Bible Dictionary: J. 1840
- JAA'LAM, [h] (who is hidden, or young
man), a son of Esau, Gen. 36:5.
- JAAZANI'AH, [h] (who is attentive to the
Lord), a leader of a party at the taking of
Jerusalem, 2 Kings 25:23.
- JAAZANIAH, a chief of the Rechabites,
- JAAZANIAH, a chief of the idolatrous
Israelites, Ezek. 8:11.
- JAAZANIAH, a wicked prince of Judah,
- JA'BAL, [h] (which glides away), a son of
Lamech, the first noted patron of cattle
feeding, Gen. 4:20.
- JAB'BOK, [h] (evacuation or dissipation),
a brook or river rising in Gilead, and
running westward into the Jordan, Gen.
32:22; Josh. 12:2. Travellers speak
of the stream being not more than about
thirty feet wide; and of a cliff on each
side, of five hundred feet in perpen-
dicular height, with a breadth from cliff
to cliff of not more than one hundred
feet. It is now called Zerka, or Blue
- JA'BESH, [h] (dryness or confusion), Jabesh-
Gilead, a city of Manasseh, of some note,
at the foot of Mount Gilead, Judg. 21:
8-12. Saul commenced his reign by de-
livering this city from the siege of the
Ammonites, who had proposed the most
degrading and cruel conditions to the
inhabitants, 1 Sam. 11:1-15.
- JABESH, the father of the usurper
Shallum, 2 Kings 15:10, 14.
- JA'BEZ, [h] (sorrow), an honourable
descendant of Judah, a man of great
piety, 1 Chron. 4:9, 10.
- JA'BIN, [h] (he that understands), a king
of Hazor, a city in the north of Canaan,
Josh. 11:1: he attempted, by a formid-
able alliance, to oppose the progress of
the Israelites under Joshua; but was
defeated with terrible slaughter in the
battle of Merom, when Hazor was taken,
and Jabin slain.
- JABIN, supposed to be grandson of the
former, a powerful king of Canaan. Hav-
ing oppressed Israel for twenty years,
his army was defeated by Deborah and
Barak, and his principal general, Sisera,
was put to death by Jael, Judg. 4:2-24.
- JA'CHIN, [h] (he that strengthens), a son of
Simeon, Num. 26:12.
- JACHIN, a chief priest in the time of
David, 1 Chron. 24:17.
- JACHIN, one of the two magnificent
brazen pillars, about thirty feet high, in
the porch of the temple of Solomon; the
other was called Boaz, 1 Kings 7:21.
- JACINTH, a beautiful gem, of a purple
colour, resembling an amethyst, Rev. 9:
- JA'COB, יעקב (he that supplants), the
younger son of Isaac and Rebekah, and
twin brother of Esau. Jacob was evi-
dently a sincere and devoted servant of
God, who, on many occasions, granted
him special visitations: yet his infirmi-
ties are recorded as having occasioned
him a long series of painful trials. His
uniting with his mother in a stratagem,
to obtain the birthright and paternal
blessing, imposing on his aged father,
was the first false step leading to his
various troubles; and his yielding to the
prevailing custom of polygamy, thereby
violating the sacred law of marriage,
procured for him a large measure of
suffering from the jealousies and animo-
sities engendered among his sons; never
theless his reconciliation with his brother
Esau; his loss of Joseph, whom God
raised to power in Egypt, occasioning
his seeking an asylum in that country;
his honourable reception by Pharaoh;
his prophetic blessing on his sons, espe-
cially on Judah, relating to the coming
of the Messiah; and the manner in which
his death was lamented by the Egyptians,
as particularly detailed by Moses, are
most remarkably instructive, Gen. 25:
26; 49. . See ISRAEL.
- JACOB, a title frequently applied to
the people of Israel, as the posterity
of Jacob, Num. 13:7; Deut. 32:9;
- JACOB'S WELL. Mr. Maundrell describes
it as "covered at present with an old
stone vault, into which you are let down
by a very straight hole; and then removing
a broad flat stone, you discover the well
itself. It is dug in a firm rock, is about
three yards in diameter, and thirty-five
in depth, five of which are found full of
water." He reckons it about a mile from
Sychar, John 4:5-12.
- JADDU'A, [h] (who has knowledge), a high-
priest of the Jews, Neh. 12:11.
- JADDUA, the chief of a Jewish family,
- JA'EL, [h] (he that ascends), the wife of
Heber, the Kenite, Judg. 4:17-21. Jael,
in killing her guest Sisera, the oppressor
of Israel, appears to have acted under a
divine impulse, as well as prompted by
- JAH, יה (the everlasting God), a contrac-
tion of the Hebrew Jehovah, Psal. 68:
4. See JEHOVAH.
- Jah - The Independent One--HL, p. 16.
- JA'HAZ, [h] (the going out of the Lord),
a city in the eastern part of Canaan, bor-
dering on Moab, Num. 21:23.
- JAH'LEEL, [h] (who waits on God), a
son of Zebulon, Gen. 46:14.
- JAHLEEL, the head of a family in
Zebulon, Num. 26:26.
- JAILER, the keeper of a prison, Acts
- JA'IR, [h] (my light), one of the judges
of Israel, Judg. 10:3.
- JAIR, the father of Mordecai, Esth.
- JA'IRUS, [g] (my light), a ruler of
a synagogue, Mark 5:22; Luke 7:1;
- JAM'BRES, [g] (the sea with poverty),
an Egyptian magician, who, with Jannes,
withstood Moses, 2 Tim. 4:8; Exod. 7:
- JAMES, Ίακωβος (he that supplants), the
same as Jacob, the brother of John, and
son of Zebedee; he was called the
"Great," or the "Elder," to distinguish
him from the son of Alpheus. James
and John were fishermen of Bethsaida;
but called to be apostles, and admitted to
peculiar intimacy with our Saviour, Matt.
4:21; 10:2; 17:2; 16:37. James soon
fell a martyr to Christ, being murdered
by king Herod, Acts 12:1. See JOHN.
- JAMES, called the "Less," or "Younger,"
and the "brother of our Lord," as he was
a son of Alpheus Cleophas, by Mary, the
sister of the virgin Mary, Matt. 10:3;
13:5; 27:56. He continued at Jeru-
salem after the dispersion of the other
apostles, and was regarded as bishop of
the Christian church in that city, 1 Cor.
15:7; Gal. 1:19, and surnamed the "Just"
on account of his illustrious holiness of
life. Tradition says, that the Jews con-
spired against him, and the high-priest
induced him at the passover, A.D. 62, to
declare to the people assembled in the
temple, the doctrine of Christ, from a
place on the battlements, when they
threw him down, and while he prayed
for his murderers, they beat him to death
with a fuller's club, the Roman governor
being then absent from Jerusalem.
- James. THE TWELVE.
- JAMES. See WOL Enc., pp. 204-205.
The writer of the book of James. "James, the son of
Alpheus, the brother of Jacob, and the near relation
of our Lord, called also the Less, probably be-
cause he was of lower stature, or younger than the
other James, the son of Zebedee, is generally allowed
to be the writer of this Epistle; ...." (Treasury)
- JAMES, EPISTLE OF: this epistle of
James is called "general," because it was
addressed not only to Christians, but
especially to the Jews; and while it is
regarded as a kind of connecting link
between Judaism and Christianity, its
peculiar forcible style of elegant and
beautiful simplicity, renders it one of the
most remarkable and finished productions
in the New Testament. See Commentary.
- JANGLING, contentious disputing, 1
- JAN'NA, Ίαννα (who speaks), an ancestor
of Joseph the carpenter, Luke 2:24.
- JAN'NES, [g] (as Janna), an Egyptian
magician. See JAMBRES.
- JA'PHETH, [h] (he that persuades), the
eldest son of Noah, whose descendants
peopled Europe, Asia Minor, and America,
Gen. 5:32; 9:27; 10:2, 5, 21.
- JAPHI'A, [h] (which enlightens), a king of
Lachish, Josh. 10:3.
- JAPHIA, a son of David, 2 Sam. 5:15.
- JA'REB, [h] (a revenger), a king of As-
syria, Hos. 5:13; 10:6.
- JA'RED, [h] (he that descends), an ante-
diluvian patriarch, father of Enoch, Gen.
- JA'SHER, [h] (the upright), a scribe, who
seems to have formed a volume of ancient
Hebrew chronicles or poems, which were
extant in the time of David, Josh. 10:13;
2 Sam. 1:18.
- JASHO'BEAM, [h] (the people that sit),
the chief of David's captains, 1 Chron.
11:11: some suppose him to have been
the person mentioned 2 Sam. 23:8;
1 Chron. 27:2.
- JA'SON, Ίασων (he that cures), a kinsman
of Paul, Acts 17:5-9; Rom. 16:21.
- JASPER, a precious stone of a bluish-
green colour, Exod. 28:20; Rev. 4:
- JA'VAN, [h] (he that deceives), the third son
of Japheth, Gen. 10:2-4. This name is
the Greek Ion, whence comes Ionia; and
Javan's posterity were called Ionians, or
Greeks, Ezek. 27:13-19.
- JAVELIN, a kind of long dart, or spear,
Num. 25:7; 1 Sam. 18:10.
- JAW, the bone of the mouth in which
the teeth are fixed, Judg. 15:15, 19.
- JAWS, the power of oppressors, in allu-
sion to the destructive teeth of savage
beasts, Job 29:17.
- JA'ZER, [h] (he that helps), a city at the
foot of the mountains of Gilead, Num.
- JEALOUS, suspicious in love, especially
between married persons, Num. 5:14:
ardently desirous of rightful honour:
hence God is jealous, Exod. 20:5; 34:
14: hence the prophets were jealous for
the honour of God, 1 Kings 19:10: and
the apostles for the glory of Christ, 2
- Jealous--HL, p. 73. Deu. 5:9.
- JEALOUSY, suspicion between married
persons, Num. 5:25; Prov. 6:34: ardent
desire for due honour, Deut. 32:16-21;
2 Cor. 11:2.
- JE'BUS, [h] (which treads under foot), the
original name of the city of Jerusalem,
- JEB'USITES, the original inhabitants of
Jerusalem, a tribe of Canaanites,
Josh. 15:6; 2 Sam. 5:6; Gen. 10:16.
- JECHOLI'AH, [h] (consummation of the
Lord), wife of Amaziah, and mother of
Azariah, kings of Judah, 2 Kings 15:2.
- JECONI'AH, [h] (preparation of the Lord),
the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah,
who was carried captive to Babylon, 1
Chron. 3:16; Jer. 24:1.
- JEDAI'AH, [h] (the praise of the Lord),
the name of several priests, Ezra 2:36;
Neh. 7:39; 11:10.
- JEDIDI'AH, [h] (beloved of the Lord), the name
which God gave to Solomon by the pro-
phet Nathan, 2 Sam. 12:25.
- JEDU'THUN, [h] (his law), a famous
musician in the service of the tabernacle
in the reign of David, 1 Chron. 6:44;
9:16; the same as Ethan. See ETHAN.
- JE'GAR-SAHAD'UTHA, [h] (the heap
of witness), the name given to the heap of
stones in the Chaldee dialect of Laban,
- JEHO'AHAZ, [h] (the prize or possession
of the Lord), the youngest son and suc-
cessor of Jehoram, king of Judah, called
also Ahaziah: he reigned only one year,
2 Chron. 21:17; 22:1.
- JEHOAHAZ, the son of Jehu, and suc-
cessor of his father on the throne of
Israel, 2 Kings 13:1-9.
- JEHOAHAZ, or SHALLUM, son and suc-
cessor of Josiah, king of Judah: he died
a captive exile in Egypt, 2 Kings 23:
30, 34; Jer. 22:11, 12.
- JEHO'ASH, [h] (the fire of the Lord),
the son of Jehoahaz-Ahaziah, king of
Judah, preserved by his aunt Jehosheba
from the murderous design of his grand-
mother Athaliah, and made king at the
age of seven years, 2 Kings 11:1-21; 12:
1, 2. He is called Joash, 2 Chron. 22:
11, 12. He observed the Divine ordi-
nances all the days of Jehoiada the priest,
but at length became an idolator, and
having murdered Zechariah the priest,
he reaped the fruit of his own guilt,
2 Chron. 24:17-25.
- JEHOASH, called also Joash, the son of
Jehoahaz, and grandson of Jehu, king of
Israel, 2 Kings 13:9-26.
- JEHOI'ACHIN, [h] (strength of the Lord),
son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, was
carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar to
Babylon, 2 Kings 24:6-15: he was
called also Coniah, Jer. 22:24, and
Jeconiah, Jer. 24:1; 28:4.
- JEHOI'ADA, [h] (the knowledge of the
Lord), the [respect]able high-priest who,
with his wife Jehosheba, sister of king
Ahaziah, established Jehoash upon the
throne of his father: he laboured to
reform the [people] of God, and died at
the age of one hundred and thirty years,
2 Kings 11:17; 12:2-8; 2 Chron. 22:11;
24:15. Jehoiada is supposed to have
been called also Barachias. See ZECHA-
- JEHOI'AKIM, [h] (the resurrection of
the Lord), so called by Pharaoh, king of
Egypt, when he made him king instead
of his brother Jehoahaz, son of Josiah.
He became tributary to Nebuchadnezzar,
but soon perished in misery, his body
being thrown into the common sewer,
2 Kings 23:34; 24:14; 2 Chron.
36:4-8; Jer. 22:18, 19.
- JEHOI'ARIB, [h] (the Lord exalted),
the chief of the first family of priests, as
arranged by David, 1 Chron. 24:7.
- JEHON'ADAB, [h] or JONADAB (who
acts in good earnest, or as a prince), a chief
of the Rechabites, who, in the days of
Jehu, ordained that his posterity should
abstain from wine, which they observed
for above 300 years, 2 Kings 10:15-23;
- JEHO'RAM, [h] or JORAM (exaltation
of the Lord), son of Jehoshaphat, king of
Judah: by the influence of his wife
Athaliah, a daughter of Ahab, king of
Israel, he became a monster of wicked-
ness, 2 Kings 8:16-18; 2 Chron. 21:
1, 6, 11, 19.
- JEHORAM, or JO'RAM, son of Ahab,
king of Israel: he abolished some of the
abominations of idolatry, through the in-
fluence of the prophet Elisha, but con-
tinued in wickedness: after much misery,
he perished, being murdered by one of
his captains, 2 Kings 1:17; 3:1; 9:2-25.
- JEHOSH'APHAT, [h] (God judges, or
judgment of the Lord), a pious and pros-
perous king of Judah: he continued
faithful in the service of God, but intro-
duced misery into his family, by obtain-
ing Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab, as a
wife for his son Jehoram, 1 Kings 15:
17; 2 Kings 8:16-18; 2 Chron. 17:
3-12; 18:1; 20:35-37. Jehoshaphat
was the name of several others, 2 Sam.
8:16; 1 Kings 4:17.
- JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF, a narrow
glen on the west of Jerusalem, between
the city and the mount of Olives, Joel
- JEHOSH'EBA, [h] (who is replenished,
filled with the Lord), called also Jehoshe-
beath, 2 Chron. 22:10, 13, the wife of
Jehoiada, the high-priest, daughter of
Jehoram, king of Judah, and sister of
Ahaziah: her intrepidity and prudence
preserved the infant prince Jehoash,
from the murderous designs of his grand-
mother Athaliah, 2 Kings 11:1, 3.
- JEHOSH'UA, the full name of Joshua,
Num. 13:16. See JOSHUA.
- JEHO'VAH, יהוה (self-existing). This was
the ineffable name of God among the
Hebrews; denoting His self-subsistence,
eternity, unchangeableness, and absolute
independence, the cause of existence to
all other beings as His creatures, Psal.
83:18. Modern Jews decline to
pronounce the name Jehovah; as their
ancestors did, after the return from
Babylon, substituting for it the word
Adonai or Elohim, through which they
forgot its true pronunciation. They
called it the Tetragrammaton, or word
of four letters, יהוה, containing in itself
the past and the future tenses, as well
as the present participle, signifying HE
WHO WAS, IS, AND SHALL BE. Jehovah
is commonly rendered, in our English
Bible, "LORD," in capitals, to distinguish
it from "lord" as signifying a governor,
Psal. 110:1. God declaring to Moses,
"I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac,
and unto Jacob, by the name of God
Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH
was I not known to them[,]" Exod. :3,
cannot mean that the word Jehovah was
unknown; but that its full signification,
as that of the promise-performing God,
was not known or illustrated until the
present accomplishment of His gracious
purposes, long assured to the patriarchs,
in the redemption of Israel from Egypt,
and their settlement in the land of
Canaan, Exod. 6:3.
- Jehovah, יהוה, the name of the true God only.
- Jehovah - The Eternal, Ever-Loving One
The name Jehovah occurs about 7,000
times in the Old Testament.
See Exodus 3:14, 16.
Psalm 102.--HL, pp. 17-18.
- JEHOVAH-JI'REH, יהוה יראה (the Lord
will see or provide), the name given by
Abraham to the place where God had
provided a ram as a substitute for the
sacrifice of his son Isaac, Gen. 22:14.
- JEHOVAH-NIS'SI, יהוה נסי (the Lord is my
banner), the name which Moses gave to
the altar which he erected to offer a
sacrifice of thanksgiving for the victory
over Amalek at Rephidim, Exod. 17:
- JEHOVAH-SHA'LOM, יהוה שלום (the Lord
said peace), the name of the altar which
Gideon erected after discovering that
he had conversed with an angel, assur-
ing him that he should have peace, and
deliver Israel from the Midianites, Judg.
- JEHOVAH-SHAM'MAH, יהוה שמה (the Lord
is there, marginal reading), the name given
to the [nation] of the Jews when they
shall have been restored in the Millen-
nium, to enjoy the spiritual presence of
God and the Lamb, Ezek. 48:35 [the city];
Rev. 21. 22.
- JEHOVAH-TSID'KENU, יהוה צדקנו (the Lord
our righteousness, marginal reading), the
name given to the Redeemer, to inti-
mate the blessings of his redemption
and righteousness to be enjoyed by his
church, especially in the latter days,
Jer. 23:6 [Judah & Israel]. This name is also given
to the church of Christ, to indicate their
interest in his everlasting righteousness
and salvation, 33:16 [Judah & Jerusalem].
- Jehovah-Elohay, The Lord My God--HL.
- Jehovah-Eloheenu, Lord Our God--HL. Deu.
- Jehovah-Eloheka, Lord Thy God--HL. Deu.
- Jehovah-Elohim, The Majestic Omnipotent God--HL. Zec. 13:9; Psa. 118:27.
- Jehovah-Gmolah, The God of Recompenses--HL. Jer. 51:56, 57.
- Jehovah-Hoseenu, The Lord Our Maker--HL. Psa. 95:6.
- Jehovah M'Kaddesh, The Lord Doth Sanctify--HL.
- Jehovah-Makkeh, The Lord Shall Smite Thee--HL. Eze. 7:9.
- Jehovah-Rohi, The Lord My Shepherd--HL. Psa. 23:1.
- Jehovah-Rophi, The Lord, The Physician--HL.
- Jehovah-Tsebaoth, The Lord of Hosts--HL.
- JE'HU, [h] (he that is, or exists), the son
of Hanani, a prophet, sent to threaten
Baasha, king of Israel, 1 Kings 16:1-7,
and Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, 2 Chron.
- JE'HU, the captain-general of the army
of Jehoram, king of Israel, appointed by
God to occupy the throne, and execute
judgment on the wicked house of Ahab,
and the guilty priests of the idol Baal.
Jehu was ambitious, tyrannical, and even
an idolator; and became an apostate
from the worship of Jehovah, 2 Kings
9. 10.; 2 Chron. 22:7, 8.
- JEMI'MA, [h] (handsome as the day),
one of Job's daughters after his restora-
tion to prosperity, Job 42:14.
- JEOPARDIED, hazarded, Judg. 5:18.
- JEOPARDY, hazard, peril, or danger,
2 Sam. 22:17; Luke 8:23.
- JEPH'THAH, [h] (he that opens), a judge
of the Israelites: his personal history is
instructive, especially in relation to his
rash vow. Commentators esteemed the
wisest, agree that Jephthah devoted his
daughter to perpetual virginity, not to
death; and that the daughters of Israel
condoled with her four days every year
during her life, Judg. 11:1-4; 12:1-7.
- JEPHUN'NEH, [h] (he that beholds), the
father of Caleb, Num. 13:6.
- JE'RAH, [h] (the moon), a son of Joktan,
- JEREMI'AH, [h] (the exaltation of the
Lord), an eminent prophet of Judah, son
of Hilkiah, the priest of Anathoth.
Jeremiah exercised his ministry under
Josiah and several kings of Judah: he
witnessed the siege and destruction of
Jerusalem by the Babylonians: he was
taken by those Jews who emigrated into
Egypt, where he suffered martyrdom
from his infidel and impious country-
men, Jer. 1:1; 43:2-8; 44.
- JEREMIAH, THE BOOK OF: this im-
portant book of Jeremiah chiefly relates
to three points :--denunciations of the
destruction of the city and temple of
Jerusalem, and the captivity of the Jews
in Babylon, on account of their idolatry
and wickedness, invitations and persua-
sions to repentance, and promises of the
advent, kingdom, and blessings of Mes-
siah. See Commentary.
- JEREMI'AS, Ίερεμιας, the name of the
prophet Jeremiah rendered from the
Greek, Matt. 16:14.
- JER'EMY, a contracted form of the
name Jeremiah, Matt. 2:; 27:9.
- JER'ICHO, [h] (his moon), a city of Ben-
jamin, about eight miles west of Jordan,
and nineteen east of Jerusalem, called
by Moses the city of palm-trees, Deut.
34:3: it is famous as the first city
of the Canaanites, taken in a miraculous
manner, by Joshua, after passing the
river Jordan. Rahab was saved in it
through her faith in the word of God,
Josh. 2. 6. Joshua destroyed the city,
pronouncing a curse upon him who
should rebuild it; and which was ful-
filled upon Hiel, Josh. 6:26; 1 Kings
16:34. This city flourished greatly after
its restoration: but the road to it from
Jerusalem, lying through difficult passes
between the mountains, became infested
with banditti, Luke 10:30. Sir F. Hen-
niker, an English traveller, was robbed
and wounded here in 1830, by a party of
Arabs. Mr. Buckingham says that it
now consists of only about fifty houses: a
mud-built village, called Rika or Erika.
- JEROBO'AM, [h] (fighting against, or
increasing the people), an enterprising, am-
bitious young man, whom Solomon raised
to office under his government. Jero-
boam was employed, as the agent of
Providence, to avenge the provocation
of Jehovah by the idolatry of Solomon:
he headed a revolt under Rehoboam,
and became the first king of the ten
tribes; for whom, in wicked policy, he
instituted a splendid system of idolatrous
worship. Hence he is spoken of as
"Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made
Israel to sin." His history is contained
in 1 Kings 11:26-40; 12:12-20; 2 Chron.
10:15; 13:1-20; 14.; 15.
- JEROBOAM II., king of Israel, son and
successor of Jehoash. He practised the
wickedness of the former Jeroboam: yet
the ministry of the prophets Jonah,
Hosea, and Amos, were beneficial to
some of the people, 2 Kings 14:16-29;
Amos 1.; 7.
- JERU'SALEM, ירושלם (the vision of peace),
the capital city of Judea, situated twenty-
five miles west of Jordan, and forty-two
miles east of the Mediterranean. Mel-
chizedek is supposed to have been king
of it in the days of Abraham, when it
was called SALEM, Gen. 14:18; Psal.
76:2: in the days of Joshua it was
called JEBUS, Josh. 15:63; Judg. 19:10.
David took it from the Jebusites, and
made it his capital, 1 Chron. 11:4-8; and
Jerusalem continued to be the metro-
polis through various revolutions in the
nation. Solomon built here a magnifi-
cent temple, B.C. 1003: but the city was
taken, and the temple pillaged, by Shi-
shak, king of Egypt, B.C. 971, 1 Kings 14:
25. Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judea
and took Jerusalem, 2 Chron. 36.,
seizing the royal and sacred treasures,
and carried them with many of the
people captives to Babylon, B.C. 606:
the chief houses of the city and the
temple were burnt to ashes by the Chal-
deans, carrying the remaining treasures
to Babylon, 2 Kings 24:6, B.C. 588.
Jerusalem became repeopled by the re-
turn of many Jews on the decree of
Cyrus, B.C. 536, Ezra 1:1; Isa. 44:28;
45:1, 4, 13. Nehemiah rebuilt it; and,
with Ezra, restored the worship of God,
Neh. 2.-5:14; 8.; 13. B.C. 454-439.
Alexander the Great took Jerusalem,
B.C. 333. Antiochus, king of Syria, be-
sieged and took the city, plundered the
temple, and established idolatry instead
of the worship of God, B.C. 170: Judas
Maccabeus recovered the city, and re-
established Divine worship, B.C. 165:
Jonathan, a brother of Judas, assumed
the office of high-priest, and formed an
alliance with the Romans, B.C. 161.
Rome, then mistress of the greater part
of the world, obtained influence at Jeru-
salem, where the royal and pontifical
offices were contended for, so as to re-
quire the interposition of a Roman army.
Pompey placed Hyrcanus on the throne
at Jerusalem, in opposition to his brother
Aristobulus, but made Judea a Roman
province, B.C. 163. Pompey profaned
the temple of Jerusalem; and Crassus,
governor of Syria, pillaged it of 10,000
talents of silver, B.C. 54. Antipater, an
Idumean nobleman, by favour of Julius
Cæsar, was made procurator of Judea,
B.C. 47, Hyrcanus retaining the priest-
hood.Herod the Great succeeded his
father Antipater, and obtained the royal
dignity, B.C. 40: and to gratify the Jews,
this prince almost rebuilt the temple of
Jerusalem, Mark 13:1; John 2:20.
Judea, under the government of his sons,
became fully recognised as a Roman
province, when Shiloh was come in the
person of Jesus Christ, and "the sceptre
departed from Judah," Gen. 49:10.
Sovereign mercy, by the mission of
Christ, brake down "the middle wall of
partition" between Jews and Gentiles,
Eph. 2:14; and Jerusalem, as the Jews
rebelled, was besieged, taken, and re-
duced to heaps of rubbish, by Titus,
son of Vespasian, the emperor of Rome,
A.D. 70. Jerusalem began to revive, and
the Jews annoyed the Romans, when
the emperor Adrian planted a colony
there, changing its name to Ælia Capi-
tolina, prohibiting the approach of the
Jews on pain of death, A.D. 134. Con-the present
stantine, the first [professing] Christian emperor,
however, restored its name, A.D. 326;
and several churches were built in the
city and through Judea, by his mother
Helena. Julian, his nephew, became
emperor, and laboured, but in vain, to
rebuild Jerusalem, designing to falsify
the predictions of Christ, A.D. 363. Jeru-
salem was taken, A.D. 613, by Chosroes,
king of Persia, and 90,000 Christians
slain: it was retaken, A.D. 627, by Hera-
clius, the emperor: it was again taken
by the caliph Omar, A.D. 637, and fell
under the power of Ahmed, the Turkish
sultan of Egypt, A.D. 868. Godfrey of
Boulogne, with his crusaders, took Jeru-
salem, A.D. 1099. Saladin, sultan of the
East, captured it A.D. 1118; but it was
restored by Saleh Ismael, emir of Da-
mascus, to the Latin princes, A.D. 1242:
they lost it to the sultans of Egypt,
A.D. 1291. Selim, the Turkish sultan,
conquered Egypt and Syria, A.D. 1516;
and his son Solyman built
walls of Jerusalem. This holy city is
still under the power of the Turks,
"trodden down of the Gentiles," in
confirmation of the predictions of Christ,
Luke 21:24. Jerusalem, though sunk
in dishonour, is still the subject of
Divine prophecy; and lately the precious
doctrines of Christ have been preached
within its consecrated enclosures by
mies. from England and America.
"Beautiful for situation, the joy of the
whole earth, is mount Zion." "Still,"
as Dr. Jowett remarks, "at every step,
coming forth from the city, the heart is
reminded of that prophecy, accomplished
to the letter, 'Jerusalem shall be trod-
den down of the Gentiles.' All the streets
are wretchedness; and the houses of the
Jews especially, the people who once
held a sceptre on this mountain of holi-
ness, are as dunghills." Jerusalem now
possesses a mingled population of about
12,000, or, as some estimate it, 20,000.
Messrs. Fisk and King, American
mies., in 1823 gave it thus :--
Mussulmans . .
Jews . . . .
Greeks . . .
Catholics . . .
Armenians . . .
- JERUSALEM: the NEW JERUSALEM
denotes the Christian religion in its
edifying ordinances; that as the ancient
city was the seat of the Levitical dis-
pensation, Christianity is represented
under the symbol of a city, both in its
economy on earth, and in its glory in
Heaven, Gal. 4:26; Heb. 12:22; Rev. 3:
- JERU'SHA, [h] (he that possesses the inhe-
ritance), the wife of Uzziah, and mother
of Jotham, king of Judah, 2 Kings 15:
- JESH'IMON, [h] (solitude or wilderness),
a town or district of Simeon, near Gaza,
1 Sam. 23:19-24.
- JESH'UA, [h] (a saviour), the high-priest
of the Jews who returned from Babylon,
Ezra 3:3, called Joshua, Hag. 2:2.
- JESHU'RUN, [h] (upright or righteous),
a title given in poetry to the nation of
Israel, Deut. 32:15.
- JES'SE, [h] (to be, or who is), the honoured
father of king David: he was the son of
Obed, the son of Boaz, Ruth 4:14-22;
- JESTING, making ridiculous by words,
- JE'SUI, [h] (who is equal, or flat country),
the head of a family of Asher, Num.
- JESUI or ISH'UI, a son of king Saul,
1 Sam. 14:49.
- JE'SUS, Ίησους (a saviour): this name
was given by the angel to EMMANUEL,
as our Redeemer, Matt. 1:21. Jesus, or
as the Hebrews pronounce it, Jehoshuah,
or Joshua, has been borne by many,
especially by the successor of Moses, the
leader of Israel into Canaan: from the
Greek form of his name, he is called
Jesus in the New Testament, Acts 7:
45; Heb. 4:8.
- JESUS, surnamed Justus, a Jewish
Christian, Col. 4:11.
- JESUS CHRIST, as the name of our
blessed Saviour, would require volumes
to illustrate the excellences of it, the
wonders of His ministry, and the glories
of His religion. We can, however, only
notice a few particulars of the Scripture
testimony concerning Christ. 1. His
essential Divinity as the Son of God
and Creator of the world, John 1:1-3;
Heb. 1:1-3; Col. 1:16; 2:9. 2. His incar-
nation to redeem and save sinners, John
1:14; Rom. 9:5; Phil. 2:6-8; Heb. 2:9-16.
3. His office of Mediator, Intercessor,
Redeemer, and Saviour, John 3:16; 1
Tim. 2:5; Heb. 4:14, 15; 7:21-28; 1
John 2:1, 2. 4. His character as judge
of men and angels, Matt. 25:31-46;
John 5:26-29; 2 Cor. 5:10.
- Jesus Christ. The real Jesus is the true God. He was the
original Pastor of the first N.T. Baptist church at Jerusalem.
See Life of Christ.
- JE'THER, [h] (he that excels), a son of
Gideon, Judg. 8:20.
- JETHER, the husband of Abigail, a
sister of David, 1 Chron. 2:15-17.
- JE'THETH, [h] (he that gives), a son of
Esau, a duke of Edom[,] Gen. 36:40.
- JETH'RO, [h] (his excellence), a priest or
prince of Midian, and father-in-law of
Moses: he was a descendant of Abraham
by Keturah, Exod. 4:18; 18:1; Gen.
25:2. He is called also Reuel, Exod.
2:18, and Hobab, Judg. 4:11. See
- JE'TUR, [h] (he that keeps, or moun-
tainous), a son of Ishmael, Gen. 25:15.
- JE'USH, [h] (he that is devoured), a son
of Rehoboam, 2 Chron. 11:19.
- JEW, a descendant of Judah, Jer.
34:9: one of the Jewish nation,
Esth. 2:5. See JUDAH. A Jew out-
wardly, is a mere professor of the religion
of the Jews; a Jew inwardly, is a true
worshipper of God, Rom. 2:28, 29.
- JEWS, the people of the tribe and
kingdom of Judah, 2 Kings 16:5-7: this
name, however, became generally used
after the subversion of the kingdom of
Israel, to denote the whole remaining
people, especially after the captivity;
because the tribe of Judah was preserved
distinct even in Babylon; and those of
the other tribes, who returned from As-
syria, united with Judah in the restora-
tion of the kingdom, Ezra 4:12; Neh.
1:2; Esth. 3:4; 4:3-14. Moses (Deut.
28:64), the other prophets (Hos. 3:
4), and our Saviour (Matt. 24:19; Luke
21:24), predicted the dispersion of the
Jews on account of their idolatry and
crimes: their history under unexampled
persecutions, sufferings, and reproaches,
wonderfully illustrates the justice, seve-
rity, and long-suffering of God; while
their existence as a distinct people, and
their present condition, afford a powerful
confirmation of the truth of the Scrip-
tures, and the divinity of Christianity.
This people will, however, yet be re-
stored and serve God by faith in the
Messiah, as it is clearly predicted in the
Scriptures, Jer. 33:25, 26; Hos. 3:
4, 5; Rom. 11:11, 12, 25. Divine Provi-
dence has scattered the Jews in all
civilised nations, and it is supposed that
they are still as numerous as ever; some
estimate their numbers at [from 3.165 to 6 million]
Jews in all the world[, ~1840.]
- JEWEL, a costly ornament of gold or
silver, with or without gems, Gen. 24:
53; Prov. 11:22. God esteems His faith-
ful people as His jewels, Mal. 3:17.
- JEWESS, a woman of the Jewish nation,
Acts 16:1; 24:24.
- JEWISH, belonging to the nation of the
Jews, Tit. 1:14.
- JEW'RY, the same as Judea, Dan. 5:13.
- JEZ'EBEL, [h] (island of the habitation),
a Zidonian princess, and wife of king
Ahab. In her mad zeal for Baal, she
"stirred up" her husband to murder all
the prophets of God in Israel, while she
maintained four hundred priests of that
idol, but her great wickedness led to her
own bloody end, 1 Kings 16:31; 18:
19.; 21:1-25; 2 Kings 9:30-37.
- JEZEBEL, proverbially a wicked wo-
man enticing to idolatry and licentious-
ness, Rev. 2:20.
- JEZ'REEL, [h] (seed of God, or God
who spreads the evil), a city of Issachar,
near the centre of Canaan, famous for a
palace of king Ahab and the residence
of Naboth, Josh. 19:[18;] 1 Kings 21:1.
- JEZREEL, a city of Judah, Josh. 15:
- JEZREEL, VALLEY OF, an extensive
fertile vale in Canaan, about fifteen miles
wide, through which the river Kishon
flows, and famous for many battles, Judg.
4:7; 5:17; 6:3; Hos. 2:22. This valley
is called Esdraelon by the Greeks.
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