Bible Dictionary: Rn. 1840
- ROAD, an incursion, 1 Sam. 27:10.
- ROAR, to make a loud noise, as the
raging sea, Psal. 46:3: to cry as a
furious lion or bear, Isa. 5:29; 59:11.
"The LORD roars" in giving calamitous
manifestations of his anger against wick-
edness, Jer. 25:30; Joel 3:16.
- ROARED, did roar, as a lion, Judg. 14:
5; as the sea, Isa. 51:15; as a person in
great pain, Psal. 38:8.
- ROARING, a loud noise, as of the agi-
tated sea, Isa. 5:30; or the cry of a lion,
29: the sorrowful cries of one in deep
distress, Psal. 31:3.
- ROARING, making a noise, as the sea,
Luke 21:25; or as a lion, Prov. 28:
- ROAST, to dress meat for food at the
fire without water, Isa. 44:16-19.
- ROASTED, dressed with fire, Exod. 12:
8: killed by burning, Jer. 29:22.
- ROB, to steal or plunder, Lev. 19:13:
to withhold what is due to the service
of God, as the Jews withheld the pay-
ment of tithes, which formed the living
of the Levites, and the appointed offerings
for sacrifices, Mal. 3:8, 9.
- ROBBED, did plunder, Judg. 9:25: did
receive support or aid from, 2 Cor. 11:8.
- ROBBED, plundered, Isa. 42:22; Jer.
50:37: deprived, Prov. 17:12.
- ROBBER, a plunderer, a thief, Job 5:5;
- ROBBERY, theft perpetrated by night
or with force, Nah. 1:7: what is procured
by plunder, Isa. 61:8. Christ "thought
it not robbery to be equal with God,"
while He humbled Himself to death for
our redemption, as in His Divine nature
He was the Son of God, Phil. 2:6; John
- ROBE, a gown of state, denoting office
or honour, as the priests' ephod, Exod.
28:4, 34; or the upper garment of
the king, 1 Sam. 24:4, 11.
- ROBE OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, the righte-
ousness and grace of Christ, by which
the saints are justified, Isa. 61:10; Phil.
3:9; Rev. 19:8. "[W]hite robes" of
the blessed, indicate their holiness, hap-
piness, and honour, in Heaven, Rev. 6:
- ROCK, a vast mass of stone, as the
famous rock of Horeb, Exod. 17:6.
God, as the author and source of all
blessings, is called the rock of the pious,
Deut. 32:4, 15, 31, 37. Christ, as the
only Saviour, the foundation of human
hope, is represented as a rock to afford
spiritual support and supplies to the [N. T.]
church, Rom. 9:33; 1 Cor. 10:4.
- Rock, God in His Strength and Permanency--HL, p. 75.
Isa. 26:4. Deu. 32:18.
- ROD, a long stick, Gen. 30:37; Exod.
4:17; 21:20: an official staff or sceptre,
Num. 17:2-8. God's word, as consola-
tory in affliction, Psal. 23:4; or as the
means of threatening for correction, Isa.
11:4: affliction, as the means of correc-
tion, Psal. 89:32.
- RODE, did ride, Gen. 24:61; Judg.
- ROE, a beautiful species of deer or
antelope, with small horns: it was ex-
ceedingly swift of foot, 2 Sam. 2:18;
1 Chron. 12:18, living, not in flocks,
but families, and caught wild by nets,
Prov. 6:5. See HART.
- ROEBUCK, the male of the roe, Deut.
12:15; 1 Kings 4:23.
- ROLL, a volume or book, Ezra 6:2;
Isa. 8:1; Jer. 36:2-6. Anciently
books were of parchment rolled upon a
stick, as the Hebrew Scriptures still are
in synagogues of the Jews. See BOOK.
- Roll, the Hebrew Scriptures.
See left picture at the top of this page. See Ministry.
- ROLL, to move circularly, as a stone,
Prov. 26:27; Gen. 29:3-10: to fold
up, as garments, Isa. 9:5: to whirl, as
the clouds driven by the wind, 34:4:
to remove, humble, and degrade, as a
wicked tyrant, Jer. 51:25.
- ROLLED, did roll, Gen. 29:3-10:
did remove, Josh. 5:9.
- ROLLER, a bandage, as for a weak arm,
- ROLLING, revolving, moving, as a
wheel, Isa. 17:13.
- ROMAMTI-E'ZER, [h] (exaltation
or help), one of the sons of the musician
Heman, 1 Chron. 25:4, 31.
- ROMAN, ΄Ρωμαιον, a native or free citi-
zen of Rome, Acts 22:25, 29. See
- Romanian Bible, Română. See Ministry.
- ROMANS, natives or free citizens of
Rome, Acts 12:21, 37: soldiers or civil
officers of Rome, 28:17: the power
of the Roman government or army,
John 11:48: Christians at Rome, Rom.
- ROMANS, EPISTLE TO THE. Christian
converts were numerous at Rome, in the
days of the apostles, and some connected
with the imperial palace. Paul, having
heard of their spiritual prosperity, wrote
to them this epistle, to show that Jews
and Gentiles were equally interested in
the salvation of Christ, and equally the
subjects of sovereign grace; it is esteemed
therefore, the most comprehensive, full,
and rich, in its exhibition of the gospel,
of any book in the New Testament.
After introducing the doctrine of the
gospel as the great subject of the epistle,
Paul proves from the corrupt state of the
Gentiles, and then from the depraved
condition of the Jews, their equal need
of Christ as a Redeemer and Saviour; he
shows the perfect work of redemption
by Christ, through which all believers
are fully justified, and by the knowledge
of which, through the grace of the Spirit,
they are sanctified, so as to enjoy peace
with God as His adopted children in the
ways of holiness. Various points of
sacred doctrine are then illustrated, and
Divine Providence, in its relation to the
Jews, vindicated; and the latter part of
the epistle is filled with exhortations to
every necessary duty, moral, civil, and
ecclesiastical, becoming the character of
a Christian. Every Christian should
make himself familiar with the whole
language and design of this epistle, as an
acquaintance with it will be the most
effectual means of his establishment in
the belief and enjoyment of all doctrines
- ROME, ΄Ρωμη (strength or power), a city
of Italy; the most celebrated upon earth,
and for several centuries the mistress of
the world: it had been a station of the
Etrurians, but it was founded by Romu-
lus at the head of a banditti, in the reign
of king Hezekiah, about A.M. 3251, and
B.C. 753. It gradually increased until it
extended over seven hills, and ultimately
to cover thirteen; and at the advent of
Christ, its inhabitants were supposed to
amount to about 2,000,000. Christianity
triumphed at Rome in the apostolic age,
when a flourishing church was formed
in that city, whose pastor was regarded
with great respect by other churches, on
account of the importance of his station,
the metropolis of the world, and so near
to the palace of the Cæsars. And such
was the enmity of the idolatrous priests
against the gospel, that many of the early
pastors of the Christian church at Rome
suffered martyrdom for the faith of
Christ. Constantine, the emperor, about
A.D. 313, professed his belief in Christi-
anity, and afterwards showed his zeal,
by building many churches, granting
large honours to their ministers, especially
dignifying the senior pastor at Rome.
Multitudes now embraced the religion of
the emperor; and ungodly men, for the
sake of emolument, aspired to be its
ministers: ceremonies were multiplied,
to be performed by prayerless ministers,
who thus daily corrupted its doctrines.
Constantine removing the seat of his
government to his new city, Constanti-
nople, a path was opened for the ambition
of the Roman bishop, who, by progressive
steps, advanced to the predicted eleva-
tion, on which he claimed to be the head
of a hierarchy, as Pope or Father of the
church on earth, and vicar of Christ--
but in the expressive language of apos-
tolic prophecy--the MAN OF SIN, the
MYSTERY OF INIQUITY, and A BEAST,
2 Thess. 2:3-8; Rev. 13:1-18. Rome
has greatly declined from its former
glory, having now only about 150,000
inhabitants: but it abounds with vast
monuments of its former grandeur. St.
Peter's cathedral, far larger than St.
Paul's cathedral, London, is believed to
be the most magnificent place of worship
in the world; and the Vatican, or winter
palace of the pope, is reckoned to con-
tain 12,500 chambers, halls, and closets.
Roman Catholics regard the pope or
bishop of Rome, as the visible head of
the whole [RC] church, and his deci-
sions in religion as infallible: but every
succeeding pope has been an enemy to
the circulation of the Bible, scarcely
anything of pure scriptural Christianity
can be discovered among the mass of
superstitions observed in public worship
at Rome; and, as the consequence, the
morals of the people are the grossest
opprobrium to the name of Christ.
- Rome, Papal. See Heresies &
- ROOF, the covering of a house, Gen.
19:8; Matt. 8:8. Roofs of the houses
in Palestine were generally flat, on which
persons might walk, Josh. 2:6; 2 Sam.
11:2; Neh. 8:16; the ascent to the roof
was by a trap-door, Mark 2:4; or by
steps on the outside, 13:15: the upper
part of the mouth, Job 29:10.
- ROOM, an apartment, Gen. 6:14; Mark
14:15: a seat at a table, Luke 14:8-10:
accommodation, Gen. 24:23-25: con-
venience, as a store-room, Luke 12:17;
or a space of land, Gen. 26:22: or place
of comfort, Psal. 31:8: stead or office,
1 Kings 2:35; 5:1-5.
- ROOT, the bottom part of a tree or
plant, which grows in the ground, Mark
11:20. By a figure of speech the chief,
or distinguished founder of a family, is
called a root: hence Messiah is called a
"Branch" from "the stem" and "root of Jesse,"
the father of David, Isa. 11:1-10; Ruth
4:17-22. Christ, by reason of His divinity
and humanity, is both "the root and the
offspring of David," Rev. 22:16; Matt.
22:42-45. By "root and blossom,"
parents and children are intended, Isa.
- ROOT, to dig or pull, so as to destroy,
Matt. 13:29: to exterminate, 1 Kings
- ROOTED, firmly settled in mind, Eph.
5:17; Col. 2:7. Rooted out, is being
exiled or destroyed, Deut. 29:28.
- ROPES, thick cords or strings, Judg.
16:11; Acts 27:32. To put ropes on
their heads, is to show the utmost degra-
dation, as if fearing execution, 1 Kings
- ROSE, a flower celebrated in Arabia,
Persia, Greece, and Rome, for its elegance
of form, glow of colour, and fragrance of
smell, and called the queen of flowers.
There are upwards of two hundred
varieties of the rose, Isa. 35:1; Sol.
Song 2:1. Otto of roses is a very rich
perfume of this flower from India.
- ROSE, did rise, Gen. 4:8; 19:1; 22:
3; 1 Cor. 15:4-12.
- ROSH, [h] (head, toss, or beginning), a
son of Benjamin, Gen. 46:21.
- ROT, to decay, as a tree, Isa. 40:20:
to putrify, as with disease, Num. 5:21:
to be abhorred, Prov. 10:7.
- ROTTEN, putrid, Joel 1:17: worn to
decay, Jer. 38:11, 12: decayed, Job
- ROTTENESS, decay or putrefaction,
Isa. 5:24: distressing pain, Hab. 3:16:
grief of heart, Prov. 12:4; 14:30.
- ROVERS, marauders or banditti, 1
- ROUGH, stony, thorny, or difficult, as a
road, Deut. 21:4; Isa. 40:4: coarse, as
cloth, Zech. 13:4, or the skin of a beast,
Dan. 8:21: cold and piercing, as the
wind, Isa. 27:8.
- ROUGHLY, harshly, Gen. 42:7; Prov.
18:23: rudely, 1 Kings 12:13.
- ROUND, globular, Exod. 16:14: cir-
cular, Isa. 3:18: in a circuit, Luke 19:
- ROUND, to shave round, Lev. 19:27.
- ROUNDABOUT, on every side, Exod.
- ROUSE, to wake from repose, Gen. 49:
- ROW, a line, a number of things ranged
in a line, Exod. 28:17-19; Ezra 6:4.
- ROWED, impelled by oars, as a ship or
boat, Jon. 1:13; John 6:19; Mark 6:48.
- ROWERS, seamen who labour with oars,
- ROWING, impelling a boat by means of
oars, Mark 6:48.
- ROYAL, kingly, belonging to a king, as
his children, 2 Kings 11:11; a city, Josh.
10:2; 2 Sam. 12:26; treasure, 1 Kings 10:
13: splendid, fit for a king, as apparel,
Est. 5:1; 6:8; Acts 12:21: rich food,
Gen. 49:20. God's law is royal, as He
is King of kings, Jam. 2:8. Saints are a
royal priesthood, as they serve God, to
whom they are kings and priests, destined
for the kingdom of Heaven, 1 Pet. 2:9.
- RUBBING, bruising, Luke 6:1.
- RUBBISH, ruins of buildings, Neh. 4:
- RUBIES, very precious gems, Prov. 3:
- RUBY, a very precious gem, of a red
colour, Lam. 4:7; Job 28:18; Prov.
3:15; 31:10. A perfect ruby above
3½ carats, or 14 grains in weight, exceeds
in value a diamond of the same size: a
large ruby is called carbuncle.
- RUDDER-BANDS: the rudder was the
instrument of steering a ship at sea, and
the bands were rope fastenings of it to
the helm, Acts 27:40.
- RUDDY, reddish, as a bloom on the
cheek, indicative of health, 1 Sam. 16:
12; Sol. Song 5:10; Lam. 4:7.
- RUDE, artless or inelegant, 2 Cor. 11:6.
- RUDIMENTS, first elements, as the
Jewish ceremonies, from which Christians
were delivered by the perfect system of
the gospel, Col. 2:8-20.
- RUE, a little herb, of great medicinal
value, Luke 11:42.
- RU'FUS, ΄Ρουφος (red), a son of Simon
the Cyrenian, Mark 15:21: he is thought
to have been the Christian at Rome
saluted by Paul, Rom. 16:13.
- RUIN, overthrow, Prov. 26:28: de-
struction, Ezek. 18:30.
- RUINED, demolished, as buildings,
Ezek. 36:35, 36.
- RUINOUS, fallen to ruin or heaps, 2
- RULE, the charge and direction, 1
Kings 22:31: authority, Prov. 17:2:
power, Est. 9:1: control, Prov. 25:28:
pastoral superintendence, Heb. 13:7,
17, 24: a builder's measure, Isa. 44:13:
a law or precept, Gal. 6:16.
- RULE, to govern, Gen. 1:16-18. God
rules throughout the universe, Dan. 4:
26; 5:21. A king rules in a nation, Isa.
19:4: a father rules in his family, 1
Tim. 3:5: divine grace rules in the
heart, Col. 3:15.
- RULED, did rule, Gen. 24:2: governed
as supreme, Dan. 5:21.
- RULER, one who rules, as a king, 2
Sam. 7:8; 1 Kings 1:35: a viceroy, or
chief governor, Gen. 41:43: a steward
in a great house, 43:14: a Jewish
senator, John 3:1: an elder in the
Jewish synagogue, Luke 13:14.
- RULING, governing, as a kingdom, 2
Sam. 23:3: or a family, 1 Tim. 3:12.
- RUMBLING, a hoarse noise, as of car-
riage wheels, Jer. 47:3.
- RUMOUR, popular report, 2 Kings 19:
7; Mark 13:7: fame, Luke 7:17.
- RUMP, the end of the back of an
animal, Lev. 3:9. The rump of the
sacrifice was the enormous tail which, in
a Syrian fatted sheep, is one-fourth, or
in some one-third, of the total weight of
the carcase. Eating unmingled fat, was
therefore prohibited, with blood also,
Exod. 29:22; Lev. 3:9-17. See SHEEP.
- RUN, to move with a swift pace, 2 Sam.
15:1; 18:19: to contend in a race,
1 Cor. 9:24: to pursue a course of life,
Phil. 2:16; Heb. 12:1: to flow, as rivers,
Eccles. 1:7, or tears, Lam. 2:18.
- RUNNING, travelling hastily, 2 Sam.
18:24: swift sailing, Acts 27:16.
Running water, means spring or river
water, Lev. 14:5, 51, 52.
- RUSH, a plant growing in marshy
grounds, and by the sides of rivers, Job
8:11; Isa. 35:7. See BULRUSH.
"[B]ranch and rush," means ruler and
people, the aged and the young, Isa. 9:
- RUSH, to move with violence, Isa. 17:
- RUSHED, did rush, Judg. 9:44; Acts
- RUSHING, a violent movement, Isa.
17:12, 13; Ezek. 3:1; Acts 2:2.
- Russian Bible portions, .... See Russian Bible.
- RUST, a drossy concretion upon dirted
or wetted metals, Matt. 6:19; Jam. 5:3.
- RUTH, [h] (satisfied), the Moabitess,
who, being converted to God, and having
accompanied her mother-in-law to Beth-
lehem, became the wife of Boaz, and the
mother of Obed, who was the father of
Jesse, and grandfather of David, and
hence a progenitor of the great Messiah,
Ruth 1:4-22; 4:13-17; Matt. 1:5.
- RUTH, THE BOOK OF: this is regarded
as an appendix to the book of Judges,
relating to about the time of Gideon, and
is so named as recording the history of
Ruth, the Moabitess, illustrating the
overruling providence of God. Influenced
by affection to her mother-in-law, and
attachment to the religion and people of
Israel, she left her country and became
an honourable personage among the pro-
genitors of Messiah. See Commentary.
- RYE, a coarse kind of bread corn,
resembling wheat: some have supposed
that rue is intended, Exod. 9:32; Isa.
28:: the Hebrew word is rendered
fitches, Ezek. 4:9.
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