Bible Dictionary: Tn. 1840
- TOB, [h] (good or goodness), a small
canton on the north-east of Canaan on
the confines of Syria, where Jephthah
lived in exile, Judg. 11:3: thought to be
the same as Ish-tob, 2 Sam. 10:6, 8.
- TOBI'AH, (the goodness of God), a Levite
who could not find his genealogy on
returning from Babylon to Jerusalem,
Ezra 2:60, 62.
- TOBIAH, a governor, with Sanballat, of
the Samaritans, and an enemy of the
Jews, opposing the rebuilding of the
temple at Jerusalem, Neh. 2:10. Tobiah
married a daughter of a principal Jew;
and, in the absence of Nehemiah, dwelt
at Jerusalem, in an apartment of the
temple, from which he was expelled on
the return of the governor, 6:12, 18,
- TOBIAH or TOBIJAH, one of the Levites,
sent by king Jehoshaphat to instruct the
people in the several cities of Judah in
the knowledge of the law of God, 2 Chron.
- TOES, the divided extremities or small
members of the feet, 1 Chron. 20:6. The
ten toes of Nebuchadnezzar's image, de-
note ten minor kingdoms, Dan. 2:41, 42.
Cutting of the toes and fingers, was a
cruel mode of treating captives, among
some people, Judg. 1:6, 7.
- TOGAR'MAH, [h] (which is all bone, or
breaking the bones), a son of Gomer, sup-
posed to have peopled Cappadocia, Gen.
- TOGARMAH, the people of Cappadocia,
Ezek. 27:14; who will assist the
nations of Gog and Magog against the
people of God, 38:2, 6, 18.
- TOGETHER, united in a place, Deut.
22:10; Matt. 18:20; or in a condition,
19:6; 1 Pet. 3:7.
- TO'I, [h] (who wanders), the king of
Hamath, who sent his son Joram, with
valuable presents, to congratulate him on
his conquering Hadadezer, 2 Sam. 8:9-
- TOIL, wearisome or sorrowful labour,
Gen. 5:29, 41:51.
- TOIL, to labour with fatigue, Matt. 6:
- TOILED, laboured hard, Lev. 5:5.
- TOILING, labouring with fatigue, Mark
- TOKEN, a memorial, as the rainbow of
God's covenant of safety made with Noah,
Gen. 9:12; or Aaron's rod that budded,
of his appointment to the priesthood by
the Divine choice, against the rebellious
troublers of Israel, Num. 17:10: a sign
or evidence, as the blood of the passover
upon the doors of Israel, Exod. 12:13;
or the treacherous kiss of Judas, Mark
- TOLA, [h] (worm or grub), the eldest son
of Issachar, and head of a family, Gen.
46:13; Num. 26:23.
- TOLA, one of the judges of Israel, Judg.
- TOLD, did tell or inform, Gen. 9:22;
- TOLD, reported, Josh. 9:24: counted,
2 Kings 12:11.
- TOLERABLE, supportable, Matt. 10:15;
- TOLL, an excise of goods, or a tax on
property, Eph. 4:13, 20; 7:24.
- TOMB, a monument in which the dead
are enclosed, Matt. 23:29; 27:60.
- TONGS, an instrument by which any-
thing is taken up, Exod. 25:38; as coal
from the fire, Isa. 6:6; or held, as heated
iron for the smith to forge, 44:12.
- TONGUE, the organ of speech, Job 5:
21; Prov. 5:9: language, Gen. 10:20- 31;
as the Syrian, Ezra 4:7; or Chaldee,
Dan. 1:4; or Hebrew, Acts 26:14: a
people using a distinct language, Rev. 5:
- TONGUED: double-tongued, is insin-
cere in profession, or deceitful in speech,
1 Tim. 3:8.
- Tongues. See Tract.
- TOOK, did take, or receive, as money,
Num. 3:49: did seize, Deut. 2:35: did
conquer, 1 Kings 20:34: did remove,
1 Kings 14:26: did regard, Gen. 42:
- TOOL, an instrument of work or manual
operation, as a hammer, Deut. 27:5;
or a graver, Exod. 32:4.
- TOOTH, a small bone in the mouth for
eating, Exod. 21:24, 27. See TEETH.
- TOP, the highest part, as of a building,
Gen. 11:4; Judg. 15:8: the upper part,
Exod. 30:3; John 19:23.
- TOPAZ, a precious stone of a greenish
yellow colour, Exod. 28:17. Oriental
topazes are the most valuable, Job 28:
19; and one was possessed by the Great
Mogul, in India, weighing 137 carats,
valued at L200,300. It was called Topa-
zion in Greek, from an island of that name
in the Red sea, where it was anciently
found, Rev. 21:10: but an inferior kind
is common in Abyssinia, Peru, Bohemia,
and Scotland, some of which are indeed
- TO'PHET, [h] (a drum, or betraying), a
horrid place near Jerusalem, part of the
valley of Hinnom, where the Canaanites,
and afterwards the idolatrous Jews, burnt
their children in sacrifice to the idols
Baal and Molech. Josiah destroyed the
symbols of idolatry there, 2 Kings 23:
10-13: but on account of the abomina-
tions of the Jews, they were threatened
with the most grievous calamities, Jer.
7:31, 32; 19:2, 6, 9, 13. Isaiah calls
the place where the Assyrian army was
destroyed by the name Tophet, Isa. 30:
33, as that horrid valley was dreaded as
the place where the murdered children
were consumed, and many of the dead
buried from the city of Jerusalem. See
HELL, HINNOM, and MOLECH.
- TORCH, a wax light, larger than a
candle, to carry in the hand in a dark
night, Nah. 2:3; John 18:3.
- TORMENT, extreme pain, Matt. 4:24;
Rev. 9:5; agonising misery, Luke 16:
- TORMENT, to inflict pain, or to punish,
Matt. 8:29; Mark 5:7.
- TORMENTED, afflicted, Matt. 8:6:
punished, Luke 16:24, 25.
- TORMENTORS, jailors, who inflicted
various tortures on their prisoners, Matt.
- TORN, rent by violence, as by a beast
of prey, Gen. 31:39; 1 Kings 13:26,
- TORTOISE, a large species of lizard,
supposed to be the Arabian Dub, or
Saharawan Lizard, about eighteen inches
long and four inches across the back:
this word occurs only Lev. 11:29.
- TORTURED, put to extreme pain, as
martyrs, Heb. 11:35.
- TOSS, to fling as a ball, Isa. 22:18: to
agitate, as the waves of the sea in a
storm, Jer. 5:22.
- TOSSED, agitated, as a ship in a storm
at sea, Matt. 14:24; Acts 27:18.
- TOSSINGS, paroxysms of pain, Job 7:
- TOTTERING, shaking, as ready to fall
down, Psal. 62:3.
- TOUCH, to come in contact, Deut. 11:
8, 31: to feel lightly, Matt. 9:21; Luke
11:46: to approach, Exod. 19:12: to
meddle with, Num. 16:26; Job 1:11: to
injure or distress, Gen. 20:6; 26:11: to
prevail against, 1 John 5:18.
- TOUCHED, did touch or come in con-
tact with, 1 Kings 6:27: did feel lightly,
Matt. 9:20, 29: did approach, as a shore,
- TOUCHED, affected to sympathy, Heb.
4:15: engaged by divine influence, 1
- TOUCHING, regarding, concerning, or
with regard to, Gen. 27:42; Acts 21:
- TOW, flax or hemp prepared for spin-
ning, Judg. 16:9. Wicked men, equally
prepared to be consumed by the anger of
God as tow is to be consumed by fire,
Isa. 1:31; 43:17.
- TOWARD, inclining to, Gen. 48:13:
with regard to, 2 Chron. 24:16; Acts
- TOWEL, a napkin, a small cloth to wipe
the hands, Job 13:4, 5.
- TOWER, a high building, as a castle or
fortification, for protection or defence,
Judg. 9:51; 2 Chron. 27:4; Isa.
32:14. Towers were commonly
erected in vineyards, for the purposes
of the plantations, and for pleasure,
Isa. 5:2. God, as our protector, is the
tower of His people, Prov. 18:10; Psal.
- TOWER OF BABEL, the famous temple
of Babylon, Gen. 10:10; 11:4, 9. See
BABEL and BABYLON.
- TOWER OF EDAR, an elevation about a
mile from Bethlehem, supposed to have
been called the "Tower of the flock"
with reference to that city as the birth-
place of Messiah, Gen. 35:; Mic.
4:8. This is thought to have been the
place where the honoured shepherds were
watching at the birth of Christ, Luke 2:
8, 15; Mic. 5:2.
- TOWER OF SHECHEM, a spacious
citadel near the city, which about a
thousand persons left, vainly hoping for
greater security in the temple of their
idol Berith, when besieged by Abimelech,
Judg. 9:46, 49.
- TOWER OF SILOAM, a lofty structure
on the bank of the Siloah, perhaps a part
of the wall of Jerusalem, Neh. 3:15, and
the fall of which, occasioning the loss of
life, is referred to by our Saviour, Luke
- TOWN, a city, 1 Sam. 16:4; 23:7: a
large village unwalled, Josh. 15:45, 47;
- TOWN-CLERK, the secretary or recorder
of the city of Ephesus, as some think, of
the temple of Diana: he was a person of
great prudence, as evinced by his quelling
the riot, occasioned by Demetrius against
Paul, Acts 19:35.
- TRACHONI'TUS, [g] (rough or
strong), a small rocky canton in Arabia,
south of Damascus, under the govern-
ment of Philip, son of Herod the Great,
- TRADE, occupation or business, Gen.
- TRADE, to traffic or barter, buying and
selling, Gen. 34:10.
- TRADED, did trade, Ezek. 27:12, 17;
- TRADING, trafficking, Luke 14:15.
- TRADITION, a doctrine or precept, not
contained in a written law, but delivered
from father to son without writing: such
traditions were observed by the Pharisees
to the neglect of the laws of God, Matt.
15:2-6; Mark 7:3: apostolic instruc-
tions are so called, 2 Thess. 2:15; 3:6.
From our Saviour's censures of the Jewish
traditions, we learn that no ordinances or
doctrines can be of any authority unless
as they derive it from agreement with the
- Tradition(s), human. They are NOT
found in God's Word.
Many are RCC inventions. See
Heresies & Human Traditions.
Others are Isl_mic.
- TRADITIONS OF THE ELDERS: these,
the Jews pretend, are explanations of the
written law, which God gave to Moses:
they say that he recited them four times
to Aaron, three times to his sons, twice
to the seventy elders, and once to the
people: that Joshua having received
them from Moses delivered them, with
others given in his time, to the elders,
and they to the priests and prophets in
succession, by whom they were preserved
with great care, until the time of Rabbi
Juda Hakkadosh, who was famous in the
Jewish school at Tiberias, in the second
century: this great doctor spent forty
years in collecting and writing them
under distinct heads, which he completed
about A. D. 190, and called his volume
MISHNA or Second Law. Expositions
and commentaries were made upon the
Mishna; and these were collected and
written by another famous rabbi, about
A. D. 300, or later; and called GEMARA or
PERFECTION: these two works together
form the TALMUD, or INSTRUCTION. The
Jews of Chaldea were dissatisfied with
this, and therefore wrote another Gemara,
which, together with the Mishna, is called
the BABYLONIAN TALMUD: and the Jews
generally prefer this to the other, which
is called the JERUSALEM TALMUD. The
Jerusalem Talmud is in one volume
folio, the Babylonian Talmud, in twelve
volumes: but Rabbi Maimonides, in the
twelfth century, published a summary or
abridgment of the whole. The Gemara
is full of extravagances and puerilities,
but the Mishna contains many things
illustrative of Christianity.
- TRAFFICK, trade or merchandise, 1
Kings 10:15; Ezek. 27:5, 18.
- TRAFFICK, to trade or pursue merchan-
dise, Gen. 42:34.
- TRAFFICKERS, traders or merchants,
- TRAIN, a retinue, as of a sovereign, 1
Kings 10:2. Christ's train filling the
temple, is supposed to denote angels
attending Him in glory, Isa. 6:1; and to
indicate His ministers and their endow-
ments for His gospel church, Eph. 4:8-
- TRAIN, to discipline or educate, Prov.
- TRAINED, disciplined, Gen. 14:14.
- TRAITOR, one who betrays his friend,
master, or country, Luke 6:16; 2 Tim.
- TRAMPLE, to tread under foot with
contempt, Psal. 91:13; Isa. 63:3.
- TRANCE, an ecstacy, or kind of dream:
such a rapture of mind as gives the
person who falls into it a look of asto-
nishment, rendering him insensible to
external objects, while his imagination is
excited with impressive scenes which
absorb his attention. Balaam seems to
have been so affected supernaturally, for
the purpose of preparing him to bless
Israel and to foretell their prosperity
under the care of God, Num. 24:4, 16.
Peter's trance was designed to prepare
him to welcome the Gentiles into the
church of Christ, Acts 10:10; 11:5: and
Paul's to direct his missionary labours
among the Gentiles, 22:17, 21.
- TRANQUILLITY, peaceful prosperity,
- TRANSFERRED, made over from one to
another, 1 Cor. 4:6.
- TRANSFIGURED, changed in outward
form and appearance, as our Saviour was
transfigured, appearing in glory to James,
Peter, and John, on mount Tabor, at-
tended by Moses and Elijah, Matt. 17:
2; Mark 9:2. This glorious manifesta-
tion was designed as a confirmation of
the prophetical office of Christ; as an
emblem of humanity glorified at the
resurrection; as declaring Christ to be
superior to Moses and Elijah; and as a
proof that the bodies of [saved] men shall
be so refined and changed, as, like Elijah,
to live in a state of immortality, and in
the presence of God.
- TRANSFORMED, changed in character,
as the minds of Christians are trans-
formed by the renewing influence of
divine grace, qualifying them to obey and
glorify God, Rom. 12:2; in appearance
or profession, as designing men, the agents
of Satan are transformed, assuming the
character of teachers of the truth, 2 Cor.
- TRANSFORMING, assuming a profession
or character, as some designing men do,
2 Cor. 11:13.
- TRANSGRESS, to go beyond the bounds,
as in violating a law, Num. 14:41; Matt.
15:2, 3; Esth. 3:3.
- TRANSGRESSED, exceeded the limits,
as of a law, Josh. 7:11; Ezra 10:10.
- TRANSGRESSING, violating, Deut. 17:
2; Isa. 59:13.
- TRANSGRESSION, violation of a law,
especially the law of God, Rom. 4:15; 5:
14. Every sin is a transgression of the
Divine law, 1 John 3:4; but various
terms are employed by the sacred writers
to express it, as indicating a greater or
less degree of aggravation. "[T]rans-
gression and disobedience[,]" are sins, Heb.
2:2: the former denoting the breach of
the law, the latter indicating a refusal to
- TRANSGRESSOR, a violater of a law,
Mark 15:28; Gal. 2:18. Every man is a
transgressor of the law of God, and needs
the mercy of God through the atonement
of Christ, Rom. 3:19, 26.
- TRANSLATE, to transfer, as the sove-
reign power from one to another, 2 Sam.
- TRANSLATED, transferred, or removed
from one state to another, as believers
are brought from the dominion of sin and
Satan, to the kingdom of grace in Christ
Jesus, Col. 1:13; and as Enoch was taken
from a mortal life to a state of immortal
glory, Heb. 11:5.
- TRANSLATION, removal from one state
to another, as Enoch from earth to Heaven,
- TRANSPARENT, reflecting the light, as
polished brass, Rev. 21:21. See GLASS.
- TRAP, a snare or gin, as for the catch-
ing of noxious animals, Job 18:8-10.
Evil persons, and even our enjoyments,
may become a trap to us unless we have
the preserving care of God, Josh. 23:
13; Jer. 5:26; Rom. 11:9.
- TRAVAIL, labour with pain and suffer-
ing, as a woman in child-bearing, Jer.
30:6; as Messiah in bearing the pen-
alty of human transgression, Isa. 53:
- TRAVAIL, to labour in pain, Isa. 13:8;
- TRAVAILED, did labour in pain, 1 Sam.
4:19: did labour in prayer and active
zeal, as the church in seeking the con-
version of sinners, Isa. 66:7, 8.
- TRAVAILING, labouring in pain, Hos.
13:13; Rev. 12:2.
- TRAVEL, fatiguing labour on a journey,
Exod. 18:8; Acts 19:29: laborious
care in the progress of life, Eccles. 1:13;
- TRAVEL, to make journeys from place
to place, as the my. labour of the
apostles, 2 Cor. 8:9.
- TRAVELLED, did travel or journey,
- TRAVELLER, one who goes journeys,
Job 31:32; Judg. 5:6.
- TRAVELLING, proceeding on a journey,
Isa. 63:1; Matt. 25:14.
- TRAVELLING, habituated to travel from
place to place, Isa. 21:13.
- TRAVERSING, crossing or journeying,
as the camels across the deserts of Arabia,
- TREACHEROUS, perfidious, faithless, as
idolatrous priests and people, Zeph. 3:4;
Jer. 3:7, 11.
- TREACHEROUSLY, perfidiously, deceit-
fully, Judg. 9:23; Jer. 3:20; Mal. 2:10,
- TREACHERY, perfidy, breach of faith,
or treason; as Joram king of Israel ex-
claimed against his captain, Jehu, when
that bold man disobeyed his royal master,
in fulfilling his commission from the
prophet to cut off the guilty house of
Ahab, 2 Kings 9:7, 23.
- TREAD, to walk, Deut. 11:24, 25: to
press, as men pressed grapes in the
making of wine, Job 24:11; Isa. 16:10;
or as they pressed mortar for building,
Nah. 3:14. Wicked men tread God's
courts without rendering him spiritual
worship, Isa. 1:12. God treads his ene-
mies by grievous calamities, 62:3.
- TREADER, a labourer at the winepress,
Isa. 16:10; Amos 9:13.
- TREADING, labouring at the winepress,
Neh. 13:15: pasturing, Isa. 7:25: op-
pressing, Amos 5:11.
- TREASON, an offence against the king,
1 Kings 16:9, 10, 16; 2 Kings 11:14.
- TREASURE, riches, valuable things
accumulated in stores: as money, Gen.
43:23; gold and silver, Ezek. 28:4;
Dan. 11:43; precious vessels and rich
furniture, Neh. 7:70; 1 Kings 14:26;
15:18; corn and national stores, Jer. 41:
8; Exod. 1:11. Treasure denotes what is
valuable; as divine grace, in an intelli-
gent holy mind, is the "good treasure of
the heart," Matt. 12:36: the gospel, as
committed to the apostles, was "treasure
in earthen vessels," 2 Cor. 4:7: eternal
glory and blessedness with God, is the
"treasure" which we are directed to lay
up or secure in heaven, Matt. 6:19, 20.
"All the treasures of wisdom and know-
ledge" being hid in Christ, denotes the
spiritual gifts and blessings which are
designed for His church, Col. 2:3.
- TREASURE, to store up or accumulate,
as wicked men treasure guilt for the day
of wrath, Rom. 2:5.
- TREASURED, stored for seasonable use,
- TREASURE-CITIES, towns built and
fortified for the security of national
stores, Exod. 1:11.
- TREASURE-HOUSES, buildings for the
preservation of national stores, as corn
and arms, Ezra 5:17; 7:20.
- TREASURER, an officer appointed to
take care of the national stores in the
treasure-cities, or the royal palace, Isa.
22:15; Ezra 1:8; 7:21.
- TREASURY, an apartment or a building
in which the national treasure was kept,
Josh. 6:19: a division of the temple
where the sacred gifts were received,
Jer. 38:11; Mark 12:41.
- TREATISE, a discourse or narrative,
written for instruction, as the author
calls the "Gospel according to Luke,"
- TREE, a large vegetable with a wooden
stem, and branching variously, Gen. 1:29:
a gallows or gibbet, Acts 5:30; 10:39; Gal.
3:13. Trees were numerous and various
in Canaan and the adjacent countries:
those for timber particularly included the
cedar, oak, ash, elm, pine, cypress, shittah,
poplar, &c.; among the fruit-trees were,
the apple-citron, almond, fig, olive, palm,
vine, pomegranate, mulberry, chesnut,
&c.; and among the aromatic and orna-
mental were, the aloe, balsam, box, cin-
namon, cassia, thyme, willow, &c. men-
tioned in the Scriptures. Many of the
trees in those countries exhibit their
rich foliage in January, and even before
the falling of the old leaves; by this
means affording the delightful sight of an
almost universal and perpetual spring.
- TREE OF KNOWLEDGE: this tree,
planted in the garden of Eden, was so
called on account of its having been
appointed as the easy and reasonable
test of man's obedient loyalty to God.
Doubtless, it was a fine and noble tree,
bearing most beautiful fruit; and by
means of which the evil spirit tempted,
deceived, and overcame Eve, in whose
folly and crime she soon obtained the
guilty and ruinous concurrence of our
father Adam, Gen. 2:9-17; Gen. 3:3.
- TREE OF LIFE: this tree, planted in
Eden, appears to have been so called,
as the appointed symbol of the Divine
favour, and the sacred means of pre-
serving the natural vigour of Adam and
Eve during their continued obedience
to the will of God, Gen. 2:9.
- TREE OF LIFE: John beheld in his
prophetic visions the "tree of life," as
planted on either side of the river of
water of life in the New Jerusalem, Rev.
22:2. He learnt that all obedient
believers have right to eat of it, ver. 14;
which is also promised as part of the
reward of the faithful in the present
service of Christ, 2:7.
- TREMBLE, to shake or quake with
dread, Deut. 2:25; 20:3: to regard with
guilty dread, Jam. 2:19: to regard with
reverence, Dan. 6:26.
- TREMBLED, did tremble or quake,
Gen. 27:33; 1 Sam. 4:13; Acts 7:32.
- TREMBLING, terror, Exod. 15:15; Isa.
51:17-22: reverential regard, Phil. 2:12.
- TREMBLING, quaking, Deut. 28:65:
1 Sam. 13:7; Acts 9:6.
- TRENCH, a ditch, 1 Kings 18:32:
a deep ditch, excavated round a camp
for its protection, 1 Sam. 17:20; 26:
5; or around a city to prevent the escape
of its inhabitants, Luke 19:43.
- TRESPASS, an offence committed, as
that of Joseph's brethren in selling him
to slavery, Gen. 1:17; as the sin of a man,
violating the law of God, Num. 5:6; Ezra
9:27; 2 Cor. 5:19.
- TRESPASS, to offend or injure man,
1 Kings 8:31; Matt. 18:15: to pro-
voke God, 2 Chron. 28:22.
- TRESPASSED, transgressed or sinned,
Lev. 5:19; 2 Chron. 33:22.
- TRESPASSING, transgressing the law
of God, Ezek. 14:13.
- TRESPASS-OFFERING, a sacrifice for
some offence, Lev. 5:16; 1 Sam. 6:3.
- TRIAL, test or experiment, as by afflic-
tion, Job 9:25; 1 Pet. 1:7.
- TRIBE, a distinct body or family of
people, as each of the great families
descending from the twelve sons of
Jacob, Gen. 49:28; or of a large family
of any of those tribes, as the Kohathites,
Num. 4:18. Levi and Joseph are not
generally reckoned as distinct tribes:
but their numbers were supplied by
Ephraim and Manasseh, the sons of
Joseph, who had been adopted by Jacob,
Gen. 48:5-20; Num. 1:32, 35, 47, 49.
Thirteen tribes, therefore, really existed
in Israel, but the land of Canaan was
divided into twelve parts only; the Le-
vites having no share of the country,
except forty-eight cities and their suburbs,
as they were supported by the tithe of
the produce, in return for their giving
themselves to the service of the Lord,
as the priests and instructors of the
other tribes of Israel, Num. 35:1-8;
Josh. 22:14, 33. See LEVITES, and
TITHES OF LEVI. Tribal distinctions
continued in Israel, who remained united
until the reign of Saul, when David was
appointed to the throne of Judah; and
though the whole nation reunited under
David after the death of Ishbosheth, and
so continued under Solomon, ten of the
tribes revolted from Rehoboam, forming
the kingdom of Israel: thus the nation
became divided and weakened; idolatry
was made the established religion of the
ten tribes, leading to a series of errors,
crimes, and calamities, which hastened
the ruin of both nations, and the capti-
vity of both Israel and Judah. See
ISRAELITES, and JEWS.
- TRIBULATION, painful affliction or
calamities, Deut. 4:3; 1 Sam. 10:19; Matt.
24:21: persecution, 13:21: eternal
torment, Rom. 2:9.
- Tribulation, 7-Year. See Tract.
- TRIBUTARIES, people who pay a tri-
bute to a superior in acknowledgment
of subjection, Deut. 20:11; Judg. 1:30.
- TRIBUTARY, subjected, so as to pay
tribute, Lam. 1:1.
- TRIBUTE, a contribution, Num. 31:
28, 40; 2 Sam. 20:24: a tax imposed
upon a subjected people, especially on
those conquered, as the Canaanites were
obliged to render to Israel, Josh. 16:10;
2 Chron. 8:8; and as the Jews paid
tribute to the Romans, Matt. 22:
- TRICKLE, to flow down in drops, as
tears, Lam. 3:49.
- TRIM, to decorate or make attractive,
- TRIMMED, dressed or made neat, as
the beard, 2 Sam. 19:24; or clean and
fit for burning, as lamps, Matt. 25:7.
- TRIUMPH, victory or joyful confidence,
- TRIUMPH, to rejoice boastingly; as
wicked men do in prosperity, 2 Sam. 1:
20; Psal. 25:2; as Christian ministers
do in the holy conquests of the gospel,
2 Cor. 2:14; as pious men do, assured
of the favour of God, Psal. 92:4.
- TRIUMPHED, conquered, as God over-
threw Pharaoh and his host, Exod. 15:1.
- TRIUMPHING, vain-glorious boasting,
as of the wicked, Job 20:5.
- TRIUMPHING, glorying, as Christ over
the enemies of Himself and of His church,
in His ascension, Col. 2:15.
- TRO'AS, Τρωας (penetrated), a city of
Mysia, on the north-western coast of
Asia Minor: it is famous as being the
place where the apostle Paul was directed
by a vision to carry the gospel into
Europe, A.D. 53, Acts 16:8. Troas
being a convenient seaport, was repeat-
edly visited by the apostle, 20:5-12;
2 Cor. 2:12; 2 Tim. 4:13. Troas stood
on or near the site of the ancient Troy,
so celebrated in history for its capture
after ten years' siege by the Greeks,
about the year 904 B.C., in the reign of
- TRODE, did tread or press, as grapes,
Judg. 9:27: did trample, 20:43; 2 Kings
- TRODDEN, walked over, Deut. 1:36:
trampled, Isa. 14:19; Luke 8:5; 21:
24: regarded with profane disrespect,
- TROGYLLIUM, a town and promontory
of Lydia, opposite the isle of Samos, and
distant about five miles, Acts 20:15.
- TROOP, a company, as of soldiers, 2
Sam. 23:11-13; or of robbers, 1 Sam.
30:8; Hos. 7:1; or of merchants, Job
6:19; Isa. 21:13.
- TROPH'IMUS, Τροφιμος (well-educated), an
Ephesian converted to Christianity by
the ministry of Paul. He seems to have
become an evangelist, as he travelled
with the apostle, who left him sick at
Miletum, on his last journey to Rome,
2 Tim. 4:21.
- TROUBLE, care, anxiety, or calamity,
Neh. 9:34; Job 5:7; 2 Cor. 1:4: perse-
cution, 2 Tim. 2:9.
- TROUBLE, to disturb or distress, Josh.
6:18; Dan. 5:10: to agitate, Acts 16:20.
- TROUBLED, did trouble or distress,
Exod. 14:24: did agitate, John 5:4.
- TROUBLED, distressed, Gen. 45:3;
1 Sam. 28:21: perplexed, Matt. 2:3:
agitated, John 5:7.
- TROUBLER, one who causes trouble,
1 Chron. 2:7.
- TROUBLING, distressing, Job 3:7:
agitating, John 5:4.
- TROUBLOUS, calamitous, Dan. 9:25.
- TROUGH, a small cistern for watering
cattle, Gen. 24:20; 30:38: a knead-
ing-trough was either a kind of tub or
leathern bag, Exod. 8:3; 12:34.
- TRUCE, an agreement or covenant of
peace and friendship, 2 Tim. 3:3.
- TRUE, faithful or sincere, as Joseph's
brethren were in their professed cha-
racter in Egypt, Gen. 42:11, 33; as the
testimony or preaching of Christ, John
8:14; or of John the apostle, 19:35.
Jehovah is the true God, in opposition
to idols and all the fabulous divinities of
the heathen, Jer. 10:10; 1 Thess. 1:9.
Christ is the true light, John 1:9; the
true bread, 6:32; the true vine, 15:1,
as being the fountain of wisdom, and
possessed of all blessings for believers.
A true heart is penitent and believing,
Heb. 10:22, as possessed by all true wor-
shippers, John 4:23, who are renewed
in true holiness by the Spirit of God,
- TRULY, faithfully, Gen. 24:49: cer-
tainly, Num. 14:21; 1 John 1:3.
- TRUMP, a trumpet, or the sounding of
a trumpet, 1 Cor. 15:52. The awfully
glorious summons which shall raise the
dead in Christ to life and immortality at
the resurrection is called the trump of
God, 1 Thess. 4:16.
See The Pre-Tribulation Rapture.
- TRUMPET, a straight or bent tube for a
musical instrument, Exod. 19:16; Judg.
7:16-18. Trumpets were at first only the
horn of beasts, as of rams, Josh. 6:4-9;
but at length some were made of silver:
two of this kind were used by the priests
as part of the service at the daily and
other sacrifices, at festivals, and in the
marches of the Israelites, Num. 10:2-10.
- TRUMPETERS, musicians who sounded
trumpets, 2 Kings 11:14; 2 Chron. 5:13.
- TRUMPETS, FEAST OF: this sacred
festival was kept on the new year's day,
when sacrifices were offered, all seculars
laid aside, and the blowing of trumpets
indicated national rejoicing: this day
was the first day of the seventh month
of the sacred year, Lev. 23:24; Num.
29:1. See MONTH.
- TRUST, confidence, Job 15:15; 2 Cor.
3:4: care or protection, Luke 16:11;
1 Tim. 6:20.
- TRUST, to confide, Ruth 2:12; Job 13:
15; Mark 10:24; 1 Tim. 4:10: to hope or
expect, 2 John 12: to be persuaded, Heb.
- TRUSTED, confided, Judg. 20:36; Dan.
3:38; Eph. 1:12: permitted, Judg. 11:
- TRUSTING, confiding, Psal. 112:7.
- TRUSTY, honest, worthy of confidence,
- TRUTH, faithfulness in words, Gen.
42:16; Prov. 12:17; John 16:7: fide-
lity in actions agreeably to a profession,
Josh. 24:14; Judg. 9:15; 2 Kings 20:
3: the fulfilment of promises, Gen. 24:
27; 32:10. Truth denotes divine
doctrine, Psal. 26:5; Dan. 9:13; espe-
cially the gospel of Christ, John 1:17;
5:33; 16:13; Gal. 3:1; 1 Tim. 2:4.
Truth is one of the titles of Christ, as He
is the substance prefigured by the sacri-
fices of former ages, and by all the Levi-
tical ceremonies, to whose character and
offices reference is made by all the evan-
gelical predictions of the Old Testament,
- TRUTH OF GOD, that perfection of the
Divine nature by which He publishes
that only in His word and promises which
is true, and infallibly fulfils what He
promises or threatens, Psal. 57:10; 100:5;
- TRY, to examine, as to ascertain the
quality of persons, Judg. 7:4; 2 Chron.
32:31; or of works, 1 Cor. 3:13;
1 Pet. 4:12. God is said to try men,
when he discovers to themselves, or to
others, their real principles and charac-
ters, Psal. 26:2; 139:23.
- TRYING, the act of examining or prov-
ing, Jam. 1:3.
- TRYPHE'NA, [g] (delicious or deli-
cate), and Tryphosa, were Christian fe-
males of some note in the church at
Rome, Rom. 16:2.
- TRYPHO'SA, [g] (living delicately).
- TU'BAL, [h] (the world or the earth), the
fifth son of Japhet, son of Noah, Gen. 10:
2. Tubal and his brother Meshech, or
their descendants, are believed to have
peopled the region of mount Caucasus,
between the Black sea and the Caspian:
and it is remarkable that the modern
Circassians are slave dealers, Ezek. 27:
13; 38:[2, 3]; Rev. 18:13.
- TUBAL-CAIN, [h] (worldly posses-
sion), a son of Lamech, of the family of
Cain: he was famous as the inventor of
the art of manufacturing brass and iron,
- TUMBLED, did fall suddenly, Judg. 7:
- TUMULT, an uproar among a crowd,
1 Sam. 4:14; Acts 21:34.
- TUMULTUOUS, noisy, as of a crowd of
people, Isa. 13:4; 22:2.
- TURN, an orderly season, or time, as
appointed, Est. 2:12, 15.
- TURN, to proceed in a new course,
Gen. 24:49; Num. 14:25: to direct,
Neh. 9:26; Amos 1:8: to return, Acts
26:20: to change, Rev. 11:6. Men
turn to God when, by repentance and
faith in His promises of mercy, they seek
His face in the name of the Redeemer,
Hos. 12:6; Acts 26:20.
- TURNED, did turn or change, Gen. 3:
24: did retire, 42:24; 2 Kings 5:12:
did return, Acts 11:21: did change, as
position, 2 Kings 20:2; 23:16; or
course of life, 1 Thess. 1:9.
- TURNED, changed, 1 Sam. 10:6; Est.
9:1; John 16:10: perverted, 2 Tim. 4:
4: directed, Jam. 3:4.
- TURNING, change, mutability, Jam. 1:
- TURNING, changing, 2 Pet. 2:6: re-
covering, Acts 3:26.
- TURTLE, a species of pigeon, migra-
tory in its habits, Gen. 15:9; Jer. 8:7;
Luke 2:24. Turtle-dove, Psal. 74:19,
is [right]ly translated, "soul of thy
- TUTORS, instructors or masters, Gal.
- TWAIN, two, 1 Sam. 18:21; Matt. 5:
- TWELFTH, the second after the tenth,
1 Kings 19:19.
- TWELVE, two and ten, twice six, Gen.
35:22; 1 Kings 7:25.
- TWENTY, twice ten, Gen. 18:31;
1 Kings 9:10, 11.
- TWICE, two times, Gen. 41:32; Job
- TWIGS, the smallest branches of a tree,
- TWILIGHT, the dim light before sun-
rise or after sunset, 1 Sam. 30:17; 2
Kings 7:5; Prov. 7:5.
- TWINED, twisted, Exod. 26:36.
Twined linen was made of a peculiarly
- TWINKLING, a quick motion, as of the
eye, 1 Cor. 15:52.
- TWINS, two children of one birth, Gen.
- TWO, one and one, Gen. 4:19; 6:19.
- TWOFOLD, doubly, Matt. 23:15.
- TYCH'ICUS, Τυχικος (casual or happen-
ing), an evangelist, distinguished by his
services to the apostle Paul, who regarded
him with much affection as a faithful
minister of Christ. Tychicus accompa-
nied Paul from Corinth to Jerusalem,
Acts 20:4; and was afterwards sent to
visit the churches, conveying the epistles
to the Ephesians and Colossians, Eph.
6:21, 22; Col. 4:7, 8; 2 Tim. 4:12:
when the apostle sent for Titus, it appears
that he was succeeded by Tychicus in
ordering the affairs in the churches of
Crete, Tit. 3:12.
- TYRAN'NUS, Τυραννος (a king or prince),
a philosopher of Ephesus, whose lecture-
room was occupied by the apostle Paul
for preaching the gospel, when he could no
longer obtain the use of the Jewish syna-
gogue, Acts 19:9. Tyrannus is thought
to have been a convert to Christianity.
- TYRE, [h] (a rock), softened by the
Greeks from Tzoor to Τυρος, Tyrus, Jer.
25:22: this celebrated city, the seat of
Phenician commerce, was situated about
ninety miles north-west of Jerusalem
and eighteen south-west of Sidon, on the
coast of the Mediterranean. Tyre was
"a city whose antiquity was of ancient
days," in the time of Isaiah, Isa. 23:
7-12: and though, as the prophet calls
it the "daughter" or colony of Sidon,
it was called "the strong city of Tyre"
by Joshua, Josh. 19:29, and allotted to
the tribe of Asher. Tyre does not appear
to have ever been possessed by the Isra-
elites: but Hiram, its king, was a pros-
perous ally of David and of Solomon,
greatly aiding those monarchs by supplies
of timber and other materials, and with
builders, in prosecuting their various
architectural works, 2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Kings
7:13; 9:12. Tyre flourished for many
centuries, as the chief centre of com-
merce; and its wealth is celebrated by
the prophets after the reign of Solomon,
Isa. 23:2, 8, 18; Ezek. 27:3, 33:
but on account of the crimes of the
people, God gave it to Nebuchadnezzar,
who took it after a siege of thirteen
years, about the year 571 B.C., Ezek.
27. 28:2, 18; 29:18, 19. Old
Tyre having been destroyed, the people,
who had conveyed away their chief trea-
sures, built a new city on an island
within a mile of the main land; and
this soon rose to greater splendour than
the former one, Zech. 9:2, 3: so that
for seven months it withstood the whole
forces of Alexander the Great, who took
it in the year 332 B.C. Subsequently
Tyre belonged to Syria, and to the
Romans, under whom it regained much
of its former prosperity, Matt. 11:21;
Acts 12:20. It was taken by the
Saracens, A.D. 639; retaken by the Cru-
saders [RCC], A.D. 1124; and razed to the
ground, A.D. 1289, by the Mamelukes of
Egypt, lest it should afford a refuge for
the Christians. Tyre was, in 1816, besides
immense ruins, a walled town, having
about eight hundred stone houses, con-
taining, as Mr. Buckingham supposed
about 5000, or perhaps 8000 inhabitants;
three-fourths of whom he supposed to
be Arab Catholics, and the rest Arab
and Turkish Moh_mm_dans.
- TYRUS or TYRE. See TYRE.
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