Bible Dictionary: Gn. 1840
- GNASH, to grind the teeth together,
as a passionate man, in rage or vexation,
Psal. 112:10; Lam. 2:16.
- GNASHED, did gnash or grind the teeth
in rage, Acts 7:54.
- GNASHING, grinding with the teeth in
torment, Matt. 8:12.
- GNAT, a small winged insect, Matt.
23:24. Our Saviour's expression re-
fers to the filtering of wine, lest the
insect should be swallowed with the
liquor, and so cause pain; and the pro-
verb regards the superstitious and hypo-
critical conduct of the Pharisees, who
would avoid even the most trifling de-
viations in ceremony, but would commit
enormous violations of the moral law of
God: hence the proverb, "Ye strain out
a gnat, but swallow a camel."
- GNAW, to bite cruelly or devour, which
the enemies of the church are repre-
sented as doing in their oppressions,
- GNAWED, did gnaw, as the enemies of
God are represented doing, in their an-
guish under the Divine infliction of pun-
ishment, Rev. 16:10.
- GO, to proceed or depart, as on a
journey, Gen. 24:55; Exod. 3:19. To
"go to," is to enter upon any work, de-
liberating and executing it with prompt-
ness, Gen. 11:3, 4; Jam. 5:1.
- GOAD, a pike-staff to drive cattle, Judg.
3:31; Eccles. 12:11.
- GOAT, a well-known animal pastured
with sheep, Gen. 30:32-35; 1 Sam. 25:
2. Besides the species common in these
western countries, there was a goat of Pa-
lestine remarkable for the textile struc-
ture of its hair, Deut. 32:14. It was
a clean animal, and fit for sacrifice, Gen.
15:9; Exod. 12:5; Num. 7:17, 88;
delicious as food, Gen. 27:9, affording
abundance of milk, Prov. 27:26, 27:
its shaggy hair was made into cloth, and
some of it that was fine was wrought
into beautiful hangings, Exod. 35:6,
26, and shawls are still made of the fine
hair, resembling silk, in some parts of
the East. Goat-skins were used for
coarse garments, and flocks of these
animals formed much of the eastern
wealth, 2 Chron. 17:11. Goat-worship
was common among the Egyptians, Moab-
ites, Greeks, and Romans, who chose
this animal as an emblem of their deity
Pan, "the god of shepherds," repre-
sented as "half man and half goat."
Hence the "satyrs[,]" Isa. 13:[21,] 22, or
"hairy ones," translated devils, Lev.
17:7. See SATYR.
- GOB, [h] (a cistern), a city or place of
the Philistines, 2 Sam. 21:18, 19.
- GOBLET, a small cup, Sol. Song 7:2.
- GOD, the common title given to the
Almighty, self-existent Creator of all
things in heaven and earth, Gen. 1:1;
17:1. Properly speaking, God can
have no name, Exod. 3:6, 13, 15, though
He has mercifully condescended to reveal
Himself by many venerable, significant,
and endearing titles, in the Scriptures.
This word, God, is of Saxon origin, sig-
nifying good: the German is Gott, the
Latin, Deus, the French, Dieu, the Greek,
Θεος, Theos, the Hebrew, יה, Jah, Psal.
68:4. God, in His nature, is a spirit,
John 4:24; and He is infinite, eternal,
and unchangeable, in His being, wisdom,
power, holiness, justice, goodness, and
truth, essentially worthy to be the Cre-
ator, and Governor, and Judge of the
universe; and to be loved, and worship-
ped, and glorified, with all the powers
of all His intelligent creatures, Rev. 4:
- God of Heaven--HL, p. 72. Ezra.
- god: this word, in the Scriptures, is
also variously applied to creatures. An-
gels are called "gods," as being the
deputies of God in executing parts of
His government of the world, Psal. 97:
7; Heb. 1:6. Judges also, on account of
their office, Exod. 22:28; Psal. 82:
1, 2. Moses, as the special minister of
Jehovah, was "a god to Pharaoh," Exod.
7:1. Satan is called "the god of this
world," as he is the deceiver and ruler
of the ungodly, 2 Cor. 4:4. Idols are
called "gods," as they are adored by
superstitious wicked persons, Deut 32:
17; Judg. 2:12. Sensualists, caring chiefly
for the gratification of their animal [carnal] appe-
tites, are said to make a "god of their
belly," Phil. 3:19.
- goddess, a pretended female divinity;
of which class were many of the abomi-
nations of the heathen, as Ashtoreth,
Diana, &c., 1 Kings 11:5; Acts 19:27.
- GODHEAD, the essence or nature of
God, Acts 17:29; Rom. 1:20; Col. 2:9.
In the glorious mystery of the Godhead
there are three Persons, the Father, the
Son, and the Holy Spirit, Matt. 28:19;
2 Cor. 13:14; 1 John 5:7.
- GODLINESS, God's dispensation of
mercy to mankind by a Mediator, whose
office exhibits the incarnation of Deity,
1 Tim. 3:16: the essence of true reli-
gion, 1 Tim. 2:2; 2 Pet. 1:3-6: practical
piety, 1 Tim. 4:8; 2 Pet. 3:11.
- GODLY, resembling God, Psal. 4:3:
leading to God, 2 Cor. 7:9, 10.
- GODLY, religiously, piously, 2 Tim. 3:
12; Tit. 2:12.
- GODWARD, regarding God, or tending
to God, Exod. 18:19; 2 Cor. 3:4;
1 Thess. 1:8.
- GOG, [h] (roof or covering), a descendant
of Reuben, 1 Chron. 5:4. Gog and Ma-
gog denote the northern nations of bar-
barians, who, under the name of Scythians,
Goths, &c., desolated parts of Europe
and Asia, Ezek. 38. 39.; Rev. 20:
8. See MAGOG.
- GOING, proceeding, Josh. 10:11; Acts
- GOINGS, journeyings, Num. 33:2:
proceedings, Prov. 5:21; 20:24: ways or
roads, Num. 34:5.
- GO'LAN, [h] (passage or revolution), one
of the cities of refuge, situated in Bashan,
- GOLD, a well-known yellow metal: it
is the purest, most ductile and shining,
and consequently the most precious of
all metals: it is found in most countries
but especially in India, Western Africa,
and South America. Gold is astonish-
ingly ductile, so that an ounce is said to
have been drawn into a wire of 240 miles
in length. Immense quantities of gold
were brought by the Israelites from
Egypt, and acquired in Canaan, of which
they made various articles of furniture
for the tabernacle, Exod. 25:3, 11, &c.
David and Solomon possessed prodigi-
ous masses of gold, most of which was
expended on the several parts of the
temple of God at Jerusalem, 1 Chron.
22:14-16; 29:4-7. Gold is frequently
referred to in the Scriptures, as an appro-
priate emblem of what is precious and
desirable, Prov. 16:16; 1 Pet. 1:7; Rev.
- GOLDEN, made of gold, Dan. 3:5:
that which is rich or wealthy, Jer. 51:7.
- GOLDSMITH, a maker of golden vessels
or ornaments, Isa. 40:19. Goldsmiths
were numerous in Israel, even in the
times after the captivity, Neh. 3:8, 31.
- GOL'GOTHA, Γολγοθα (a heap of sculls),
the Hebrew name of a part of the hill of
Calvary, the place for the execution of
criminals without the city of Jerusalem,
and where the soldiers crucified our Lord,
- GOLI'ATH, [h] (passage or discovery), a
Philistine giant slain by David, 1 Sam.
17:4, 23, 50. Goliath was eleven feet
four and a half inches in height, reckon-
ing the cubit at twenty-one inches; and
at eighteen inches, his height was nine
feet nine inches: his armour is computed
to have weighed about two hundred and
- GO'MER, [h] (to finish, or a consumer),
the eldest son of Japheth, and progenitor
of the nations of western Asia and Eu-
rope, Gen. 10:2.
- GOMOR'RAH, [h] (a rebellious people),
a city of ancient Canaan, whose inhabit-
ants were addicted to most abominable
practices; and they were therefore de-
stroyed by fire from God with guilty
Sodom. Gen. 18:20; 19:4. See
- Gomorrah. See Tract.
- GOOD, fruitfulness, Gen. 45:18: what
is conducive to happiness, Job 2:10:
property, 1 Chron. 29:3.
- GOOD, right, virtuous, or conducing to
happiness. Creation, being the work of
God, and everything which He had made
being perfect in its kind, was good, very
good, Gen. 1:4-31. Truly religious men,
possessing the grace of Christ, on whom
they rely for salvation, being influenced
by their holy principles in the practice
of moral virtues, are good, Matt. 25:21;
2 Tim. 3:3; Tit. 1:8.
- GOODLIER, taller or more elegant, as in
person, 1 Sam. 9:2.
- GOODLIEST, tallest, most vigorous, 1
- GOODLINESS, beauty or elegance, Isa.
- GOODLY, beautiful, fine, Exod. 2:2;
- GOODNESS, excellency, glory, Exod.
33:19: spiritual blessings, Psal. 65:
4: providential mercies, ver. 11: moral,
qualities or Christian virtues, Rom. 15:
14. "The goodness of the LORD," de-
sired by the saints of old, was the mani-
festation of the promised Messiah, Psal.
- GOPHER-WOOD, a kind of cypress, or
general name for the timber trees adapted
to be used in constructing the ark of
Noah, Gen. 6:14. The cypress is more
commonly believed to have been intended,
especially as Alexander the Great built
a fleet of ships with the timber of this
tree growing about Babylon.
- GORE, to pierce with a horn, Exod.
- GORGEOUS, glittering, splendid, pomp-
ous, as the bespangled robes of a king,
- GORGEOUSLY, magnificently, pompous-
ly, Ezek. 23:12; Luke 7:25.
- GO'SHEN, [h] (approaching or nearness),
a frontier city of Egypt, Gen. 46:29.
- GOSHEN, THE LAND OF, a fertile dis-
trict of Egypt, on the eastern bank of
the Nile; and on account of its excellent
pasturage, it was granted by Pharaoh
for the residence of the Israelites, Gen.
45:10; 47:6; Exod. 8:22.
- GOSHEN, a fertile district in Canaan,
allotted to the tribe of Judah, Josh. 10:
- GOSPEL, Εύαγγελιον (a good message or
glad tidings), Mark 1:1, 15; Luke 2:10.
The gospel is the doctrine of Christianity,
Rom. 1:16, the grand revelation of God's
mercy to man, granting pardon and eter-
nal life to guilty transgressors through
Jesus Christ, with the sanctification of
the heart by the grace of the Holy Spirit:
hence it is called, among other significant
titles, "the gospel of the grace of God[,]"
Acts 20:24. While the gospel consists
of the most sublime doctrines, worthy of
the Divine wisdom and goodness, it pre-
scribes and secures the most refined
morality in those who are true Chris-
tians, Tit. 2:11-14.
- GOSPEL, the title given to each of the
four inspired histories of our Lord's
ministry; as they exhibit the Redeemer
in His glorious work of obedience, suffer-
ing, and death, performing the conditions
of the new covenant for our redemption
and salvation, Isa. 53.; Dan. 9:24; Luke
- GOURD, a plant supposed to have been
the Egyptian kiki, called by Niebuhr
kheroa, and by others palma Christi, the
Castor-oil plant of commerce. It grows
eight feet high, with very large palmate
leaves, admirably suited to the miracu-
lous use in shading the rebellious pro-
phet Jonah, Jon. 4:6.
- GOURDS, WILD: these were gathered
from the field vine, bearing poisonous
berries, 2 Kings 4:39.
- GOZ'AN, [h] (fleece or pasture), a river
and province of Media, whither the king
of Assyria carried the Israelites, 2 Kings
- GRACE, favour, Gen. 6:8; 19:19;
34:4. The grace of God is His mer-
ciful favour to guilty men, which origin-
ated his new covenant of redemption,
and the gift of His Son to be our Re-
deemer, with all the blessings of salva-
tion by Jesus Christ, John 1:17; 3:16;
Rom. 3:24-26. The grace of our Lord
Jesus Christ is His loving compassion to
sinners, exhibited in His giving Himself
for their redemption, and felt by be-
lievers in its invigorating and consoling
power upon their hearts, 2 Cor. 8:9;
Eph. 5:2, 26, 27. The grace of God
commonly denotes the influences of the
Holy Spirit on the souls of Christians,
illuminating, sanctifying, comforting, and
strengthening them in the ways of holi-
ness, Luke 2:4; 1 Cor. 1:4; 3:10: it
denotes all spiritual gifts, Eph. 4:7-12;
spiritual blessings, John 1:16; 2 Tim. 1:
9: the doctrine of free redemption by
Christ, John 1:17; 2 Cor. 6:1; Gal. 5:4:
holiness in conversation, Col. 4:6: acts
of pious liberality, 2 Cor. 8:6, 7: and
personal elegance of form and appear-
ance, Prov. 4:9; Jam. 1:11.
- Grace, unmerited favour. Eph. 2:8-9.
- GRACIOUS, favourable, kind, Gen. 43:
29: merciful, Exod. 33:19: virtuous,
Prov. 11:16: instructive and consolatory,
- GRACIOUSLY, kindly, bountifully, Gen.
33:5: mercifully, favourably, Hos.
- GRAFFED, inserted, as a young branch
is into the stock of a tree for the pro-
duction of good fruit: thus God grafted
the Gentiles into Christ, when He brought
them into His [family], by the ministry of
the gospel, Rom. 11:17-24.
- GRAIN, a small particle, as the seed-
corn, Amos 9:9; Matt. 13:31; 1 Cor.
- GRANDMOTHER, the mother of any
one's father or mother, 2 Tim. 1:5.
- GRANT, a license, privilege, or order,
as of a king, Ezra 3:7.
- GRANT, to bestow, as a favour, 1 Sam.
1:17; Matt. 20:21.
- GRANTED, did grant or bestow, Ezra
- GRANTED, bestowed or imparted, Acts
- GRAPES, the valuable fruit of the vine,
for which Canaan was distinguished,
Num. 13:20-23; the clusters or bunches
of which were sometimes more than
twelve pounds in weight.
- GRASS, the herb which God created
for the food of cattle, Gen. 1:11: the
mortal glory of man, Isa. 40:6, 7; 1 Pet.
- GRASSHOPPER, a small destructive in-
sect of the locust kind, Lev. 11:22; Isa.
40:22; Amos 7:1. Feeble age is repre-
sented as unable to sustain the weight
of a grasshopper, Eccles. 12:5.
- GRATE, a firepan with holes, Exod.
- GRAVE, the place of burial, Gen. 35:
20; John 11:38.
- GRAVE, to carve or engrave, as on
stones or metal, Exod. 28:9, 36; 2
Chron. 2:7, 14. See ENGRAVE.
- GRAVE, serious, rational, 1 Tim. 3:8-
11; Tit. 2:2.
- GRAVED, did grave or carve, 1 Kings
7:36; 2 Chron. 3:7.
- GRAVEL, hard or stony sand, Prov. 20:
17; Lam. 3:16.
- GRAVEN, carved or engraved, Exod.
32:16: sculptured, as images, Deut.
7:5; Isa. 10:10. See IMAGES
GRAVING, a carving or sculpture, 2
Chron. 2:14; Zech. 3:9.
GRAVING, cutting or engraving, Exod.
GRAVITY, seriousness becoming reli-
gion, 1 Tim. 3:4; Tit. 2:7.
GRAY, white with age, as the hair,
1 Sam. 12:2.
GREASE, the soft part of fat, Psal.
GREAT, large in bulk, Gen. 29:2:
famous or honourable among men, Exod.
11:3. Great is a word of very frequent
application to what is powerful, exten-
sive, numerous, illustrious, evil, &c.
Greater and greatest are used with simi-
GREATLY, in a great degree, Deut. 15:
4: earnestly, Phil. 1:8: excessively, Gen.
GREATNESS, excellency, Deut. 3:24;
5:24: fame, Isa. 57:10: invincible effi-
cacy, Eph. 1:19.
GREAVES, plates of metal, as for ar-
mour, 1 Sam. 17:6.
GRE'CIA, [h], Greece (he that deceives).
The Hebrew word in Dan. 8:21; 10:20;
11:2, is Javan, rendered Greece in Zech.
9:13, and properly in Isa. 66:19, and
Ezek. 27:13: but in each place the
prophet intended Greece, Daniel espe-
cially referring to its famous king,
Alexander the Great. See JAVAN and
GRE'CIANS, inhabitants of Greece, Joel
3:6: those Jews who resided in the
cities of Greece, or in other cities, using
the Greek language, Acts 6:1; 11:20.
GREECE, Έλλας, a famous country on
the south-east of Europe, including nu-
merous small islands. Daniel, referring
to Alexander the Great, Dan. 8:21,
included, as in its largest extent under
that mighty conqueror, Macedonia in
Greece; and with this, Thessaly, Epirus,
Hellas, or Greece Proper, and the Morea:
its boundaries, therefore, were the Scar-
dian mountains on the north, the Levant
on the south, on the west the Adriatic
sea, and on the east Asia Minor.
GREECE, in the New Testament, ac-
cording to its divisions under the Ro-
mans, who conquered it about the year
B. C. 146, is restricted, not including
Macedonia, Acts 20:2. This country,
though small in extent, is celebrated
above every other of ancient times, for
its statesmen, legislators, philosophers,
and orators, and for their high cultiva-
tion of literature, science, and the arts:
its chief cities were Athens and Corinth,
Acts 17; 18. Greece originally was
peopled by the sons of Javan, at an early
period after the deluge, Gen. 10:2-5;
and it became famous for a number of
independent political states, especially
for their union in prosecuting the Trojan
war, about 900 years B.C. Alexander,
king of Macedon, reduced these states
under his power about the year 330 B.C.;
and, by his foreign conquests, established
numerous colonies of Greeks in other
countries, thus spreading their beautiful
language. Many of the Jews settled in
the new cities of the Greeks, having equal
civil privileges, and they soon made a
translation of the Old Testament into
their adopted language to read in their
public worship, by which means Divine
Providence prepared the way for the
preaching of the gospel in Jewish syna-
gogues far from Judea, and thus for the
promulgation and advancement of Chris-
tianity, Acts 19:10-17.
GREEDILY, eagerly, Prov. 21:26;
GREEDINESS, eagerness of pursuit, Eph.
GREEDY, ravenous, Psal. 17:12:
eager or covetous, Prov. 15:27; 1 Tim.
GREEK, the language of Greece, John
19:20; Acts 21:37: a native of Greece,
Acts 16:1; Gal. 2:3.
- Greek New Testament, Ελληνικά.
GREEKS, inhabitants of Greece, and
using the Greek language, Acts 14:1, 2:
Jews settled in the Grecian cities and
speaking the Greek language, as at Alex-
andria in Egypt, John 12:20. Greeks
became a common designation, employed
by the Jews, for all the civilised Gentiles
after the conquest of Judea and the whole
East by Alexander, Acts 20:21; Rom. 1:
14; 1 Cor. 1:22-24.
GREEN, grass colour, Exod. 10:15:
unripe, Lev. 2:14: prosperous in life,
GREENISH, inclining to green in colour,
GREENNESS, unripeness, freshness, Job
GREET, to salute in friendship, 1 Sam.
25:5; Rom. 16:3.
GREETING, a salutation, Matt. 23:7. GREETING, saluting, Acts 15:23; 23:
GREW, did grow, Gen. 2:5: did multi-
ply, Exod. 1:12.
GREYHOUND, a tall fleet dog for hunt-
ing, Prov. 30:31.
GRIEF, piercing sorrow, Gen. 26:35:
injury or oppression, 1 Pet. 2:19.
GRIEVANCE, calamity, Hab. 1:3. GRIEVE, to afflict, 1 Sam. 2:33: to
provoke, Eph. 4:30.
GRIEVED, pierced with grief, Exod. 1:
12; Mark 3:5: provoked, Gen. 6:6;
Heb. 3:10: offended, Rom. 14:15.
GRIEVING, afflicting or distressing,
GRIEVOUS, afflictive or calamitous,
Gen. 12:10: painful or distressing,
Prov. 15:10; Heb. 12:11: injurious, as
unprincipled teachers, Acts 20:29: atro-
GRIND, to reduce to powder, by grind-
ing, as corn for flour, in a mill, Isa. 47:
2; Judg. 16:21: to crush, as with a
mill-stone, Matt. 21:44: to oppress by
severe exactions, Isa. 3:15.
GRINDERS, the teeth, as the instru-
ments of grinding the food in eating,
GRINDING, working at the mill, re-
ducing the corn to meal, Matt. 24:
GRISLED, mingled white and black,
Gen. 31:10; Zech. 6:3.
GROAN, to sigh deeply, as with pain,
Job 24:12; Jer. 51:53: to ardently de-
sire a deliverer, as the afflictive world
wished for the coming of the promised
Messiah, Rom. 8:22; or as afflicted
Christians desired their anticipated bles-
sedness in Heaven, ver. 23.
GROANED, did groan or sigh loudly,
GROANING, sorrowful sighing, Exod.
2:24; Job 23:2; Ezek. 30:24: in-
ward prayers, Psal. 102:20.
GROANING, sighing loudly, John 11:38. GROPE, to feel the way, as blind per-
sons, Deut. 28:29; Isa. 59:10.
GROSS, thick, palpable, Isa. 60:2: fat
or stupid, Matt. 13:15.
GROUND, earth, Gen. 2:5-7: land,
2 Kings 2:9: foundation principles,
1 Tim. 3:15.
GROUNDED, fixed, as a weapon of war
by an enemy, Isa. 30:32: firmly esta-
blished, Eph. 3:7.
GROVE, a plantation of trees, as used by
the patriarchs for the purposes of retire-
ment and devotion, Gen. 21:33. Groves
were used most commonly by supersti-
tion for the abominations of idol worship,
Deut. 8:5; 1 Kings 14:15-23; 15:13;
GROW, to vegetate and increase, Gen.
2:9: to prevail, Ezra 4:22; Acts 5:24:
to advance or flourish, Eph. 4:15; 2 Pet.
GROWN, advanced in size or stature,
Exod. 2:11; 1 Kings 12:8; 2 Kings 4:
GROWTH, vegetation, as grass, Amos
GRUDGE, ill-will, Lev. 19:18. GRUDGE, to murmur or repine, Psal.
59:15: to envy, Jam. 5:9.
GRUDGING, cherishing ill towards
guests, 1 Pet. 4:9.
GRUDGINGLY, niggardly, unwillingly,
2 Cor. 9:7.
GUARD, a man or body of soldiers
appointed to watch and defend kings
and cities, Gen. 37:38; 2 Sam. 23:
23; Acts 28:16.
GUARD-CHAMBER, a royal armory or
storehouse for armour, 1 Kings 14:
GUEST, a person entertained, as at a
feast, 1 Kings 1:41; Luke 19:7.
GUIDE, a counseller, Psal. 55:13; 2 Sam.
15:12: a leader, Acts 1:16.
GUIDE, to direct or lead, Isa. 58:11:
to instruct, Acts 8:31.
GUIDED, did guide or direct, Psal.
78:5: did preserve, 2 Chron. 32:
GUIDING, extending, Gen. 48:14. GUILE, deceit, Exod. 21:14: insin-
cerity, Psal. 32:2; John 1:47.
GUILT, criminality, as being guilty,
GUILTINESS, grievous criminality, Gen.
26:10; Psal. 51:14.
GUILTY, chargeable with crime, Gen.
42:21; Num. 35:27; Rom. 3:19;
1 Cor. 11:27.
GULF, an impassable deep, Luke 16:
GUR, [h] (a whelp), a city of Samaria,
near Jezreel, 2 Kings 9:27.
GUR-BA'AL, [h] (the whelp of Baal),
a city of Arabia, probably Petra, 2 Chron.
GUSH, to flow violently, Jer. 9:18. GUSHED, did gush or flow violently,
1 Kings 18:28; Isa. 48:21; Acts 1:
GUTTER, a common sewer, as of a
city, 2 Sam. 5:8: a water-trough, Gen.
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