    to each, Luke 9:3.
  50. APOC'RYPHA, ’Αποκρυφος (hidden, con-
    , or uncertain): this word is not
    properly belonging to the Bible; but it
    is the title given to a number of ancient
    Jewish writings, sometimes bound up
    with large [book]s.   Though written by
    Jews, but after the close of the canon of
    the Old Testament, those books were
    never admitted as canonical, by that
    people; nor were they regarded or re-
    ferred to by the apostles, nor acknow-
    ledged as inspired by the Christian
    teachers for several centuries; but igno-
    rance [generally] prevailing, several of
    them were received authoritative about
    the ninth century, and at the council of
    , in the sixteenth century, they were
    embraced as canonical by the church of
    Rome.   Several books of the Apocrypha
    contain valuable history, and wise moral
    instructions; but others are deserving
    only of being classed with the absurd
    traditions of pagan mythology.
  51. APOLLO'NIA, [g] (perdition), a
    town of Macedonia, between Amphipolis
    and Thessalonica, Acts 17:1.
  52. APOL'LOS, ’Απολλως (one that destroys),
    a Jewish Christian of Alexandria, an
    eloquent preacher of the gospel.   Having
    embraced the gospel at first as taught by
    the disciples of John, he gladly received
    the perfect doctrine of Christ from
    and Priscilla.   He laboured in the ministry
    first at Ephesus, and then in Greece; and
    was held in high estimation by Paul and
    the church at Corinth, Acts 18:24;
    19:1; 1 Cor. 1:12; 3:5, 6.
  53. APOL'LYON, [g] (the destroyer),
    Rev. 9:11.   See ABADDON.
  54. APOSTLE, ’Αποστολος (a messenger, or
    missionary), the title given by
    Christ to
    each of His twelve chief messengers,
    whom He selected from His disciples to
    be witnesses of His life, ministry, and
    resurrection: their office required that
    they should have seen Christ after His
    resurrection, and been inspired with a
    from Him for their service
    in establishing His religion upon earth,
    Luke 6:13; Matt. 10:2; 28:16-20;
    Acts 1:22-25; 1 Cor. 9:1, 2; 15:7, 8.
    Besides these qualifications they were
    furnished with miraculous endowments,
    by the gift of the Holy Spirit, so as to
    understand the prophecies in the Old
    Testament, and to preach in [many] lan-
    guages: thus they were distinguished
    with this title as messengers sent to all
    nations, to assure salvation and eternal
    glory to all who believed on Jesus
    Christ as the Son of God and the
    appointed Redeemer, Acts 2:4; 1 Cor.
  55. APOSTLE, a title given to Christ, as
    the chief missionary to men, sent from
    the Father to declare His will to man-
    , Heb. 3:1; John 3:13, 17.   This
    title is sometimes given to the ministers
    of Christ, as to Epaphroditus, the "mes-
    (Gr. apostle) of the Philippians
    to Paul at Rome, Phil. 2:25.
  56. APOSTLESHIP, the office of an apostle
    Christ, to bear testimony to the world
    concerning the ministry, death, and re-
    surrection, of Jesus Christ, Acts 1:21, 25;
    Rom. 1:5.   Matthias, as an attendant on
    Christ's ministry, was chosen in the stead
    of Judas; but Paul was qualified for the
    office by a special vision of Christ, after
    His ascension to Heaven, Acts 9:17;
    22:12, 16; 1 Cor. 15:8; Gal. 1:11, 16.
  57. APOTHECARY, a compounder of per-
    fumes, or medicine, Exod. 30:35; Neh.
  58. APPAREL, clothes, or dress, 1 Kings 10:
    5; 2 Sam. 12:20; Acts 20:[33].
    • Apparel, modest.   1 Tim. 2:9.
  59. APPARELLED, clothed, or dressed,
    2 Sam. 13:18; Luke 7:25.
  60. APPARENTLY, visibly, or in appear-
    ance, Num. 12:8.
  61. APPEAL, to refer to a superior judge;
    as Paul, being free of the city of Rome,
    appealed to Cesar, Acts 25:11.
  62. APPEAR, to be visible, Gen. 1:9: to
    seem, Matt. 6:13: to be in the presence
    of, Exod. 34:23: to be present as an
    advocate, Heb. 9:24.
  63. APPEARANCE, likeness, Num. 9:15:
    show, 2 Cor. 5:12.
  64. APPEARED, became visible, Gen. 12:7;
    Acts 2:3.
  65. APPEARING, visible manifestation,
    1 Tim. 6:14; [Tit.] 2:13.
  66. APPEASE, to pacify anger, as Jacob
    did that of Esau, Gen. 32:20.
  67. APPEASED, became calm in mind, Est.
    2:1: quieted, Acts 19:35.
  68. APPERTAIN, to belong to, as a man's
    family and property, Num. 16:30: to
    be due, as honour and reverence to God,
    Jer. 10:7.
  69. APPETITE, natural desire of food, Job
    38:39.   To be given to appetite, is to
    be addicted to excessive eating or drink-
    ing, Prov. 23:7.
  70. APPII'-FO'RUM, [g] (the court
    of death
    ), a town about 50 miles from
    Rome, founded by Appius Claudius, on
    the great road which he constructed
    from Rome to Capua, Acts 28:15.
  71. APPLE, the fruit of the apple-tree,
    Song 2:5; 8:8: the pupil of the eye,
    Deut. 32:10; Zech. 2:8.
  72. APPLE-TREE: it is generally agreed
    that the citron-tree is intended by the
    sacred writers, Song 2:2, 3; Joel 1:12.

    Our first engraving represents the citron
    apple-tree, Citrus medica, and the second
    shows its leaves, stamens, and a section
    of its fruit.

       "Apples of gold in pictures of sil-
    refers to the rich fillagree, or
    silver net-work baskets, in which the
    fruit was served up, Prov. 25:11.

    Oriental sculpture abounds in this kind
    of ornament.

  73. APPLY, to study, or labour, Eccles.
    7:25; 8:9.   To apply the heart to
    wisdom is to seek the saving knowledge
    of God by His word, Psal. 90:12.
  74. APPOINT, to assign, as to a service,
    Num. 4:19: to fix, as a time, Job 14:
    13: to constitute, as in office, 2 Sam. 6:
    21; Acts 6:3: to sentence, as to punish-
    ment, Matt. 24:51: to choose or elect,
    as a leader, Hos. 1:11.
  75. APPOINTED, designed, Gen. 24:14;
    1 Kings 1:35: fixed, Num. 9:2, 7:
    determined, 2 Sam. 17:14: decreed,
    Heb. 9:27: commanded, Luke 3:13:
    commissioned, 10:1.
  76. APPOINTMENT, order or direction,
    Num. 4:27: agreement, Job 2:11: con-
    trivance, 2 Sam. 13:32: request, Ezra
  77. APPREHEND, to seize, as a prisoner,
    2 Cor. 11:32: to gain, as a special favour,
    Phil. 3:12.
  78. APPREHENDED, seized, Acts 12:4:
    converted by divine grace, Phil. 3:12.
  79. APPROACH, to come near, as to God
    in his worship, Lev. 21:17: as to ene-
    mies in battle, Deut. 20:31; 2 Sam. 11:
    20: to marry, Lev. 18:6.
  80. APPROVE, to like, or commend, Psal.
    49:13; 1 Cor. 16:3.
  81. APPROVED, honoured, Acts 2:22:
    esteemed, Rom. 14:19: upright, 1 Cor.
  82. APRON, a cloth hung before[,] Gen. 3:
    7; Acts 19:12.   Ruth's vail seems to
    have been her apron, Ruth 3:15.
  83. APT, qualified, 2 Kings 24:16:
    skilful and inclined, 1 Tim. 3:2.
  84. AQUILA, ’Ακυλας (an eagle), a Christian
    Jew, a native of Pontus, and who, with
    his wife Priscilla, rendered service, in
    various ways, to many of the early be-
    lievers, to Apollos, and to the apostle
    Paul, Acts 18:2-26; Rom. 16:3, 4.
  85. AR, [h] (watching, or uncovering), the
    capital of Moab, Num. 21:28; Deut. 2:
    9, 29; Isa. 15:1.   This city was de-
    stroyed by an earthquake, A.D. 350.
  86. ARA'BIA, [h], Gr. ’Αραβια (evening, or a
    desert place
    ), a large country comprehend-
    ing the south-western part of Asia; it is
    a peninsula, about 1500 miles long from
    north to south, and about 1200 broad
    from east to west, formed by the Persian
    gulf on the east, the Arabian sea on the
    south, and the Red sea on the west; and
    bounded on the north by the river
    Euphrates and Syria.  
    Cush, the son of
    Ham, and his descendants, were the first
    inhabitants of Arabia, Gen. 10:7-20; 14:
    5, 8: but these were chiefly expelled,
    and succeeded by the numerous posterity
    of Nahor, Abraham, and Lot, Deut. 2:
    8, 9, who formed many tribes and nations.
    Ptolemy, the Greek geographer, divided
    this country into three regions, Arabia
    Petrea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix
  87. ARABIA PETREA, or the rocky, so
    called from its stony surface, and its
    chief city, Petra, the Selah of the Scrip-
    tures, 2 Kings 14:7.   See SELAH.   It
    included Idumea, Mount Sinai, and the
    country of the Cushites, Moabites, Midi-
    anites, &c., around the southern border
    of the sea of Sodom, to the Red sea, and
    Egypt.   Our engraving exhibits a view of
    a valley in this province, and the general
    character of the country: in the fore-
    ground is seen a group of Bedouin Arabs.
  88. ARABIA DESERTA, or the desert, ex-
    tended north and east to the Euphrates,
    which separated it from Mesopotamia:
    it was inhabitated by the Itureans,
    , Nabatheans, &c.; and in this
    region was built, by Solomon, Tadmor,
    the celebrated city Palmyra, 2 Chron.
    8:4.   See TADMOR.
  89. ARABIA FELIX, or the happy, so called
    from its rich productions.   This part
    comprehends the south-east division of
    the country, including the regions of
    Sheba and Seba: the more modern cities
    of Mecca and Medina, the h_ly places
    of the Moh_mm_dans; and the domin-
    ions of the present imaum of Muscat.
    Arabia is greatly celebrated in history,
    as being peopled by part of the descend-
    ants of Abraham, especially the
    , and by the prevalence of the im-
    of its famous conqueror and
    prophet Moh_mm_d.
  90. A'RAD, [h] (wild ass, in Syriac, a dra-
    ), a king in the south of Canaan, Num.
    21:1; 33:40.
  91. A'RAM, [h] (elevation, highness, or mag-
    ), the fifth son of
    Shem, by whom
    a great part of Syria was peopled; and
    that country, in the Hebrew, is called
    ARAM, Gen. 10:22.   See SYRIA.
  92. AR'ARAT, [h] (the curse of trembling,
    or mount of trembling), a mountain of
    Armenia, on which the ark of
    rested, Gen. 8:4.   Ararat is supposed
    to be, Ar-dagh, or Parmak-dagh, that is, the
    finger mountain, with two peaks, between
    which Noah is believed to have landed;
    it stands in an extensive fruitful plain,
    near the city Erivan, and rises conically
    to the height of about 12,700 feet, the
    highest peak some reckon 16,000 feet
    above the level of the sea, and may be
    seen at the distance of 180 or 200 miles.
    Sir R. K. Porter visited this region, and
    says of the blinding glory of the tremend-
    ous mountain pyramids, "From the spot
    on which I stood, it appeared as if the
    largest mountains of the world had been
    piled upon each other to form this one
    sublime immensity of earth, and rocks,
    and snow, whose inaccessible summits
    have never been trodden by the foot of
    man since the days of Noah."
  93. ARAU'NAH, [h] (ark, song, or curse),
    called Ornan, 1 Chron. 21:15, 28, a
    generous Jebusite, who sold to David his
    estate on Mount Moriah, the site of the
    temple of Solomon at Jerusalem, 2 Sam.
    24:16, 25.
  94. AR'BA, [h] (the city of the four), a giant
    chief of the Anakims, Josh. 14:15;
  95. ARBA, or ARBAH, the original name
    of Hebron, it having been built by Arba,
    Gen. 35:27; Num. 13:22.
  96. ARCHANGEL, ’Αρχαγγελος, (the chief
    ): this word occurs twice in
    Scripture--and while some learned men
    apply it to a created angel, others think
    it belongs exclusively to Jesus Christ,
    "the head of all principality and power[.]"
    1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 9.   Michael signi-
    fying, who is like God, is by the latter
    class believed to denote only our Lord
    and Saviour, Dan. 12:1.
  97. ARCHELA'US, [g], (the prince of
    the people
    ), the favourite, but the most
    cruel of the sons of Herod the Great,
    Matt. 2:22, 23.   This monster was de-
    posed, after filling the office of ethnarch
    for about seven years, by the Roman
    emperor; and he died an exile in Gaul.
  98. ARCHER, he that shoots with a bow,
    Jer. 51:3: a hunter, such as used bows
    and arrows in hunting before the inven-
    tion of fire-arms, Gen. 21:20.
  99. ARCHERS, ancient warriors using bows
    and arrows, 1 Sam. 31:3: enemies,
    Gen. 49:23.
  100. ARCHIP'PUS, ’Αρχιππος (governor of
    ), a minister in the church at
    Colosse, officiating as pastor in the ab-
    sence of Epaphras, who had been sent to
    visit Paul in bonds at Rome, Col. 1:7;
    4:12-17; Phil. 2.
  101. ARCTURUS, [h] HASEH (a cluster), a
    brilliant star near the northern constel-
    lation, Ursa Major, the Great Bear.   "His
    denotes the surrounding smaller
    stars, Job 9:9; 38:32.
  102. AREOP'AGITE, [g], a judge in
    the court of Areopagus, Acts 17:34.
  103. AREOP'AGUS, [g] (the hill of
    ), the sovereign tribunal at Athens,
    celebrated for the justice of its decisions:
    it was situated on a lofty hill, dedicated
    to Mars, the fabulous god of war, as the
    city was to his sister Minerva.   Paul was
    led thither, and required to declare his
    religious principles, when Dionysius, one
    of the judges, became converted to the
    faith of Christ, Acts 17:19, 22, 34.   Our
    engraving represents the present appear-
    ance of Areopagus.
  104. ARE'TAS, [g] (the agreeable, or the
    ), a powerful Arab prince, whose
    governor at Damascus endeavoured to
    apprehend the apostle Paul, while at that
    capital of southern Syria, 2 Cor. 11:32;
    Acts 9:23-25.
  105. AR'GOB, [h] (a turf of earth), a luxuriant
    and populous district of Bashan, Deut.
    3:4; 1 Kings 4:13.
  106. A'RIEL, [h] (the light of God, or the lion
    of God
    ), a title given to Jerusalem, pro-
    bably on account of its military charac-
    ter, Isa. 29:1, 2, 7.
  107. ARIMATHE'A, [g] (a lion dead to
    the Lord
    ), a city of Ephraim, the native
    place of the counseller, Joseph, Luke
    23:51; and of the prophet Samuel, in
    his time called Ramah, 1 Sam. 1:1, 19;
    7:17; it is now called Ramla.
  108. ARIGHT, religiously, Psal. 1:23: dis-
    creetly, Prov. 15:2.
  109. ARISE, to rise up, as from repose, Gen.
    31:13: to leave a habitation, 35:1:
    to come forth into public notice, as a
    teacher or prophet, Deut. 13:1; Acts
    20:30: to commence a work, Neh. 2:
    20: to recover prosperity, Amos 7:2:
    to be active in duty or service, Judg. 5:
    12; Acts 22:16.
  110. ARISTAR'CHUS, [g] (the best
    ), an [important] Christian of Thessa-
    lonica, who accompanied Paul to Ephesus,
    to Greece, and in his voyage to Rome,
    Acts 19:29; 20:4; 27:2.   Some say
    he was bishop of the Christians at Thes-
    salonica; others, of those at Apamea, in
    Syria, and that he was beheaded with
    Paul at Rome.
  111. ARISTOB'ULUS, ’Αριστοβουλος (the best
    ), supposed to have been a
    brother of Barnabas, and, as some think,
    a preacher of the gospel as a missionary
    in Britain, Rom. 16:10.
  112. ARK, a chest, or coffer, Exod. 2:3:
    Noah's ark, according to Dr. Arbuthnot,
    who reckoned the cubit at nearly twenty-
    two inches, was of the following dimen-
    sions: length, 300 cubits, or nearly 560
    feet; breadth, 50 cubits, more than 90
    feet; height, 30 cubits, more than 54
    feet; and its capacity 2,730,782 solid or
    cubical feet, fully sufficient for the car-
    riage of 81,062 tons burthen.   [....]
      "Can any
    one, therefore, doubt of its being suffi-
    cient to contain eight persons, and about
    two hundred and fifty pairs of four-
    footed animals, a number to which, ac-
    cording to Buffon, all the various distinct
    [or kinds] may be reduced?"   Noah's ark
    was built of gopher-wood, and plastered
    with pitch or bitumen: it was designed,
    not for sailing, but to float when borne
    up by the waters; and being constructed
    on the most accurate geometrical propor-
    tions, under the immediate inspiration
    and direction of God, it was amply capa-
    cious for its requirements, and adapted
    to its awful destination, Gen. 6. 7.
  113. ARK (of the covenant), the sacred chest,
    made at the command of God, for the
    preservation of the tables of the law,
    which He gave to Moses, Exod. 25:10-
    16.   This was also the consecrated repo-
    sitory of the golden pot of manna, and
    the budding rod of Aaron, Exod. 16:33;
    Num. 17:4-10; Heb. 9:4: it was
    made of precious wood overlaid with
    pure gold, and its lid of solid gold formed
    the mercy-seat.   See MERCY-SEAT.   This
    precious vessel, with its inestimable con-
    tents, was lost in the overthrow of the
    apostate Jews, when the temple was de-
    stroyed with Jerusalem, and they carried
    captives to Babylon; and though a new
    ark was made for the service of the
    second temple, its chief and divine trea-
    sures could not be restored, 2 Kings
    25:9; 2 Chron. 36:19.
  114. ARM, the limb from the shoulder to the
    hand, Job 31:22: human strength, of
    which the arm is the chief emblem, Psal.
    10:15; 44:3.   God's arm denotes His creat-
    ing power
    , Psal. 89:13; Jer. 27:5:
    and His almighty grace, Isa. 53:1.
  115. ARM, to furnish with weapons of war,
    Num. 31:3: to cultivate mental endow-
    ments and gracious habits, 1 Pet. 4:1
  116. ARMAGEDDON, ’Αρμαγεδδων (the moun-
    tain of Megiddo
    Megiddo was a city near
    the great plain of Jezreel, and was pro-
    verbial as a place of mourning on account
    of various battles, especially that of
    Barak, with the Canaanites, Judg. 5:19,
    and that of king Josiah with the Egyp-
    tians, 2 Kings 23:29, 30.   Antichrist
    and his confederated powers are fore-
    as being decreed to be destroyed
    here, in the great day of God Almighty,
    Rev. 16:14-16.
    See Bible Prophecy.
  117. ARMED, accoutred as a soldier with
    weapons of war, Gen. 14:14.
  118. ARMENIA, [h], ARARAT, a large
    country of Asia, consisting of the modern
    Turcomania and part of Persia: its three
    parts are subject to Russia, Persia, and
    Turkey; but its ancient limits are un-
    known.   Armenia is regarded as bounded
    on the north by Georgia and the Cau-
    casus; on the east by the Russian pro-
    vinces of Shirwan and Adjbijan; on the
    south by Diarbekir and Kurdistan; and
    on the west by the river Euphrates.
    Ararat and chains of mountains traverse
    and fill the country, giving rise to six
    celebrated rivers; the Araxes and Cyrus
    flowing east into the Caspian sea, Lycus
    and Phases west into the Euxine; and
    the Tigris and Euphrates, south-west,
    into the Persian gulf, 2 Kings 19:37.
    --Armenia received Christianity about
    the first or second century; but it be-
    came corrupted by many superstitions of
    the Greek and Roman churches: but
    from its state of ignorance and degra-
    dation it is believed to be rising through
    the labours of the Bible Society, and of
    mies. from Britain and America.
  119. ARMHOLES, the cavities under the
    shoulders, Jer. 38:12.   Sewing pil-
    lows to the arm-holes, denotes cherishing
    delusive hopes excited by false doctrines,
    Ezek. 17:18.
  120. ARMOUR, defensive clothing and wea-
    pons of war, 1 Sam. 17:54; 2 Kings
    3:21.   Our engravings exhibit the vari-
    ous arms and armour mentioned in
    several parts of Scripture: the first,
    represents a group of the principal
    military dresses and instruments of an-
    cient Egypt, selected from paintings and
    sculptures of that country; the second,
    shows the chief dresses and instruments
    used by the soldiers of ancient Greece
    and Rome, selected from sculptures and
    paintings of those countries.
  121. ARMOUR OF GOD, armour of light, and
    armour of righteousness, &c., denote the
    doctrines of the gospel maturely studied,
    and the graces of the Holy Spirit dili-
    gently cherished, by which the Christian
    may conquer in his conflict with his
    spiritual enemies, Eph. 6:11-13; Rom.
    13:12; 2 Cor. 6:7.
  122. ARMOUR-BEARER, an attendant on a
    warrior, or captain, carrying his weapons,
    Judg. 9:54; 1 Sam. 31:6.
  123. ARMY, a collection of armed men, as
    soldiers, Deut. 11:4: a multitude of per-
    sons, as each of the tribes of Israel mar-
    shalled for their journey from Egypt,
    Exod. 7:4; 12:17: the heavenly host,
    Dan. 4:35.
  124. ARNON, [h] (trembling), a river rising
    in the mountains of Gilead, and running
    into the Jordan, Num. 21:13-28; Deut.
  125. AR'OER, [h] (heath, tamarisk, or naked-
    ness of the skin
    ), a city of Gad on the river
    Arnon, Num. 32:3: it gave name
    also to a district, Isa. 17:2.
  126. AR'PAD, [h] (a support, or bed), an
    idolatrous city of Syria, near Hamath,
    2 Kings 18:34; Isa. 10:9.
  127. ARPHAX'AD, [h] (one that heals, or
    one that releases), a son of Shem, the son
    of Noah, Gen. 10:22; 11:12, 13.
  128. ARRAY, clothing, or ornaments, 1 Tim.
    2:9: military order, as soldiers for
    battle, 2 Sam. 10:9; Jer. 50:14.
  129. ARRAY, to clothe, Job 40:10: to adorn,
    Esth. 6:9.
  130. ARRAYED, robed, Gen. 41:42; Luke
  131. ARRIVED, reached a place by travel-
    ling, Luke 8:26.
  132. ARROGANCY, haughtiness, Isa. 13:11;
    Jer. 48:29.
  133. ARROW, a dart shot from a bow, 1
    Sam. 20:36; 2 Kings 9:24: mental ter-
    rors, Job 6:4: wicked intentions, Psal.
    11:2: slanderous words, Jer. 9:8; Psal.
    57:4: divine judgments, Ezek. 5:16: the
    reproving word of God, Psal. 45:5.
  134. ART, practical science, Exod. 30:25:
    ingenuity, Acts 17:29.
  135. ARTAXERX'ES, [h] (Artachshasta),
    a Persian monarch, believed to be the
    same as Ahasuerus, who married
    he commissioned Ezra to proceed to
    Judea and finish the temple at Jerusa-
    lem, in the seventh year of his reign,
    Ezra 7:7-11; and Nehemiah, in his
    twentieth year, to rebuild the city walls,
    Neh. 1:1; 2:1.   See AHASUERUS.
  136. ARTIFICER, an ingenious workman,
    Gen. 4:22; 1 Chron. 24:5.
  137. ARTILLERY, weapons of war, 1 Sam.
  138. A'SA, [h] (physician), a good king of
    Judah: though educated under his idol-
    atrous grandmother Maachah, his heart
    was perfect with the Lord all his days; he
    deposed her from her royal dignity, and
    effected a great
    reformation in the king-
    dom; yet he sinned in hiring the king
    of Syria against Israel, and in regarding
    the physicians in his disease, rather than
    God, 1 Kings 15.; 2 Chron. 14. 16.
  139. AS'AHEL, [h] (a creature of God), a
    son of king David's sister, and brother of
    Joab, 2 Sam. 2:18-23.
  140. ASAI'AH, [h] (a creature of the Lord),
    a courtier, serving king Josiah, 2 Chron.
  141. A'SAPH, [h] (one that assembles together,
    or one that completes), a Levite, and cele-
    brated musician in the time of David,
    1 Chron. 6:39; 16:7; 25:2.  
    Psalms 50.;
    73., and ten more, are ascribed to
    Asaph, but some of them are supposed
    to have been only set to music by him.
    Some of them were composed in later
    times, perhaps by his descendants bear-
    ing the name of Asaph.
  142. ASAPH, father of Joah, the secretary
    to king Hezekiah, 2 Kings 18:18.
  143. ASAPH, chief forester of Lebanon,
    under the king of Persia, in the time of
    Nehemiah, Neh. 2:8.
  144. ASCEND, to go or mount up, as on a
    hill, Josh. 6:5: or to heaven, John 6:
    62; 20:17.
  145. ASCENT, the way up, as to a hill, 2
    Sam. 15:36: or to a lofty edifice, 1 Kings
  146. ASCRIBE, to attribute a quality or
    work to any one, Deut. 32:3; 1 Sam.
  147. AS'ENATH, [h] (peril, or misfortune),
    an Egyptian princess, daughter of the
    priest or prince of On, wife of Joseph,
    and mother of Ephraim and Manasseh,
    Gen. 41:45; 46:20.
  148. ASH, a well-known tree: Isaiah is
    supposed to mean that which we call the
    prickly-ash, Isa. 44:14.
  149. ASHAMED, filled with shame, 2 Sam.
    10:5: confused, 2 Kings 8:11.
  150. ASH'DOD, [h] (a fortified place), a
    city of the Philistines, rendered famous
    by its temple for the idol Dagon, 1 Sam.
    5:17: it was situated near the Mediter-
    ranean, between Gaza and Joppa, and
    called in the New Testament Azotus,
    Acts 8:40.
  151. ASH'ER, [h] (blessedness, or happiness),
    a son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Gen. 30:13;
    but of his life or death nothing is re-
  152. ASH'ER (the tribe of): this tribe was
    numerous, located in a fruitful part of
    Galilee, having Lebanon on the north,
    Zebulon and Naphtali on the east,
    mount Carmel and Issachar on the south,
    and on the west Phenicia, Gen. 49:
    20; Josh. 19:24, 31.
  153. ASHES, the remains of burnt fuel,
    Lev. 6:10, 11: to put ashes on the head,
    or to sit down in ashes, indicated deep
    grief in mourning, 2 Sam. 13:19; Jonah
    3:6; Isa. 58:5: to eat ashes, or to
    become ashes, is to be reduced to misery
    and degradation, Psal. 102:9; Mal. 4:3.
  154. AS'TAROTH, or ASH'TAROTH, [h]
    (flocks, the sheep, or riches), the goddess of
    the Zidonians, Judg. 2:13; 10:6; 1 Kings
    11:33.   Some suppose her to have been
    the wife of Ham.   Under this name the
    moon was worshipped, and called the
    Queen of Heaven, Jer. 44:17-25.   She
    was regarded as the goddess of the groves,
    where she was worshipped with the
    grossest abominations.   Cicero calls hers
    the forth Venus of Syria.   Astoreth and
    Astarte are names of this divinity; and
    from her the Saxons derived their Æstar,
    or Eostre, whence the title of our Easter.
  155. ASH'TAROTH-KARNA'IM, a city of the
    giant Rephaims, Gen. 14:5; Josh. 12:4.
  156. ASH'UR, ASSH'UR, or AS'SUR, [h] (a
    , or pace), a son of Shem, the builder
    of the city of Nineveh, and founder of
    the empire of Assyria, Gen. 10:11, 22.
  157. ASH'UR, the country or empire of As-
    syria, Num. 24:22, 24; Ezek. 27:
    23; Hos. 14:3.
  158. A'SIA, ’Ασια (boggy, muddy, or extended):
    this country, as mentioned in the New
    Testament, was the Roman Proconsular
    Asia, containing only the western part
    of Asia Minor, but including the cities
    of the seven churches, Acts 16:6; 1 Cor.
    16:19; 1 Pet. 1:1; Rev. 1. 2. 3.
  159. ASIA MINOR, the small western divi-
    sion of the continent of
    Asia, about 600
    miles long, and 320 broad, lying between
    the Euxine, or Black sea, on the north,
    and the Mediterranean on the south; it
    is now called Natolia, Anatolia, includ-
    ing the provinces of Bithynia, Pontus,
    Galatia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Pamphylia,
    Pisidia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, Mysia, Troas,
    &c.   This lovely country has been the
    theatre of innumerable wars under the
    Greeks, Persians, Romans, Saracens, and
    Turks; and, under the latter, it is now in
    a most deplorable condition.   Flourishing
    churches existed here in the apostolic
    age; but now there is to be found in it
    little more than the name of Christian:
    still there is hope from the labours of
    our mies. and from the circulation
    of the Scriptures.
  160. A'SIA, in its largest acceptation, de-
    notes the continent so called, bounded
    on the north by the Frozen ocean, on
    the east by the Pacific ocean, on the
    south by the Indian ocean, and on the west
    by Europe and Africa: it extends, from
    east to west, 7580 miles, and from north
    to south 5250 miles.   In this the richest,
    the most fruitful and delightful division
    of the earth, man was created: here the
    most celebrated monarchies flourished;
    and it is still by far the most populous:
    here the holy oracles of God were given
    --the most important events of Divine
    Providence occurred;--and here the
    stupendous work of human redemption
    was accomplished, by the obedience and
    death of incarnate Deity
  161. ASIDE, apart, 2 Kings 4:4; Mark
  162. ASK, to inquire, Gen. 32:29: to
    request, 2 Kings 3:5.
  163. AS'KELON, [h] (weight, balance, or fire
    of infamy
    ), a city of the Philistines on the
    Mediterranean, about 65 miles from
    Jerusalem, Judg. 1:18; 1 Sam. 6:17;
    Zech. 9:5.   Askelon is celebrated as
    the birth-place of Herod the Great, but
    more so as a place of resort by the
    crusaders; it is now a wretched village
    called Ascalaam.
  164. ASLEEP, sleeping, Judg. 4:21: dead
    in the true faith, Acts 7:60; 1 Thess.
  165. ASP, a very venomous serpent, whose
    poison kills within a few hours with a
    universal gangrene, Deut. 32:33;
    Psal. 58:4.   This is the effect of the
    cobra di capello of India: but endless
    sleep is the effect of the bite of the asp
    of Ceylon.   Wicked men are fitly com-
    pared to these venomous creatures
    , Rom.
    3:13.   See ADDER.
  166. ASS, an animal somewhat resembling
    a horse, remarkable for patience, sub-
    mission, and temperance in eating.

    Several species of asses [donkeys], in the East, are
    larger, more active, and more beautiful
    than ours: they were, therefore, used
    for travelling and for state by the most
    honourable persons, as Abraham, Gen.
    12:16; 22:3-5; Balaam, Num. 22:
    23, 30; the Judges of Israel, Judg. 5:10;
    10:4; 12:4; and Christ, in entering
    Jerusalem, Matt. 21:4; Zech. 9:9.   Our
    engraving exhibits the ass of Persia.

  167. ASS (the Wild).   This was a beautiful
    species of the Arabian breed, said to be
    swifter than a horse, and needing the
    restraint of a bridle; hence the proverb,
    "A whip for the horse, and a bridle for
    the ass,"
    Prov. 26:3.
  168. ASSAULT, to attack with violence,
    Esth. 8:11; Acts 14:5.
  169. ASSAY, to endeavour, Job 4:2; Acts
  170. ASSEMBLE, to bring people together,
    Num. 10:3; Ezek. 11:17.
  171. ASSEMBLY, a company met together,
    Exod. 12:6: a congregation, Jam. 2:2.
  172. ASSENT, to agree, 2 Chron. 18:12;
    Acts 24:9.
  173. ASSIGNED, marked out and allotted,
    Gen. 47:22; Josh. 20:8.
  174. ASSIST, to help, Rom. 16:2.
  175. ASSOCIATE, to unite, Isa. 8:9.
  176. ASSOS (approaching), a maritime town
    of Troas, in Asia Minor, Acts 20:13.
  177. ASSUR.--See ASHUR.
  178. ASSURANCE, a satisfactory declaration,
    or testimony, Acts 17:31; 1 Thess 1:5:
    firm confidence, especially of interest in
    the favour of God, Isa. 32:17.   Seri-
    ous errors have been cherished on the
    subject of full assurance, as excluding
    all doubting; it is taught in the Script-
    ures thus :--
       Full assurance of understanding: this
    denotes a comprehensive knowledge of
    the revealed mysteries of redemption
    and grace as declared in the gospel of
    , Col. 2:2.
       Full assurance of faith: this is an intel-
    ligent confident belief of the truth of the
    gospel, in its revelation of God in Christ,
    and its promise of blessings through
    the Mediator
    , Heb. 10:22.
       Full assurance of hope, is the confident
    personal expectation of future and eter-
    nal blessings and salvation by Jesus
    , Heb. 7:11; Rom. 8:38, 29.
       These attainments of Christian expe-
    rience, although rare and high, may be
    possessed; and all believers are com-
    manded to seek them from God in the
    appointed means of grace[?].
  179. ASSURE, to give confidence, 1 John
  180. ASSUREDLY, certainly, 1 Kings 1:13;
    Acts 16:10.
  181. ASSYRIA, [h] ASHUR, (see ASHUR), a
    celebrated country of Asia, lying be-
    tween the rivers Tigris and Euphrates,
    Gen. 2:14; 2 Kings 15:29.   It derived
    its name from Ashur, who built its
    ancient capital, Nineveh, Gen. 10:11.
    Ninus and his magnanimous queen Semi-
    ramis were among its most famous
    sovereigns; and Tiglath-Pileser, Shal-
    manezer, and Sennacherib, were among
    its most powerful kings, enemies of
    Israel and Judah, 2 Kings 16:7; 17:
    3; 18:9.   Nineveh was besieged and
    taken by the Medes and Babylonians
    about the year B. C. 606, when Sardana-
    palus burnt his palace with his eunuchs,
    his concubines, and his treasures, and
    perished in its flames; after which the
    city declined till it became a heap of
    ruins, as predicted by the prophet
    Nahum; and the country is now almost
    desolate, called Kurdistan.   See NINEVEH.
  182. ASSWAGED, lessened or abated, Gen.
    8:1: relieved, Job 16:5, 6.
  183. ASTONIED, filled with perplexity,
    Ezr. 9:3; Dan. 3:24.
  184. ASTONISHED, filled with wonder or
    fear, Lev. 26:32; Acts 9:6.
  185. ASTONISHMENT, amazement and fear,
    Deut. 28:28, 37.
  186. ASTROLOGERS, vain pretenders to the
    knowledge of future events, by observ-
    ing the aspect of the stars, Isa. 47:13;
    Dan. 1:20.
  187. A'TAD, [h] (a thorn, or a bramble bush),
    the owner of the place where the sons of
    Jacob halted to mourn when they con-
    veyed the body of the patriarch to his
    grave near Hebron, Gen. 50:10, 11.
  188. ATHALI'AH, [h] (the time of the Lord),
    the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah, and
    daughter of Omri, king of Samaria, 2
    Kings 8:26.   She was a wicked woman,
    the "counsellor of her son to do wick-
    2 Chron. 22:3: she murdered
    all the royal family of Judah, and
    usurped the throne; but she perished by
    the sword, 23.
  189. ATH'ENS, from ’Αθηναι (Athene), a title
    of Minerva, who was the tutelar guardian
    of the city: it was the most celebrated
    city of Greece, and about 25 miles from
    Corinth; founded, as it is said, by
    Cecrops, an Egyptian, in the year B.C.
    1556, several years before the birth of
    Moses.   Learning and the arts were
    improved with the greatest zeal at
    Athens; and the wisdom of its sages
    was famous throughout the world at the
    period of the Christian era; yet all
    ranks were sunk in the most degrading
    superstition and
    idolatry, of which the
    case of the apostle Paul, before the court
    of Areopagus, affords an illustration,
    Acts 17:16-22.   Solon, Socrates, and
    Aristides, were among the famous philo-
    sophers of Athens; Demosthenes was
    the prince of orators; Miltiades, Cimon,
    Themistocles, and Alcibiades, were re-
    nowned generals.   Our engraving repre-
    sents modern Athens
    , with several ruins
    of the ancient city.
  190. ATONEMENT (a reconciliation), as the
    Greek word is translated, 2 Cor. 5:18,
    19, and in the margin of Rom. 5:11:
    in Rom. 11:15, it is rendered reconciling.
    The Levitical atonement was the cere-
    monial reconciliation, by means of sacri-
    fices appointed by the Divine authority,
    Exod. 30:10; Lev. 16:10-34, designed
    to prefigure the atonement made by
    "as the Lamb of God, which
    taketh away the sin of the world,"
    9:1-15; John 1:29.

       The Christian atonement is the satis-
    faction offered to the Divine justice for
    the sins of mankind by the obedience and
    death of Christ, the incarnate Son of
    , Rom. 5:1-11.   The virtue of this
    atonement reaches back to the first
    transgressor; and secures to all true
    penitents, believing on Christ, personal
    reconciliation with God; they, therefore,
    enjoy the Divine forgiveness, and are
    constituted, through the righteousness
    of the Mediator, heirs of eternal life
    Rom. 3:24-26; Isa. 53:4-12; 2 Cor. 5:
    17-21.   Viewing this atonement of Christ,
    under the influence of the Holy Spirit,
    believers can look up to God with confi-
    dence and joy, notwithstanding His awful
    perfections of glorious holiness and in-
    flexible justice, Rom. 5:11.

  191. ATTAIN, to gain or acquire, Prov. 1:5:
    to reach, as a place, Acts 27:12: to
    advance to, as a state, Rom. 9:30, 31;
    Phil. 3:12-16.
  192. ATTEND, to regard, Psal. 17:1;
    Prov. 4:1; Acts 16:14: to wait on,
    Est. 4:5.
  193. ATTENDANCE, waiting in service,
    1 Kings 10:6; Heb. 7:13.
  194. ATTENT or ATTENTIVE, regardful,
    2 Chron. 6:40; Neh. 1:6.
  195. ATTIRE, g. clothing, Prov. 7:10;
    Jer. 2:32.
  196. AUDIENCE, hearing, Gen. 23:13;
    Acts 15:12.
  197. AUGMENT, to increase, Num. 32:
  198. AUGUS'TUS, [g] (increased or
    augmented), the Roman emperor at the
    time of our Saviour's birth.   His decree
    of enrolment or taxation, occasioned the
    accomplishment of the Divine prediction
    Messiah to be born at Bethlehem,
    the city of David, Joseph being a de-
    scendant from that royal prophet, Luke
    2:1-11; Matt. 2:5, 6.   Augustus was
    the second Roman emperor, succeeding
    Julius Caesar, his uncle, A.M. 3965.
    From the defeat of Mark Antony, A.M.
    3973, he held the sole sovereignty forty-
    years, and died A.D. 14.
  199. AUNT, a father's or mother's sister,
    Lev. 18:14.
  200. AUSTERE, severe or harsh, Luke 19:
  201. AUTHOR, the beginner or original
    mover in a business or work, 1 Cor. 14:
    33; Heb. 5:9; 12:2.
  202. AUTHORITY, rightful power, Est. 9:
    29: warrant or commission, Matt. 21:
    23; Acts 9:14.
  203. AVAIL, to profit, Est. 5:1-3; Jam. 5:16.
  204. AVENGE, to revenge or punish an
    affront, Lev. 19:18: to vindicate, Num.
    31:2; Deut. 32:43.
  205. AVENGER, a revenger, Deut. 19:6;
    Josh. 20:5-9: a vindicator, 1 Thess.
  206. AVENGING, revenging, Judg. 5:22;
    1 Sam. 25:26, 33.
  207. AVERSE, strongly disinclined, Mic. 2:8.
  208. A'VITES, [h], AVIM (the wicked), a
    people of the ancient Canaanites, called
    Hivites, Gen. 10:15-17; Josh. 13:3.   See
  209. AVOID, to shun, Rom. 16:17: to
    refrain from, 1 Cor. 8:2: to escape
    from, 1 Sam. 18:11.
  210. AVOUCHED, declared, Deut. 26:17,
  211. AWAKE, to rouse from sleep, Mark 4:
    38: to rise up from inactivity, Judg. 5:
    12: to arise from ungodly sloth, Eph. 5:
    14: to rise from the dead, Job 14:12;
    Psal. 17:15.
  212. AWARE, vigilant, Jer. 50:24: conscious,
    Luke 11:44.
  213. AWAY, at a distance, Gen. 15:11:
    begone, John 19:15.
  214. AWL, a piercing instrument to bore
    small holes, Exod. 21:6; Deut. 15:17.
  215. AX or AXE, a sharp instrument of iron
    for cutting down trees, Deut. 19:5: this
    word is used metaphorically, to denote
    an individual or a power in the hand of
    God to strike or cut down the wicked:
    hence, as an axe in the hand of a car-
    penter, so were the Assyrians in the
    hand of God, Isa. 10:15, and John the
    Baptist, Matt. 3:10.
  216. AXLETREE, the bar of a carriage, on
    the ends of which the wheels turn,
    1 Kings 7:32, 33.
  217. AZARI'AH, [h] (assistance of the Lord,
    or court of the Lord), a common name in
    Israel: six high-priests are mentioned,
    besides many others, who were so called;
    among whom the following are most
    noted :--
  218. AZARIAH, called Uzziah, king of
    Judah, 2 Kings 14:21; 15:13; 2 Chron.
    26:1.   See
  219. AZARIAH, the high-priest who with-
    stood Uzziah, 2 Chron. 26:17-20.
  220. AZARIAH, captain of the guards to
    king Solomon, 1 Kings 4:5.
  221. AZARIAH, the son of Oded, a prophet,
    who instructed and encouraged king
    Asa, 2 Chron. 15:1-7.
  222. AZARIAH, a captive in Babylon, one
    of the three friends of Daniel, called
    Abednego, Dan. 1. 3.
  223. AZE'KAH, [h] (strength of walls), a city
    of Judea, near Gibeon, Josh. 10:10, 11;
    Jer. 34:7.
  224. AZO'TUS, [g], the Greek name of
    Ashdod, Acts 8:40.   See ASHDOD.

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