Bible Dictionary: J.   1840

  1. JAA'LAM, [h] (who is hidden, or young
    ), a son of Esau, Gen. 36:5.
  2. JAAZANI'AH, [h] (who is attentive to the
    ), a leader of a party at the taking of
    Jerusalem, 2 Kings 25:23.
  3. JAAZANIAH, a chief of the Rechabites,
    Jer. 35:3.
  4. JAAZANIAH, a chief of the idolatrous
    Israelites, Ezek. 8:11.
  5. JAAZANIAH, a wicked prince of Judah,
    Ezek. 11:1.
  6. JA'BAL, [h] (which glides away), a son of
    Lamech, the first noted patron of cattle
    feeding, Gen. 4:20.
  7. JAB'BOK, [h] (evacuation or dissipation),
    a brook or river rising in Gilead, and
    running westward into the Jordan, Gen.
    32:22; Josh. 12:2.   Travellers speak
    of the stream being not more than about
    thirty feet wide; and of a cliff on each
    side, of five hundred feet in perpen-
    dicular height, with a breadth from cliff
    to cliff of not more than one hundred
    feet.   It is now called Zerka, or Blue
  8. JA'BESH, [h] (dryness or confusion), Jabesh-
    Gilead, a city of Manasseh, of some note,
    at the foot of Mount Gilead, Judg. 21:
    8-12.   Saul commenced his reign by de-
    livering this city from the siege of the
    Ammonites, who had proposed the most
    degrading and cruel conditions to the
    inhabitants, 1 Sam. 11:1-15.
  9. JABESH, the father of the usurper
    Shallum, 2 Kings 15:10, 14.
  10. JA'BEZ, [h] (sorrow), an honourable
    descendant of Judah, a man of great
    piety, 1 Chron. 4:9, 10.
  11. JA'BIN, [h] (he that understands), a king
    of Hazor, a city in the north of Canaan,
    Josh. 11:1: he attempted, by a formid-
    able alliance, to oppose the progress of
    the Israelites under Joshua; but was
    defeated with terrible slaughter in the
    battle of Merom, when Hazor was taken,
    and Jabin slain.
  12. JABIN, supposed to be grandson of the
    former, a powerful king of Canaan.   Hav-
    ing oppressed Israel for twenty years,
    his army was defeated by Deborah and
    Barak, and his principal general, Sisera,
    was put to death by Jael, Judg. 4:2-24.
  13. JA'CHIN, [h] (he that strengthens), a son of
    Simeon, Num. 26:12.
  14. JACHIN, a chief priest in the time of
    David, 1 Chron. 24:17.
  15. JACHIN, one of the two magnificent
    brazen pillars, about thirty feet high, in
    the porch of the temple of Solomon; the
    other was called Boaz, 1 Kings 7:21.
  16. JACINTH, a beautiful gem, of a purple
    colour, resembling an amethyst, Rev. 9:
    17; 21:20.
  17. JA'COB, יעקב (he that supplants), the
    younger son of
    Isaac and Rebekah, and
    twin brother of Esau.   Jacob was evi-
    dently a sincere and devoted servant of
    God, who, on many occasions, granted
    him special visitations: yet his infirmi-
    ties are recorded as having occasioned
    him a long series of painful trials.   His
    uniting with his mother in a stratagem,
    to obtain the birthright and paternal
    blessing, imposing on his aged father,
    was the first false step leading to his
    various troubles; and his yielding to the
    prevailing custom of polygamy, thereby
    violating the sacred law of marriage,
    procured for him a large measure of
    suffering from the jealousies and animo-
    sities engendered among his sons; never
    theless his reconciliation with his brother
    Esau; his loss of Joseph, whom God
    raised to power in Egypt, occasioning
    his seeking an asylum in that country;
    his honourable reception by Pharaoh;
    his prophetic blessing on his sons, espe-
    cially on Judah, relating to the coming
    of the Messiah
    ; and the manner in which
    his death was lamented by the Egyptians,
    as particularly detailed by Moses, are
    most remarkably instructive, Gen. 25:
    26; 49. [50].   See ISRAEL.
  18. JACOB, a title frequently applied to
    the people of Israel, as the posterity
    of Jacob, Num. 13:7; Deut. 32:9;
    Isa. 14:1.
  19. JACOB'S WELL.   Mr. Maundrell describes
    it as "covered at present with an old
    stone vault, into which you are let down
    by a very straight hole; and then removing
    a broad flat stone, you discover the well
    itself.   It is dug in a firm rock, is about
    three yards in diameter, and thirty-five
    in depth, five of which are found full of
      He reckons it about a mile from
    Sychar, John 4:5-12.
  20. JADDU'A, [h] (who has knowledge), a high-
    priest of the Jews, Neh. 12:11.
  21. JADDUA, the chief of a Jewish family,
    Neh. 10:21.
  22. JA'EL, [h] (he that ascends), the wife of
    Heber, the Kenite, Judg. 4:17-21.   Jael,
    in killing her guest Sisera, the oppressor
    of Israel, appears to have acted under a
    divine impulse, as well as prompted by
  23. JAH, יה (the everlasting God), a contrac-
    tion of the Hebrew Jehovah
    , Psal. 68:
    4.   See
    • Jah - The Independent One--HL, p. 16.
  24. JA'HAZ, [h] (the going out of the Lord),
    a city in the eastern part of Canaan, bor-
    dering on Moab, Num. 21:23.
  25. JAH'LEEL, [h] (who waits on God), a
    son of Zebulon, Gen. 46:14.
  26. JAHLEEL, the head of a family in
    Zebulon, Num. 26:26.
  27. JAILER, the keeper of a prison, Acts
  28. JA'IR, [h] (my light), one of the judges
    of Israel, Judg. 10:3.
  29. JAIR, the father of Mordecai, Esth.
  30. JA'IRUS, [g] (my light), a ruler of
    a synagogue, Mark 5:22; Luke 7:1;
  31. JAM'BRES, [g] (the sea with poverty),
    an Egyptian magician, who, with Jannes,
    withstood Moses, 2 Tim. 4:8; Exod. 7:
    11, 12.
  32. JAMES, Ίακωβος (he that supplants), the
    same as Jacob, the brother of John, and
    son of
    Zebedee; he was called the
    "Great," or the "Elder," to distinguish
    him from the son of Alpheus.   James
    and John were fishermen of Bethsaida;
    but called to be apostles, and admitted to
    peculiar intimacy with our Saviour, Matt.
    4:21; 10:2; 17:2; 16:37.   James soon
    fell a martyr to Christ, being murdered
    by king Herod, Acts 12:1.   See JOHN.
  33. JAMES, called the "Less," or "Younger,"
    and the "brother of our Lord," as he was
    a son of
    Alpheus Cleophas, by Mary, the
    sister of the virgin Mary, Matt. 10:3;
    13:5; 27:56.   He continued at Jeru-
    salem after the dispersion of the other
    apostles, and was regarded as bishop of
    the Christian church in that city, 1 Cor.
    15:7; Gal. 1:19, and surnamed the "Just"
    on account of his illustrious holiness of
    life.   Tradition says, that the Jews con-
    spired against him, and the high-priest
    induced him at the passover, A.D. 62, to
    declare to the people assembled in the
    temple, the doctrine of Christ, from a
    place on the battlements, when they
    threw him down, and while he prayed
    for his murderers, they beat him to death
    with a fuller's club, the Roman governor
    being then absent from Jerusalem.
    • JAMES.   See WOL Enc., pp. 204-205.
      The writer of the book of James.   "James, the son of
      Alpheus, the brother of Jacob, and the near relation
      of our Lord, called also the Less, probably be-
      cause he was of lower stature, or younger than the
      other James, the son of Zebedee, is generally allowed
      to be the writer of this Epistle; ...."
  34. JAMES, EPISTLE OF: this epistle of
    James is called "general," because it was
    addressed not only to Christians, but
    especially to the Jews; and while it is
    regarded as a kind of connecting link
    between Judaism and Christianity, its
    peculiar forcible style of elegant and
    beautiful simplicity, renders it one of the
    most remarkable and finished productions
    in the New Testament.   See
  35. JANGLING, contentious disputing, 1
    Tim. 1:6.
  36. JAN'NA, Ίαννα (who speaks), an ancestor
    of Joseph the carpenter, Luke 2:24.
  37. JAN'NES, [g] (as Janna), an Egyptian
    magician.   See JAMBRES.
  38. JA'PHETH, [h] (he that persuades), the
    eldest son of
    Noah, whose descendants
    peopled Europe, Asia Minor, and America,
    Gen. 5:32; 9:27; 10:2, 5, 21.
  39. JAPHI'A, [h] (which enlightens), a king of
    Lachish, Josh. 10:3.
  40. JAPHIA, a son of David, 2 Sam. 5:15.
  41. JA'REB, [h] (a revenger), a king of As-
    syria, Hos. 5:13; 10:6.
  42. JA'RED, [h] (he that descends), an ante-
    diluvian patriarch, father of Enoch, Gen.
  43. JA'SHER, [h] (the upright), a scribe, who
    seems to have formed a volume of ancient
    Hebrew chronicles or poems, which were
    extant in the time of David, Josh. 10:13;
    2 Sam. 1:18.
  44. JASHO'BEAM, [h] (the people that sit),
    the chief of David's captains, 1 Chron.
    11:11: some suppose him to have been
    the person mentioned 2 Sam. 23:8;
    1 Chron. 27:2.
  45. JA'SON, Ίασων (he that cures), a kinsman
    of Paul, Acts 17:5-9; Rom. 16:21.
  46. JASPER, a precious stone of a bluish-
    green colour, Exod. 28:20; Rev. 4:
    3; 21:11-19.
  47. JA'VAN, [h] (he that deceives), the third son
    of Japheth, Gen. 10:2-4.   This name is
    the Greek Ion, whence comes Ionia; and
    Javan's posterity were called Ionians, or
    Greeks, Ezek. 27:13-19.
  48. JAVELIN, a kind of long dart, or spear,
    Num. 25:7; 1 Sam. 18:10.
  49. JAW, the bone of the mouth in which
    the teeth are fixed, Judg. 15:15, 19.
  50. JAWS, the power of oppressors, in allu-
    sion to the destructive teeth of savage
    beasts, Job 29:17.
  51. JA'ZER, [h] (he that helps), a city at the
    foot of the mountains of Gilead, Num.
  52. JEALOUS, suspicious in love, especially
    between married persons, Num. 5:14:
    ardently desirous of rightful honour:
    hence God is jealous, Exod. 20:5; 34:
    14: hence the prophets were jealous for
    the honour of God, 1 Kings 19:10: and
    the apostles for the glory of Christ, 2
    Cor. 11:2.
    • Jealous--HL, p. 73.   Deu. 5:9.
  53. JEALOUSY, suspicion between married
    persons, Num. 5:25; Prov. 6:34: ardent
    desire for due honour, Deut. 32:16-21;
    2 Cor. 11:2.
  54. JE'BUS, [h] (which treads under foot), the
    original name of the city of Jerusalem,
    Judg. 19:10.
  55. JEB'USITES, the original inhabitants of
    Jerusalem, a tribe of Canaanites,
    Josh. 15:6; 2 Sam. 5:6; Gen. 10:16.
  56. JECHOLI'AH, [h] (consummation of the
    ), wife of Amaziah, and mother of
    Azariah, kings of Judah, 2 Kings 15:2.
  57. JECONI'AH, [h] (preparation of the Lord),
    the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah,
    who was carried captive to Babylon, 1
    Chron. 3:16; Jer. 24:1.
  58. JEDAI'AH, [h] (the praise of the Lord),
    the name of several priests, Ezra 2:36;
    Neh. 7:39; 11:10.
  59. JEDIDI'AH, [h] (beloved of the Lord), the name
    which God gave to
    Solomon by the pro-
    phet Nathan, 2 Sam. 12:25.
  60. JEDU'THUN, [h] (his law), a famous
    musician in the service of the tabernacle
    in the reign of David, 1 Chron. 6:44;
    9:16; the same as Ethan.   See
  61. JE'GAR-SAHAD'UTHA, [h] (the heap
    of witness
    ), the name given to the heap of
    stones in the Chaldee dialect of Laban,
    Gen. 31:47.
  62. JEHO'AHAZ, [h] (the prize or possession
    of the Lord
    ), the youngest son and suc-
    cessor of Jehoram, king of Judah, called
    also Ahaziah: he reigned only one year,
    2 Chron. 21:17; 22:1.
  63. JEHOAHAZ, the son of Jehu, and suc-
    cessor of his father on the throne of
    Israel, 2 Kings 13:1-9.
  64. JEHOAHAZ, or SHALLUM, son and suc-
    cessor of Josiah, king of Judah: he died
    a captive exile in Egypt, 2 Kings 23:
    30, 34; Jer. 22:11, 12.
  65. JEHO'ASH, [h] (the fire of the Lord),
    the son of Jehoahaz-Ahaziah, king of
    Judah, preserved by his aunt Jehosheba
    from the murderous design of his grand-
    mother Athaliah, and made king at the
    age of seven years, 2 Kings 11:1-21; 12:
    1, 2.   He is called Joash, 2 Chron. 22:
    11, 12.   He observed the Divine ordi-
    nances all the days of Jehoiada the priest,
    but at length became an idolator, and
    having murdered Zechariah the priest,
    he reaped the fruit of his own guilt,
    2 Chron. 24:17-25.
  66. JEHOASH, called also Joash, the son of
    Jehoahaz, and grandson of Jehu, king of
    Israel, 2 Kings 13:9-26.
  67. JEHOI'ACHIN, [h] (strength of the Lord),
    son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, was
    carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar to
    Babylon, 2 Kings 24:6-15: he was
    called also Coniah, Jer. 22:24, and
    Jeconiah, Jer. 24:1; 28:4.
  68. JEHOI'ADA, [h] (the knowledge of the
    ), the [respect]able high-priest who,
    with his wife Jehosheba, sister of king
    Ahaziah, established Jehoash upon the
    throne of his father: he laboured to
    reform the [people] of God, and died at
    the age of one hundred and thirty years,
    2 Kings 11:17; 12:2-8; 2 Chron. 22:11;
    24:15.   Jehoiada is supposed to have
    been called also Barachias.   See ZECHA-
  69. JEHOI'AKIM, [h] (the resurrection of
    the Lord
    ), so called by Pharaoh, king of
    Egypt, when he made him king instead
    of his brother Jehoahaz, son of Josiah.
    He became tributary to Nebuchadnezzar,
    but soon perished in misery, his body
    being thrown into the common sewer,
    2 Kings 23:34; 24:14; 2 Chron.
    36:4-8; Jer. 22:18, 19.
  70. JEHOI'ARIB, [h] (the Lord exalted),
    the chief of the first family of priests, as
    arranged by David, 1 Chron. 24:7.
  71. JEHON'ADAB, [h] or JONADAB (who
    acts in good earnest
    , or as a prince), a chief
    of the Rechabites, who, in the days of
    Jehu, ordained that his posterity should
    abstain from
    wine, which they observed
    for above 300 years, 2 Kings 10:15-23;
    Jer. 35:2-11.
  72. JEHO'RAM, [h] or JORAM (exaltation
    of the Lord
    ), son of Jehoshaphat, king of
    Judah: by the influence of his wife
    Athaliah, a daughter of Ahab, king of
    Israel, he became a monster of wicked-
    , 2 Kings 8:16-18; 2 Chron. 21:
    1, 6, 11, 19.
  73. JEHORAM, or JO'RAM, son of Ahab,
    king of Israel: he abolished some of the
    abominations of idolatry, through the in-
    fluence of the prophet Elisha, but con-
    tinued in wickedness: after much misery,
    he perished, being murdered by one of
    his captains, 2 Kings 1:17; 3:1; 9:2-25.
  74. JEHOSH'APHAT, [h] (God judges, or
    judgment of the Lord), a pious and pros-
    perous king of Judah: he continued
    faithful in the service of God, but intro-
    duced misery into his family, by obtain-
    ing Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab, as a
    wife for his son Jehoram, 1 Kings 15:
    17; 2 Kings 8:16-18; 2 Chron. 17:
    3-12; 18:1; 20:35-37.   Jehoshaphat
    was the name of several others, 2 Sam.
    8:16; 1 Kings 4:17.
  75. JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF, a narrow
    glen on the west of Jerusalem, between
    the city and the mount of Olives, Joel
  76. JEHOSH'EBA, [h] (who is replenished,
    filled with the Lord), called also Jehoshe-
    beath, 2 Chron. 22:10, 13, the wife of
    Jehoiada, the high-priest, daughter of
    Jehoram, king of Judah, and sister of
    Ahaziah: her intrepidity and prudence
    preserved the infant prince Jehoash,
    from the murderous designs of his grand-
    mother Athaliah, 2 Kings 11:1, 3.
  77. JEHOSH'UA, the full name of Joshua,
    Num. 13:16.   See
  78. JEHO'VAH, יהוה (self-existing).   This was
    the ineffable name of
    God among the
    Hebrews; denoting His self-subsistence,
    eternity, unchangeableness, and absolute
    independence, the cause of existence to
    all other beings as His creatures
    , Psal.
    83:18.   Modern Jews decline to
    pronounce the name Jehovah; as their
    ancestors did, after the return from
    Babylon, substituting for it the word
    Adonai or Elohim, through which they
    forgot its true pronunciation.   They
    called it the Tetragrammaton, or word
    of four letters, יהוה, containing in itself
    the past and the future tenses, as well
    as the present participle, signifying HE
    .   Jehovah
    is commonly rendered, in our English
    Bible, "LORD," in capitals, to distinguish
    from "lord" as signifying a governor,
    Psal. 110:1.   God declaring to Moses,
    "I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac,
    and unto Jacob, by the name of God
    Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH
    was I not known to them[,]"
    Exod. [6]:3,
    cannot mean that the word Jehovah was
    unknown; but that its full signification,
    as that of the promise-performing God,
    was not known or illustrated until the
    present accomplishment of His gracious
    purposes, long assured to the patriarchs,
    in the redemption of Israel from Egypt,
    and their settlement in the land of
    , Exod. 6:3.  
    • Jehovah, יהוה, the name of the true God only.
    • Jehovah - The Eternal, Ever-Loving One
      The name Jehovah occurs about 7,000
      times in the Old Testament.
      Revelation 1:8.
      See Exodus 3:14, 16.
      Psalm 102.--HL, pp. 17-18.
  79. JEHOVAH-JI'REH, יהוה יראה (the Lord
    will see
    or provide), the name given by
    Abraham to the place where God had
    provided a ram as a substitute for the
    sacrifice of his son Isaac, Gen. 22:14.
  80. JEHOVAH-NIS'SI, יהוה נסי (the Lord is my
    ), the name which Moses gave to
    the altar which he erected to offer a
    sacrifice of thanksgiving for the victory
    over Amalek at Rephidim, Exod. 17:
  81. JEHOVAH-SHA'LOM, יהוה שלום (the Lord
    said peace
    ), the name of the altar which
    Gideon erected after discovering that
    he had conversed with an angel, assur-
    ing him that he should have peace, and
    deliver Israel from the Midianites, Judg.
  82. JEHOVAH-SHAM'MAH, יהוה שמה (the Lord
    is there
    , marginal reading), the name given
    to the [nation] of the Jews when they
    shall have been restored in the Millen-
    nium, to enjoy the spiritual presence of
    God and the Lamb, Ezek. 48:35 [the city];
    Rev. 21. 22.
  83. JEHOVAH-TSID'KENU, יהוה צדקנו (the Lord
    our righteousness
    , marginal reading), the
    name given to the Redeemer, to inti-
    mate the blessings of his redemption
    and righteousness to be enjoyed by his
    church, especially in the latter days
    Jer. 23:6 [Judah & Israel].   This name is also given
    to the church of Christ, to indicate their
    interest in his everlasting righteousness
    and salvation, 33:16 [Judah & Jerusalem].

    • Jehovah-Elohay, The Lord My God--HL.
    • Jehovah-Eloheenu, Lord Our God--HL.   Deu.
    • Jehovah-Eloheka, Lord Thy God--HL.   Deu.
    • Jehovah-Elohim, The Majestic Omnipotent God--HL.   Zec. 13:9; Psa. 118:27.
    • Jehovah-Gmolah, The God of Recompenses--HL.   Jer. 51:56, 57.
    • Jehovah-Hoseenu, The Lord Our Maker--HL.   Psa. 95:6.
    • Jehovah M'Kaddesh, The Lord Doth Sanctify--HL.
    • Jehovah-Makkeh, The Lord Shall Smite Thee--HL.   Eze. 7:9.
    • Jehovah-Rohi, The Lord My Shepherd--HL.   Psa. 23:1.
    • Jehovah-Rophi, The Lord, The Physician--HL.
    • Jehovah-Tsebaoth, The Lord of Hosts--HL.

  84. JE'HU, [h] (he that is, or exists), the son
    of Hanani, a prophet, sent to threaten
    Baasha, king of Israel, 1 Kings 16:1-7,
    and Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, 2 Chron.
    19:1-3; 20:34.
  85. JE'HU, the captain-general of the army
    of Jehoram, king of Israel, appointed by
    God to occupy the throne, and execute
    judgment on the wicked house of Ahab,
    and the guilty priests of the idol Baal.
    Jehu was ambitious, tyrannical, and even
    an idolator; and became an apostate
    from the worship of Jehovah, 2 Kings
    9. 10.; 2 Chron. 22:7, 8.
  86. JEMI'MA, [h] (handsome as the day),
    one of Job's daughters after his restora-
    tion to prosperity, Job 42:14.
  87. JEOPARDIED, hazarded, Judg. 5:18.
  88. JEOPARDY, hazard, peril, or danger,
    2 Sam. 22:17; Luke 8:23.
  89. JEPH'THAH, [h] (he that opens), a judge
    of the Israelites: his personal history is
    instructive, especially in relation to his
    rash vow.   Commentators esteemed the
    wisest, agree that Jephthah devoted his
    daughter to perpetual virginity, not to
    death; and that the daughters of Israel
    condoled with her four days every year
    during her life, Judg. 11:1-4; 12:1-7.
  90. JEPHUN'NEH, [h] (he that beholds), the
    father of Caleb, Num. 13:6.
  91. JE'RAH, [h] (the moon), a son of Joktan,
    Gen. 10:26.
  92. JEREMI'AH, [h] (the exaltation of the
    ), an eminent prophet of Judah, son
    of Hilkiah, the priest of Anathoth.
    Jeremiah exercised his ministry under
    Josiah and several kings of Judah: he
    witnessed the siege and destruction of
    Jerusalem by the Babylonians: he was
    taken by those Jews who emigrated into
    Egypt, where he suffered martyrdom
    from his infidel and impious country-
    men, Jer. 1:1; 43:2-8; 44.
  93. JEREMIAH, THE BOOK OF: this im-
    portant book of Jeremiah chiefly relates
    to three points :--denunciations of the
    destruction of the city and temple of
    Jerusalem, and the captivity of the Jews
    Babylon, on account of their idolatry
    and wickedness
    , invitations and persua-
    sions to repentance, and promises of the
    advent, kingdom, and blessings of Mes-
    .   See Commentary.
  94. JEREMI'AS, Ίερεμιας, the name of the
    prophet Jeremiah rendered from the
    Greek, Matt. 16:14.
  95. JER'EMY, a contracted form of the
    name Jeremiah, Matt. 2:[17]; 27:9.
  96. JER'ICHO, [h] (his moon), a city of Ben-
    jamin, about eight miles west of Jordan,
    and nineteen east of Jerusalem, called
    by Moses the city of palm-trees, Deut.
    34:3: it is famous as the first city
    of the
    Canaanites, taken in a miraculous
    manner, by Joshua, after passing the
    river Jordan.   Rahab was saved in it
    through her faith in the word of God,
    Josh. 2. 6.   Joshua destroyed the city,
    pronouncing a curse upon him who
    should rebuild it; and which was ful-
    filled upon Hiel, Josh. 6:26; 1 Kings
    16:34.   This city flourished greatly after
    its restoration: but the road to it from
    Jerusalem, lying through difficult passes
    between the mountains, became infested
    with banditti, Luke 10:30.   Sir F. Hen-
    niker, an English traveller, was robbed
    and wounded here in 1830, by a party of
    Arabs.   Mr. Buckingham says that it
    now consists of only about fifty houses: a
    mud-built village, called Rika or Erika.
  97. JEROBO'AM, [h] (fighting against, or
    increasing the people), an enterprising, am-
    bitious young man, whom Solomon raised
    to office under his government.   Jero-
    boam was employed, as the agent of
    Providence, to avenge the provocation
    of Jehovah by the idolatry of Solomon:
    he headed a revolt under Rehoboam,
    and became the first king of the ten
    tribes; for whom, in wicked policy, he
    instituted a splendid system of idolatrous
    worship.   Hence he is spoken of as
    "Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made
    Israel to sin."
      His history is contained
    in 1 Kings 11:26-40; 12:12-20; 2 Chron.
    10:15; 13:1-20; 14.; 15.
  98. JEROBOAM II., king of Israel, son and
    successor of Jehoash.   He practised the
    wickedness of the former Jeroboam: yet
    the ministry of the prophets Jonah,
    Hosea, and Amos, were beneficial to
    some of the people, 2 Kings 14:16-29;
    Amos 1.; 7.
  99. JERU'SALEM, ירושלם (the vision of peace),
    the capital city of Judea, situated twenty-
    five miles west of Jordan, and forty-two
    miles east of the Mediterranean.   Mel-
    chizedek is supposed to have been king
    of it in the days of Abraham, when it
    was called SALEM, Gen. 14:18; Psal.
    76:2: in the days of Joshua it was
    called JEBUS, Josh. 15:63; Judg. 19:10.
    David took it from the Jebusites, and
    made it his capital, 1 Chron. 11:4-8; and
    Jerusalem continued to be the metro-
    polis through various revolutions in the
    nation.   Solomon built here a magnifi-
    cent temple, B.C. 1003: but the city was
    taken, and the temple pillaged, by Shi-
    shak, king of Egypt, B.C. 971, 1 Kings 14:

    25.   Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judea
    and took Jerusalem, 2 Chron. 36.,
    seizing the royal and sacred treasures,
    and carried them with many of the
    people captives to Babylon, B.C. 606:
    the chief houses of the city and the
    temple were burnt to ashes by the Chal-
    deans, carrying the remaining treasures
    to Babylon, 2 Kings 24:6, B.C. 588.

    Jerusalem became repeopled by the re-
    turn of many Jews on the decree of
    Cyrus, B.C. 536, Ezra 1:1; Isa. 44:28;
    45:1, 4, 13.   Nehemiah rebuilt it; and,
    with Ezra, restored the worship of God,
    Neh. 2.-5:14; 8.; 13. B.C. 454-439.
    Alexander the Great took Jerusalem,
    B.C. 333.   Antiochus, king of Syria, be-
    sieged and took the city, plundered the

    temple, and established idolatry instead
    of the worship of God, B.C. 170: Judas
    Maccabeus recovered the city, and re-
    established Divine worship, B.C. 165:
    Jonathan, a brother of Judas, assumed
    the office of high-priest, and formed an
    alliance with the Romans, B.C. 161.
    Rome, then mistress of the greater part
    of the world, obtained influence at Jeru-
    salem, where the royal and pontifical
    offices were contended for, so as to re-
    quire the interposition of a Roman army.
    Pompey placed Hyrcanus on the throne
    at Jerusalem, in opposition to his brother
    Aristobulus, but made Judea a Roman
    province, B.C. 163.   Pompey profaned
    the temple of Jerusalem; and Crassus,
    governor of Syria, pillaged it of 10,000
    talents of silver, B.C. 54.   Antipater, an
    Idumean nobleman, by favour of Julius
    Cæsar, was made procurator of Judea,
    B.C. 47, Hyrcanus retaining the priest-

    hood.   Herod the Great succeeded his
    father Antipater, and obtained the royal
    dignity, B.C. 40: and to gratify the Jews,
    this prince almost rebuilt the temple of
    Jerusalem, Mark 13:1; John 2:20.
    Judea, under the government of his sons,
    became fully recognised as a Roman
    province, when
    Shiloh was come in the
    person of Jesus Christ
    , and "the sceptre
    departed from Judah,"
    Gen. 49:10.
    Sovereign mercy, by the mission of
    Christ, brake down "the middle wall of
    between Jews and Gentiles,
    Eph. 2:14; and Jerusalem, as the Jews
    rebelled, was besieged, taken, and re-
    duced to heaps of rubbish, by Titus,
    son of Vespasian, the emperor of Rome,
    A.D. 70.   Jerusalem began to revive, and
    the Jews annoyed the Romans, when
    the emperor Adrian planted a colony
    there, changing its name to Ælia Capi-
    tolina, prohibiting the approach of the

    Jews on pain of death, A.D. 134.   Con-
    , the first [professing] Christian emperor,
    however, restored its name, A.D. 326;
    and several churches were built in the
    city and through Judea, by his mother
    Helena.   Julian, his nephew, became
    emperor, and laboured, but in vain, to
    rebuild Jerusalem, designing to falsify
    the predictions of Christ, A.D. 363.   Jeru-
    salem was taken, A.D. 613, by Chosroes,
    king of Persia, and 90,000 Christians
    slain: it was retaken, A.D. 627, by Hera-
    clius, the emperor: it was again taken
    by the caliph Omar, A.D. 637, and fell
    under the power of Ahmed, the Turkish
    sultan of Egypt, A.D. 868.   Godfrey of
    Boulogne, with his crusaders, took Jeru-
    salem, A.D. 1099.   Saladin, sultan of the
    East, captured it A.D. 1118; but it was
    restored by Saleh Ismael, emir of Da-
    mascus, to the Latin princes, A.D. 1242:
    they lost it to the sultans of Egypt,
    A.D. 1291.   Selim, the Turkish sultan,
    conquered Egypt and Syria, A.D. 1516;
    and his son Solyman built
    the present
    walls of Jerusalem.   This holy city is
    still under the power of the Turks,
    "trodden down of the Gentiles," in
    confirmation of the predictions of Christ,
    Luke 21:24.   Jerusalem, though sunk
    in dishonour, is still the subject of
    Divine prophecy; and lately the precious
    doctrines of Christ have been preached
    within its consecrated enclosures by
    mies. from England and America.
    "Beautiful for situation, the joy of the
    whole earth, is mount Zion."
    as Dr. Jowett remarks, "at every step,
    coming forth from the city, the heart is
    reminded of that prophecy, accomplished
    to the letter, 'Jerusalem shall be trod-
    den down of the Gentiles.'   All the streets
    are wretchedness; and the houses of the
    Jews especially, the people who once
    held a sceptre on this mountain of holi-
    ness, are as dunghills."
      Jerusalem now
    possesses a mingled population of about
    12,000, or, as some estimate it, 20,000.
    Messrs. Fisk and King, American
    mies., in 1823 gave it thus :--
      Mussulmans . .


      Jews . . . .


      Greeks . . .


      Catholics . . .


      Armenians . . .






    denotes the Christian religion in its
    edifying ordinances; that as the ancient
    city was the seat of the Levitical dis-
    pensation, Christianity is represented
    under the symbol of a city, both in its
    economy on earth, and in its glory in
    Heaven, Gal. 4:26; Heb. 12:22; Rev. 3:
    12; 21.
  101. JERU'SHA, [h] (he that possesses the inhe-
    ), the wife of Uzziah, and mother
    of Jotham, king of Judah, 2 Kings 15:
    32, 33.
  102. JESH'IMON, [h] (solitude or wilderness),
    a town or district of Simeon, near Gaza,
    1 Sam. 23:19-24.
  103. JESH'UA, [h] (a saviour), the high-priest
    of the Jews who returned from Babylon,
    Ezra 3:3, called Joshua, Hag. 2:2.
  104. JESHU'RUN, [h] (upright or righteous),
    a title given in poetry to the nation of
    Israel, Deut. 32:15.
  105. JES'SE, [h] (to be, or who is), the honoured
    father of king David: he was the son of
    Obed, the son of Boaz, Ruth 4:14-22;
    Matt. 1:5.
  106. JESTING, making ridiculous by words,
    Eph. 5:4.
  107. JE'SUI, [h] (who is equal, or flat country),
    the head of a family of Asher, Num.
  108. JESUI or ISH'UI, a son of king Saul,
    1 Sam. 14:49.
  109. JE'SUS, Ίησους (a saviour): this name
    was given by the angel to
    as our Redeemer
    , Matt. 1:21.   Jesus, or
    as the Hebrews pronounce it, Jehoshuah,
    or Joshua, has been borne by many,
    especially by the successor of Moses, the
    leader of Israel into Canaan: from the
    Greek form of his name, he is called
    Jesus in the New Testament, Acts 7:
    45; Heb. 4:8.
  110. JESUS, surnamed Justus, a Jewish
    Christian, Col. 4:11.
  111. JESUS CHRIST, as the name of our
    blessed Saviour, would require volumes
    to illustrate the excellences of it, the
    wonders of His ministry, and the glories
    of His religion.
      We can, however, only
    notice a few particulars of the Scripture
    testimony concerning Christ.
      1. His
    essential Divinity as the
    Son of God
    and Creator of the world
    , John 1:1-3;
    Heb. 1:1-3; Col. 1:16; 2:9.   2. His incar-
    nation to redeem and save sinners
    , John
    1:14; Rom. 9:5; Phil. 2:6-8; Heb. 2:9-16.

    3. His office of Mediator, Intercessor,
    Redeemer, and Saviour
    , John 3:16; 1
    Tim. 2:5; Heb. 4:14, 15; 7:21-28; 1
    John 2:1, 2.   4. His character as judge
    of men and angels
    , Matt. 25:31-46;
    John 5:26-29; 2 Cor. 5:10.

    • Jesus Christ.   The real Jesus is the true God.   He was the
      original Pastor of the first N.T. Baptist church at Jerusalem.
      See Life of Christ.
  112. JE'THER, [h] (he that excels), a son of
    Gideon, Judg. 8:20.
  113. JETHER, the husband of Abigail, a
    sister of David, 1 Chron. 2:15-17.
  114. JE'THETH, [h] (he that gives), a son of
    Esau, a duke of Edom[,] Gen. 36:40.
  115. JETH'RO, [h] (his excellence), a priest or
    prince of Midian, and father-in-law of
    Moses: he was a descendant of Abraham
    by Keturah, Exod. 4:18; 18:1; Gen.
    25:2.   He is called also Reuel, Exod.
    2:18, and Hobab, Judg. 4:11.   See
  116. JE'TUR, [h] (he that keeps, or moun-
    ), a son of Ishmael, Gen. 25:15.
  117. JE'USH, [h] (he that is devoured), a son
    of Rehoboam, 2 Chron. 11:19.
  118. JEW, a descendant of Judah, Jer.
    34:9: one of the Jewish nation,
    Esth. 2:5.   See
    JUDAH.   A Jew out-
    wardly, is a mere professor of the religion
    of the Jews; a Jew inwardly, is a true
    worshipper of God, Rom. 2:28, 29.
  119. JEWS, the people of the tribe and
    kingdom of Judah, 2 Kings 16:5-7: this
    name, however, became generally used
    after the subversion of the kingdom of
    Israel, to denote the whole remaining
    people, especially after the captivity;
    because the tribe of Judah was preserved
    distinct even in Babylon; and those of
    the other tribes, who returned from As-
    syria, united with Judah in the restora-
    tion of the kingdom, Ezra 4:12; Neh.
    1:2; Esth. 3:4; 4:3-14.   Moses (Deut.
    28:64), the other prophets (Hos. 3:
    4), and our Saviour (Matt. 24:19; Luke
    21:24), predicted the dispersion of the
    Jews on account of their idolatry and
    crimes: their history under unexampled
    persecutions, sufferings, and reproaches,
    wonderfully illustrates the justice, seve-
    rity, and long-suffering of God
    ; while
    their existence as a distinct people, and
    their present condition, afford a powerful
    confirmation of the truth of the Scrip-
    tures, and the divinity of Christianity.
    This people will, however, yet be re-
    stored and serve God by faith in the
    Messiah, as it is clearly predicted in the
    Scriptures, Jer. 33:25, 26; Hos. 3:
    4, 5; Rom. 11:11, 12, 25.   Divine Provi-
    dence has scattered the Jews in all
    civilised nations, and it is supposed that
    they are still as numerous as ever; some
    estimate their numbers at [from 3.165 to 6 million]
        Jews in all the world[, ~1840.]
  120. JEWEL, a costly ornament of gold or
    silver, with or without gems, Gen. 24:
    53; Prov. 11:22.   God esteems His faith-
    ful people as His jewels, Mal. 3:17.
  121. JEWESS, a woman of the Jewish nation,
    Acts 16:1; 24:24.
  122. JEWISH, belonging to the nation of the
    Jews, Tit. 1:14.
  123. JEW'RY, the same as Judea, Dan. 5:13.
    See JUDEA.
  124. JEZ'EBEL, [h] (island of the habitation),
    a Zidonian princess, and wife of king
    Ahab.   In her mad zeal for Baal, she
    "stirred up" her husband to murder all
    the prophets of God in Israel, while she
    maintained four hundred priests of that
    idol, but her great wickedness led to her
    own bloody end, 1 Kings 16:31; 18:
    19.; 21:1-25; 2 Kings 9:30-37.
  125. JEZEBEL, proverbially a wicked wo-
    man enticing to idolatry and licentious-
    , Rev. 2:20.
  126. JEZ'REEL, [h] (seed of God, or God
    who spreads the evil
    ), a city of Issachar,
    near the centre of Canaan, famous for a
    palace of king Ahab and the residence
    of Naboth, Josh. 19:[18;] 1 Kings 21:1.
  127. JEZREEL, a city of Judah, Josh. 15:
  128. JEZREEL, VALLEY OF, an extensive
    fertile vale in Canaan, about fifteen miles
    wide, through which the river Kishon
    flows, and famous for many battles, Judg.
    4:7; 5:17; 6:3; Hos. 2:22.   This valley
    is called Esdraelon by the Greeks.

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