Bible Dictionary: C. 1840
- CAB, a Hebrew measure of about three
pints, 2 Kings 6:25. See MEASURES.
- CABINS, cells, especially those of a
prison, Jer. 37:16.
- CA'BUL, [h] (displeasing, dirty), the
name which king Hiram gave to the
cities given to him by Solomon, 1 Kings
- CÆ'SAR, [g] (one cut out, or a head of
hair), a title of the Roman emperor,
derived from the proper name of the
first emperor, Julius Cæsar. Augustus
was the second of that dignity, Luke 2:
1. Tiberius Cæsar is mentioned, Luke
3:1, and he is intended in chap. 20:22-
25. Claudius Cæsar, Acts 11:28, and
Nero Cæsar, Acts 25:12. Judea being
a Roman province, freemen might appeal
from an inferior court to the supreme
tribunal, which was appealing to Cæsar,
Acts 25:10-12. Our Saviour meant
civil government, by Cæsar, in his dis-
course with the Herodians, Matt. 22:21.
- CÆSARE'A, [g] (a bush of hair), a
city and port of Palestine, on the Medi-
terranean sea, seventy-five miles north-
west from Jerusalem. The Tower of
Strato was erected here for the defence
of the harbour; but Herod the Great
improved the port by a breakwater, and
built the city, which he called Cæsarea,
in honour of his patron Augustus, to
whom also he erected a superb temple,
adorned with the statue of that em-
peror. It soon rose to an extraor-
dinary height of magnificence, and be-
came the residence of the Roman pro-
consul; hence the fact of Paul being
kept a prisoner for two years at Cæsarea,
and that so many things are mentioned
as having occurred in relation to Chris-
tians in this great city, Acts 8:40; 10:1;
12:19; 23.; 24.; 25:4-14. Our en-
graving represents the present condition,
merely ruins of Cæsarea.
- CÆSARE'A PHILIPPI: this city was
originally called Laish, Judg. 18:7,
and afterwards Dan, ver. 29; but Philip,
the youngest son of Herod the Great,
having obtained the government of
Iturea, Luke 3:1, enlarged and embel-
lished this city, giving it this new name,
in honour of himself and of his patron,
the emperor Tiberius: it was situated
near to mount Hermon, on the eastern
side of the source of the river Jordan,
Matt. 16:13; Mark 8:27.
- CAGE, an enclosure of twigs or wire
in which birds are kept, Jer. 5:27. Pro-
phetic Babylon is so called, Rev. 17:2.
- CAI'APHAS, Καιαφας (a searcher), the
Jewish high-priest who condemned our
Saviour: he had married a daughter of
Annas, who had long enjoyed the same
dignity, John 18:13. Caiaphas pro-
phesying that "it was expedient for one
man to die for the people, that the whole
nation might not perish," was doubtless
influenced by the Holy Spirit, as inti-
mated by John: but the crafty politician
seems to have intended merely that it
was necessary to sacrifice Jesus, though
an atrocious violation of justice, as a
measure of policy, to prevent the Ro-
mans from finding occasion to take
away their place, the lucrative, but
corrupted office, in the Jewish church,
John 11:48-52; Matt. 26:57-60. Caia-
phas, however, was deposed, two years
afterwards by Vitellus, the Roman gover-
nor of Syria.
- CAIN, קין (a possession), the first-born of
the human family, Gen. 4:1. Eve is
thought to have regarded her first-born
son as [a] promised [d]eliverer; but, to
her sorrow, she witnessed his being the
first deist, while the depraved charac-
ter and fearful crimes of this "father of
unbelievers" illustrate the evil nature
and ruinous tendency of infidelity, Gen.
4:1; John 3:12.
- CAIN, a city of Judah, Josh. 15:57.
- CAI'NAN, [h] (possession, or purchaser),
a son of Enos, Gen. 5:9; Luke 3:37.
- CAI'NAN, a son of Arphaxad, Luke 3:36.
- CAKE, a delicate small loaf of bread,
Exod. 12:39; Lev. 24:5; Jer. 7:18.
A cake not turned, means imperfectly
baked only on one side, Hos. 7:18, as
the ten tribes were only professors of
the true religion, while inclining to the
practice of idolatry.
- CA'LAH, [h] (favourable, or humility, or
floor), a city built in Assyria, by Ashur
or Nimrod, Gen. 10:12.
- CALAMITY, grievous trouble, Deut.
32:35; Jer. 49:8, 32.
- CALAMUS, an aromatic reed or cane,
Exod. 30:23; Ezek. 27:19. Some
think the sugar cane is intended, as it is
called sweet cane, Jer. 6:20.
- CALDRON, a large pot for boiling food,
1 Sam. 2:14; Mic. 3:3. Jerusalem, on
account of its miseries, was called a
caldron by the people, Ezek. 11:3.
- CA'LEB, [h] (a dog), an honourable
man of the tribe of Judah, and a faith-
ful servant of God: he, with Joshua,
among the twelve who were deputed by
Moses to survey the land of Canaan,
made a faithful report, Num. 13:6;
14. Caleb was a chief of great [impor-
tance] in the settlement of the tribes in
Canaan, Josh. 14:6-13; 15.
- CALEB, or CHELUBAI, a son of Hezron,
1 Chron. 2:9, 18, 42.
- CALEB, the son of Hur, grandson of
the former, 1 Chron. 2:19, 50.
- CALEB, a town or place of Judah, 1
Sam. 30:14: probably the same as
Caleb-Ephratah, 1 Chron. 2:24.
- CALF, the young of a cow, Job. 21:
10. The flesh of a fatted calf was re-
garded as choice food by the Israelites,
Gen. 18:7; 1 Sam. 28:24; Luke 15:23.
- CALF, the molten, an idol made by
Aaron, in compliance with the Israel-
ites, as a visible symbol of the Deity;
this grievous crime of Aaron brought
much misery on the people and per-
plexity to Moses, Exod. 32:4, 20-30.
- CALKERS, carpenters who stop the
chinks in ships, Ezek. 27:9, 27.
- CALL, to name, Gen. 2:19: to com-
mand by name, Exod. 2:7, 20; Num. 16:
12: to declare, Mal. 3:15: to pray,
Psal. 4:1: to worship in faith and love,
Rom. 10:13: to acknowledge, Heb. 2:11:
to invite, Matt. 9:15: to influence,
- CALLED, did call or name, Gen. 21:
3: did denominate or declare, 1:5, 10:
did summon or command, Num. 12:5:
did influence to obedience, Gal. 1:15;
Rom. 8:30; 9:24.
- CALLED, named, Gen. 11:9: denomi-
nated, Jam. 2:7; Acts 11:26: invited,
Matt. 20:16: appointed to office, Heb.
5:4: regenerated, Rom. 1:7; 1 Tim. 6:
12: constituted, 1 John 3:1: mani-
fested and declared, Isa. 9:6. Men are
called by the [invitation] of
the gospel to repent of sin, and believe
on Christ for salvation and eternal life,
Isa. 55:1-3; Rev. 22:17; yet the saints
are not only invited, but influenced to
obedience, by the regenerating and new-
creating grace of the Holy Spirit, 2 Tim.
1:9; Eph. 2:10; 1 Thess. 1:5; Tit. 3:4-7.
- CALLING, the act of inviting or sum-
moning, Num. 10:2: the ordinary occu-
pation, 1 Cor. 7:20: the [saving] grace
by which men become reconciled to God,
Heb. 3:11: the privileged condition of
true Christians, as the adopted children
of God, 1 Cor. 1:26; Eph. 1:18: the glori-
fied state of the saints in Heaven, 2 Thess.
- CALLING, addressing any one, 1 Pet.
3:6: inviting or summoning, Matt. 11:
16: bringing, Isa. 41:4; 46:11: in-
voking, Acts 7:59.
- CALM, serenity or stillness, as the sea
after a storm, Psal. 107:29; Matt. 8:26.
- CALM, quiet or still, Jonah 1:11, 12.
- CAL'NEH, [h] (our consummation, or as
murmuring), a city in the land of Shinar,
built by Nimrod, Gen. 10:10. It is sup-
posed to have been Calno, Isa. 10:9, and
Canneh, Ezek. 27:23, and the modern
- CALVARY, Κρανιον (cranion, the place of a
skull), Luke 23:33, a small hill near
Jerusalem, where criminals were exe-
cuted, and where the soldiers crucified
Christ, Matt. 27:33-35; John 19:17,
18. See GOLGOTHA.
- CALVE, to bring forth, as a cow, Job
21:10, or the hind, Jer. 14:5.
- CALVES, the young of oxen, 1 Sam. 6:
7, and of deer, Job 39:1: idols in
the form of calves, as made by king
Jeroboam, to prevent the ten tribes from
returning to the kingdom of Judah, by
their going to worship at Jerusalem,
1 Kings 12:28: the ignorant people,
Psal. 68:30: expressions of praise
and thanksgiving, Hos. 14:2.
- CAME, did come, Gen. 19:1: did
originate, 10:14: did befal, 2 Tim. 3:11:
did occasion, 1 Cor. 15:21: was ap-
pointed, Matt. 20:28: did reveal him-
self, Gen. 20:3; Num. 22:9.
- CAMEL, a beast of burden, invaluable
to travellers in the deserts of Asia and
Africa, 1 Chron. 5:21; Job 1:3. This
animal requires but little food of the
coarsest kind, while capable of enduring
surprising fatigue, on which accounts
the Arabs call it the ship of the desert,
Gen. 24:10, 61. There are two species
mentioned in Scripture: the Arabian
camel or dromedary, with one hairy
bunch on its back; the fleetness of this
animal is very great, being able to travel
with a load of nearly 2000 lbs. weight
for about 100 miles a day, 1 Sam. 30:
17. The Bactrian camel, with two
bunches on its back: this abounds in
central Asia, from Persia to China, Est.
8:10. The natural history of this
animal, in its adaptation to its native
regions, remarkably illustrates the wis-
dom and goodness of God. Our engrav-
ing will convey an idea of the mode of
traveling on camels, in the caravans of
merchants, through the great deserts of
Arabia. See DROMEDARY. "A camel
to go through the eye of a needle" is
a Jewish proverbial expression, denot-
ing an impossible thing, Matt. 19:24.
"Strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel,"
23:24, denoting carefulness to observe
small rites and ceremonies while neglect-
ing the great duties of the law of God,
is another proverbial phrase, alluding to
the "straining out" of flies and worms
from wine before drinking.
- CAMELEON, a small animal of the
lizard kind, with four feet and a long
flat tail, and its head joined to the body
without any neck, Lev. 11:30. This
animal is remarkable for its faculty of
changing its colour; it feeds on insects,
though the vulgar error supposes that it
lives on the air.
- CAMP, the lodgment of an army in
tents, Exod. 14:19, 1 Kings 16:16.
The orderly arrangement of the camps
formed by the several tribes of Israel
and of the whole people, in their passage
through the wilderness, was divinely
directed, Num. 1. 2. 4. 10.
- CAMP, to make a lodgment in the
open field, as an army of soldiers, Lev.
11:30; Jer. 50:29.
- CAMPHIRE, the cypress or Egyptian
henna, which produces the drug, a kind
of gum, called camphor. The sacred
writer intends the flowery clusters hang-
ing like lilac blossoms on the cypress:
they being beautiful in colour, and ex-
quisitely odoriferous, the ladies of Egypt,
carry them, as for perfuming, in their
bosoms, Sol. Song 1:14; 4:13. They
use the powder of its dried leaves to
give their nails a reddish tinge: this
tree grows to the height of two hundred
feet in Borneo and Sumatra.
- CAN, to be able, in respect of wisdom,
strength, or authority, Gen. 41:38; 2 Sam.
- CA'NA, Κανα (zeal, possession, or cane),
a town of Zebulon in Galilee, six miles
from Nazareth, John 2:1. Our engrav-
ing represents the modern village of
- CA'NAAN, [h] (a merchant or trader), the
youngest son of Ham, and grandson of
Noah, Gen. 9:18. Canaan is believed
to have discovered and ridiculed the
nakedness of the [respect]able patriarch,
as he lay exposed within his tent, in
which act of wickedness he was counte-
nanced by his father Ham. God, there-
fore, to reprove both, inspired his servant
to utter that memorable prediction called
the "curse of Noah," Gen. 9:22-27,
relating to the degradation of the poste-
rity of Canaan. The curse was executed
on the Amorites, Hivites, &c., by Joshua,
who was of the posterity of Shem, and
on the scattered remains of that people
at Thebes, Carthage, &c., by the Romans
descended from Japhet.
- CANAAN, THE LAND OF: this country
fell to the lot of Canaan, the son of Ham,
to which he gave his own name. Canaan
was about 200 miles long, and nearly 80
broad, lying along the eastern border of
the Mediterranean sea. David and Solo-
mon governed several provinces beyond
the limits of Canaan, which enlarged
their kingdom, 1 Kings 4:21-24. Canaan
was bounded on the north by the moun-
tains of Lebanon in Syria, on the east
by Arabia Deserta, on the south by the
wilderness of Arabia Petrea and Idumea,
and on the west by the land of the
Philistines and the Mediterranean sea.
Besides the name of its first possessor,
Canaan has been variously denominated,
as the Land of the Hebrews, Gen. 40:15;
Palestine, Exod. 15:14; the Land of
Promise, Heb. 11:9; the Land of Israel,
Judah, Judea, the Holy Land, Zech. 2:
12. Canaan has been the theatre of the
most extraordinary transactions which
have ever taken place under the Divine
government upon earth. This is the
country where the chief patriarchs
walked with God--where the theocracy
of Israel was established--where the
prophets received most of their divine
inspirations--where the temple of Je-
hovah was erected under his special
direction--where the incarnate Son of
God accomplished the work of human
redemption--and where the apostles
were miraculously endowed with the
gifts of the Holy Spirit, to fulfil their
commission as ambassadors for Christ
to invite sinners of all nations into the
kingdom of Messiah for the blessings of
pardon, purity, and immortality, in the
eternal glory of God. Canaan, in the
times of David and Solomon, contained
a population of about 5,000,000; but now
it has only about 1,500,000 inhabitants.
Since the destruction of Jerusalem by
the Romans, it has been the scene of
strange revolutions, especially during
the crusades, profanely called holy wars [Isl_m-RCC]:
it now forms two wretched provinces,
ACRE and DAMASCUS, under the mise-
rable government of pashas, subject or
tributary to the sultan of Turkey. The
population consists of Turks, Syrians,
Bedouin Arabs, Copts, Druses of Leba-
non, Roman, Armenian, and Greek
Christians, and Jews.
- CANAANITE, the native population of
Canaan, Gen. 12:6: a native of Canaan
from the original family, 38:2: an
enemy to true religion, Zech. 14:21: a
native of Cana, Matt. 10:4.
- Canaanite. Are you just another Canaanite
or a Twice-born Christian?
- CANAANITES, the descendants of
Canaan, particularly the seven nations,
as comprehended by Moses in the doom
of God to destruction on account of
their crimes--"the Hittites, and the
Girgashites, and the Amorites, and the
Canaanites, and the Perizzites, and the
Hivites, and the Jebusites," Deut. 7:1;
Gen. 10:15-19; 15:18-21. These people
had become exceedingly corrupt so early
as the time of Abraham; and though
Melchisedek, and probably some others
with him, were most illustrious excep-
tions, yet generally their practices were
extremely abominable. Sodom and three
other cities were devoured by fire from
heaven in the days of Abraham, Gen.
19.; and when the iniquity of these
nations had arisen to its height, in the
commission of adultery, incest, bestiality,
and every species of wickedness, even
sacrificing their own children to sense-
less idols, God, in righteousness, employed
the Israelites as the ministers of His
judgments, rather than plague, pesti-
lence, and famine, to manifest His abhor-
rence of uncleanness, and His indignation
against idolatry, Lev. 18:24-30; Deut.
8:2-5; Psal. 106:36-38.
- CANAANITESS, a woman of the native
Canaanites, 1 Chron. 2:3; Gen. 38:2.
- CANDACE, Κανδακη (pure possession), the
queen of the Ethiopians, whose chief
treasurer became a Jewish proselyte,
and afterwards a Christian by the
ministry of Philip the deacon: tradition
reports, that this noble disciple was
honoured in the conversion of his royal
mistress, and many others in Ethiopia,
- Candace. See Philip the Soul-Winner.
- CANDLE, a roll of wax or tallow with
a wick for giving light in a house, Jer.
25:10: a lamp, Luke 15:8: the
rational soul of man, Prov. 20:27:
natural light, Rev. 22:5: prosperity,
Job 29:3. Searching Jerusalem with
candles, denotes the perfect knowledge
of God relating to all the secret crimes
of wicked men, Zeph. 1:12.
- CANDLESTICK, the support of a candle
to give light, Matt. 5:16. The golden
candlestick, made for the Levitical taber-
nacle, consisted of six branches besides
the upright supporter, each of the seven
having a lamp furnished with oil to burn
continually before the most holy place,
Exod. 25:31-39; 26:35. Our engrav-
ing represents the probable form of the
- CANDLESTICKS, lamp-stands, 1 Kings
7:49; 1 Chron. 28:15. The two
candlesticks, Rev. 11:4, are supposed to
denote two [important] churches or congre-
gations, with their two olive-trees or
ministers, Zech. 4:3, 11, 14. The seven
golden candlesticks, Rev. 1:20, are spoken
of in allusion to the one made for the
tabernacle: the mystery, or allegorical
representation of the seven branches or
candlesticks, denotes the seven sister
churches, sources of divine and saving
light to those of the surrounding heathen,
in the neighbouring cities of Asia Minor.
- CANE, the sweet cane or odoriferous
calamus reed, Isa. 43:24; Jer. 6:20.
- CANKER, a worm or fly that destroys
fruits, 2 Tim. 2:17.
- CANKERED, corroded or destroyed as
by rust, Jam. 5:3.
- CANKERWORM, a species of rough
caterpillar peculiarly destructive to the
vine, Joel 1:4; 2:25; Nah. 3:15, 16.
- CAPER'NAUM, Καπερναυμ (the field of
repentance, or city of comfort), the chief
city of Galilee, on the western shore of
the sea of Tiberias: it was the principal
place of our Saviour's residence during
His public ministry; but on account of
the infidelity of its people it was doomed
to ruin, Matt. 4:13; 11:23. Capernaum
consisted lately of but a few poor
cottages, and its modern name is Tal-
hune or Talhhewn.
- CAPH'TOR, [h] (a sphere, a buckle, or
a hand), supposed to be the isle of Crete
by some, but others regard it as a pro-
vince in Asia Minor, Jer. 47:4; Amos
- CAPH'TORIM, [h], (the people of
Caphtor), Deut. 2:23.
- CAPPADOCIA, [g] (a sphere, &c.,
as Caphtor), a province in Asia Minor,
on the south of the Euxine sea. Its
inhabitants were infamous for their
vices, yet Christianity was introduced
here by Cappadocian Jews, who heard
Peter's famous sermon at Pentecost,
Acts 2:9, and thirty years after that
apostle addressed some in that district
as Christians, 1 Pet. 1:1. Several of the
early pastors of the churches in Cappa-
docia have been canonized as saints,
among whom were, [...].
- CAPTAIN, a leader, general, or chief of
an army, Gen. 26:26; 2 Kings 5:11;
of a body of soldiers, Exod. 15:4; 2 Kings
1:9, 11; or of a tribe or people, Num. 2:
3, 5: a magistrate or judge, Deut. 1:15.
God, as the commander and protector of
those who confide in Him, is called Cap-
tain, 2 Chron. 13:12.
- CAPTAIN OF SALVATION, a title given
to Christ, as He is the Prince of life, who,
by His word and Spirit, leads believers in
the ways of holiness and safety to the en-
joyment of eternal salvation, for which He
became qualified by His sufferings as the
Messiah, Acts 3:15; Heb. 2:10. Christ
was "captain of the LORD'S host" to lead
Israel, Josh. 5:14, .
- CAPTIVE, a prisoner taken in war,
Gen. 14:14: a criminal in a dungeon,
Exod. 12:29: one in degrading subjec-
tion, 2 Tim. 2:26. Captives were some-
times punished by the Romans by a
dead body being bound face to face with
a corpse, the effluvia of which destroyed
the living person; this practice may illus-
trate, Rom. 7:24.
- CAPTIVITY, a state of subjection and
servitude to which prisoners taken in
battle were reduced, Deut. 28:;
2 Kings 24:15: bondage to inward
corruption, Rom. 7:23: subjection to
the grace of Christ, 2 Cor. 10:5. Christ led
captivity captive, when in His ascension
He triumphed over all His and our ene-
mies, Eph. 4:8.
- CAPTIVITY, THE EGYPTIAN: the Isra-
elites were oppressed in bitter servitude
under the Pharaohs in Egypt, but re-
deemed by the hand of God with awful
miracles under the ministry of His ser-
vant Moses, Exod. 1.-15.
- CAPTIVITY, THE ASSYRIAN: Shal-
maneser, king of Assyria, overthrew the
kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel, and
carried captive into his own country the
whole population: they were never re-
stored as a nation, but certain individuals
and parties of the Israelites, from time
to time, returned and were reunited with
their brethren the Jews, 2 Kings 17.
- CAPTIVITY, THE BABYLONIAN: Nebu-
chadnezzar having conquered Judea,
and burned to ashes the city and temple
of Jerusalem, carried the people to
Babylon; but after seventy years, as
predicted by the prophets, they were
restored by the decree of Cyrus under
the influence of the prophet Daniel,
2 Chron. 36:13-23; Dan. 6:28. See
JERUSALEM and JEWS.
- CARBUNCLE, a precious gem of a
brilliant red colour, in value next to
the diamond: it is seldom found larger
than a quarter of an inch long, chiefly
in the East Indies, Exod. 28:17; Isa.
54:12; Ezek. 28:13.
- CAR'CAS, [h] (an eagle), a chamberlain
to king Ahasuerus, Est. 1:10.
- CARCASE, the corpse of a man or beast,
Lev. 5:2; Isa. 5:25; Heb. 3:17: an idol,
as being a lifeless and abominable, thing,
- CAR'CHEMISH, [h] (a lamb carried
off), a city of Mesopotamia on the river
Euphrates, belonging to the Assyrians,
2 Chron. 35:20; 2 Kings 23:29.
This city is thought to be the same as
the ancient Circesium, and its modern
name is Kerkish.
- CARE, concern about a thing, 1 Sam.
10:2: painful anxiety, Ezek. 4:16. Care
is commendable as it is piously exercised
on lawful things, 2 Kings 4:13; 2 Cor.
7:13: but a fault, as arising from
irreligious want of confidence in God,
Luke 21:34. The apostle exhorting to
be careful for nothing, means distress-
ingly anxious, Phil. 4:6.
- CARE, to be concerned, 2 Sam. 18:3;
Luke 10:40: to provide for and supply,
- CAREFUL, concerned or anxious, Dan.
3:16: kindly attentive, 2 Kings 4:13:
diligently thoughtful, Tit. 3:8: dis-
tressed, Jer. 17:8.
- CAREFULLY, attentively, Deut. 15:15:
earnestly, Heb. 12:17: with affectionate
solicitude, Phil. 2:28.
- CAREFULNESS, painful anxiety, Ezek.
12:18, 19; 1 Cor. 7:32: honourable
solicitude, 2 Cor. 7:11.
- CARELESS, without regard to security,
Judg. 18:7, or to the favour of God,
Isa. 32:9, 11.
- CARELESSLY, regardless of humanity
and of the fear of God, Isa. 47:8;
- CAR'MEL, [h] (vineyard of God), a city
of Judah, about ten miles south-east of
Hebron, the residence of Nabal, Josh. 15:
55; 1 Sam. 25:2.
- CARMEL: Mount Carmel is the highest
peak of a range of mountains, rising in
the valley of Jezreel, and terminating
in a promontory, 2200 above the level
of the sea, and forming the bay of Accho,
on the Mediterranean. Modern travel-
lers tell us that the oaks, wild vines, olive
trees, and fragrant flowers abounding
upon it show its former fertility, as "the
excellency of Carmel," Isa. 35:2;
though its present appearances indicates
the fulfilment of the prediction of the
prophet, Amos 1:2. Mount Carmel is
famous for the deeds of the prophet
Elijah, 1 Kings 18:19-42. Upon the
summit of this famous mountain is a
chapel, dedicated to Elijah; and the
modern name is El Kirmel. Our en-
graving gives a view of the north-eastern
side of the mountains of Carmel.
- CARMELITE, a native of or resident
in the city or district of Carmel, 1 Sam.
30:5; 2 Sam. 23:35.
- CARNAL, fleshly, animal, or sensual,
Rom. 7:14. Habitually thinking of
and seeking mere worldly pleasures,
profits, or honours, indicates a carnal
mind, which is not subject to the law of
God; and cherishing its alienation from
God it must be in a state of condemna-
tion, Rom. 8:6, 7. Holy men, feeling
the secret working of corruption in their
nature, complain of being carnal, Rom.
7:14. The temporary ceremonies of
religion are called carnal ordinances,
Heb. 9:10. Necessary things pertaining
only to this life are called carnal, as
distinguished from those which are
spiritual, Rom. 15:27.
- CARNALLY, criminally, Lev. 18:18:
sensually, Rom. 8:6.
- CARPENTER, an artificer in wood, Isa.
41:7; 2 Kings 12:11. Jesus was so
called in contempt, because of his being
employed in early life at the trade of
his reputed father, Joseph, who was a
carpenter, Mark 6:3; Matt. 13:55.
- CARPUS, Καρπος (fruit or fruitful), a
Christian friend of Paul, residing at
Troas, and as some suppose, one of the
seventy disciples, 2 Tim. 4:13.
- CARRIAGE, a vehicle for carrying loads,
Judg. 18:21: luggage, Acts 21:15.
- CARRIED, did carry, Gen. 31:18;
Judg. 16:3: did remove, 2 Kings 17:
- CARRIED, conveyed, 1 Sam. 6:10; 2
Kings 20:17: supported, Isa. 63:9: in-
fluenced, Eph. 4:14: endured, Isa. 53:4.
- CARRY, to convey, Gen. 37:25:
to lead, Exod. 33:15.
- CARSHE'NA, [h] (the spoil of war), one
of the seven chief princes in the court of
king Ahasuerus, Est. 1:14.
- CART, a wheel-carriage used to carry
loads, 1 Sam. 6:7.
- CART-ROPE, a thick rope suited to har-
ness a cart, Isa. 5:18.
- CARVED, engraved in wood, 1 Kings
6:18, 19: sculptured in wood, as images,
2 Chron. 34:3, 4.
- CARVING, engraving in wood, Exod.
- CASE, state or condition, Exod. 5:19.
- CASEMENT, the frame of a window,
- CASIPH'IA, [h] (money or covetousness),
a district in the city of Babylon, though
some have thought it a place near the
Caspian sea, Ezr. 8:17.
- CAS'LUHIM, [h] (the cover of tables),
a son of Mizraim, the progenitor of the
Philistines, Gen. 10:14.
- CASSIA, the aromatic bark of a species
of bay-tree, a valuable article of com-
merce, Ezek. 27:19. Some have
thought that an extract of the cassia
spice was intended in Exod. 30:24;
- CAST, the distance of a stone's throw,
- CAST, to throw, Gen. 38:20: to
take out, Matt. 7:5: to make, by pour-
ing melted metal into a mould, Exod.
25:12. To cast out persons is to expel
them, Gen. 21:10; Exod. 34:24.
God casts the sins of men behind his
back, or into the depths of the sea, by
His act of free and full forgiveness, Isa.
38:17; Mic. 7:19.
- CAST, thrown, Dan. 3:21: cut off
from a society, John 9:22: made by
pouring melted metal into a mould,
- CASTING, throwing, Matt. 4:13: de-
grading, 2 Sam. 8:2: rejecting, Rom.
- CASTLE, a large fortified house to
withstand the attacks of enemies, 1 Chron.
11:5; Acts 21:34.
- CASTOR (a beaver), CASTOR and POL-
LUX, [g] (sons of Jupiter), images
of twin brothers represented on horse-
back with lances, used as an ornamental
sign of a ship, Acts 28:11. In the
Grecian mythology they were sons of
Jupiter, supposed to have cleared the
seas of pirates, and, as deities, to have
power over storms; hence they were
worshipped by the heathen sailors. Fiery
exhalations appearing at sea were taken
for them, and two being seen were
thought to betoken a prosperous voyage.
- CATCH, to seize, Judg. 21:21: to
entangle in words, Mark 12:13. To
catch men, is to plunder them as robbers,
Jer. 5:26; Ezek. 19:3; or to engage them
to holiness by the gospel, Luke 5:10.
- CATERPILLAR, a species of worm that
preys upon the leaves of herbs and trees,
1 Kings 8:37; Jer. 51:14, 27.
- CATTLE, quadrupeds, Gen. 1:25:
domestic beasts, 13:2; Eccles. 2:7.
- CAUGHT, did catch, as beasts of prey,
Judg. 15:4: did seize, Acts 16:19:
did take, as a captive, Judg. 1:6: per-
suaded, 2 Cor. 12:16.
- CAUL, the membranous bag which
encloses the heart, Exod. 29:13: a
woman's cap of net-work for a head-
dress, Isa. 3:18.
- CAUSE, a controversy relating to pro-
perty, Exod. 22:9; 18:19-26: a com-
plaint, Josh. 20:4: a reason, Num. 16:
11: a crime, Acts 13:28; Job 3:3.
- CAUSE, to move, Gen. 45:1: to ori-
ginate, 2 Kings 19:7: to occasion, Neh.
- CAUSED, originated, Gen. 2:21: occa-
sioned, Acts 15:3: induced, Dan. 9:21.
- CAUSELESS, without just reason, 1 Sam.
25:31; Prov. 26:2.
- CAUSEWAY, a raised footpath, 1 Chron.
- CAUSING, exciting, Sol. Song 7:9;
- CAVE, a hollow place under ground, or
in the side of a rock, Gen. 19:30; Josh.
10:16; 1 Kings 18:4.
- CEASE, to leave off, Exod. 9:29: to
fail, Gen. 8:22: to give over, Ezra 4:
23: to be quiet, Judg. 15:7: to refrain,
2 Pet. 2:14: to distrust, Prov. 23:4.
- CEASED, did cease or leave off, Exod.
9:33: failed, Judg. 5:7: was ended,
- CEASING, failing, 1 Thess. 2:13; 5:17:
intermission, Acts 12:5.
- CEDAR, one of the largest species of
forest trees; the trunks of some of them
grow to the height of seventy or eighty
feet, measuring thirty or forty feet in
girth, and their branches are thick and
long, spreading out in nearly a horizon-
tal direction, each overshading upwards
of one hundred feet in circumference, 1
Kings 4:33; Ezek. 17:3, 22. Cedar
wood was regarded as imperishable; it
is of a red colour and bitter taste, offen-
sive to insects, and hence it has been
known to last upwards of two thousand
years: hence also various instructive
allusions to it in the Scriptures, Lev. 14:
4; Num. 19:6; Ezek. 27:24. Mount
Lebanon anciently abounded with cedars,
vast numbers of which were used by
king David and king Solomon for beams
and boards in their palaces and in the
temple, 1 Kings 5:6-10; Ezra 3:7; but
now few are to be seen by travellers,
they having been used in the countries
surrounding Syria. Our engraving repre-
sents the principal clusters of the cedars
in Lebanon. Holy men are compared to
cedars for their spiritual dignity, beauty,
and happiness, Psal. 92:12.
- CEDAR-WOOD, a strip of the cedar-tree,
Lev. 14:4: timber of the cedar, 1 Chron.
- CE'DRON, [g], or KIDRON (black or
sad), a brook which flows on the east of
Jerusalem, between the city and mount
Olivet, into the sea of Sodom, 2 Sam. 15:
23; John 18:1. Hinnom was at the
foot of Olivet, where all the filth of
Jerusalem, was cast into the Cedron,
1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:4, 10, 13.
- CEILED, under-roofed, as with boards
and ornaments, 2 Chron. 3:5; Jer. 22:
- CEILING, the inner covering of the
roof of a house, 1 Kings 6:15.
- CELEBRATE, to praise, Isa. 38:18:
to commemorate, Lev. 23:32, 41.
- CELESTIAL, heavenly, pertaining to
heaven, 1 Cor. 15:40.
- CELLARS, store-rooms under or on the
ground, 1 Chron. 27:28.
- CEN'CHREA, [g] (millet, small pulse),
a village forming the sea-port of Corinth
on the eastern side of the isthmus, as
the western port was Lecheum, Acts
18:18. A Christian church was formed
at Cenchrea, Rom. 16:1.
- CENSER, a fire-pan, for the burning of
incense, by the priests in the sanctuary;
censers were variously formed, some as
dishes or ladles, and others like cups
with lids, having holes for the air: they
were commonly of brass, Lev. 10:1; Num.
16:6, 39, but some were made of gold,
1 Kings 7:50; Rev. 8:3. The cen-
ser is called "spoon," Num. 7:14, 20,
and "vial," Rev. 5:8. No Jewish or
contemporary authority for the form
of the sacred censers has yet been dis-
covered: we have, therefore, given a
Grecian example, as a probable ap-
proximation to some used in the taber-
nacle or temple.
- CENTURION, a Roman captain over a
hundred soldiers, Matt. 8:5; Acts 10:
- CE'PHAS, Κηφας (a [...] stone), a
Syriac name given to Simon, John 1:42;
Gal. 2:9: this was rendered by the
Greeks Petros, and by the Latins Petrus,
and in English Peter. See PETER.
- CEREMONIES, ritual observances, es-
pecially of religious worship, Num. 9:3.
- CERTAIN, several, Num. 16:2; Dan.
- CERTAIN, sure, Deut. 13:14: unfail-
ing, Dan. 2:45: without doubt, Jer.
26:15: fixed, 1 Cor. 4:11.
- CERTAINLY, surely, Gen. 18:10:
undoubtedly, 1 Sam. 20:3.
- CERTAINTY, truth, 1 Sam. 23:23;
Luke 1:4: that which is fixed, Josh.
23:13: full persuasion, Dan. 2:8.
- CERTIFY, to assure, 2 Sam. 15:28: to
give information, Esth. 2:22: to autho-
rise, Ezra 7:24.
- CESAR.--See CÆSAR.
- CESAREA.--See CÆSAREA.
- CESAREA PHILIPPI.--See CÆSAREA
- CHAFED, extremely provoked, 2 Sam.
- CHAFF, the husks of corn, Job 21:18;
Psal. 1:4; Matt. 3:12.
- CHAIN, a series of links to fasten
things together, Exod. 28:14: a
prison, Psal. 149:8; Acts 12:7: an
ornamental collar made of links, Gen.
41:42; Judg. 8:26.
- CHAINWORK, fastenings made of chains,
1 Kings 7:17.
- CHALCEDONY, a precious stone of vari-
ous colours: one of the varieties of this
stone is probably the modern cornelian,
- CHALDEA, [h] (Chasdim), not[?] Chal-
dea, is in the Hebrew text, signifying,
like demons, or like robbers. Some sup-
pose that it derived its name from Chesed,
the son of Nahor, brother of Abraham,
Gen. 22:22. Chaldea was the ancient
land of Shinar, 11:2, a large country of
Asia, of which the capital city was Baby-
lon: it was bounded on the north by
Mesopotamia, on the south by Arabia
Felix, on the west by Persia, and on the
east by Arabia Deserta. This country
is extremely fertile, for though it sel-
dom rains, it is watered by the great
rivers the Euphrates and the Tigris, Jer.
50:10; Ezek. 23:16. It is now called
- CHALDEANS, the people of Chaldea,
Isa. 23:13. They were anciently ex-
tremely addicted to robbery and plunder,
- CHALDEANS, a tribe of the ancient
Chaldeans, forming the philosophers and
priesthood of the people: they were pre-
tenders to universal knowledge, espe-
cially as astronomers, astrologers, and
soothsayers, who were held in the highest
estimation among the people at Babylon,
Dan. 2:2; 3:8.
- CHALDEES, the Chaldeans, 2 Kings
24:2; Isa. 13:19.
- CHALK STONES, stones of lime, Isa.
- CHALLENGE, to claim, Exod. 22:9.
- CHAMBER, a retired apartment in a
dwelling-house, Gen. 43:30; 1 Kings
20:30; Dan. 6:10.
- CHAMBERS OF THE SOUTH, are the
clouds, Job 9:9; Psal. 104:3, 13.
- CHAMBERING, immodest behaviour,
- CHAMBERLAIN, a keeper of the king's
bed-chamber, Esth. 2:15, 21: a city
treasurer, Rom. 16:23.
- CHAMOIS, a kind of goat whose species
is now unknown; but some suppose it
to be the cameleopard, Deut. 14:5.
- CHAMPAIGN, a plain open country,
- CHAMPION, a single combatant of ex-
traordinary courage, 1 Sam. 17:4, 51.
- CHANCE, an unexpected event, 1 Sam.
6:9. The word [could be] ren-
- CHANCE, to happen, Deut. 22:6.
- CHANCELLOR, the president of the
king's council, Ezra 4:8.
- CHANGE, an alteration, Heb. 7:12: a
substitute of one thing for another, as
new raiment for old, Zech. 3:4: a suit
of clothes, Gen. 45:22.
- CHANGE, to alter, as a colour, Jer.
13:23, or laws, Acts 6:14, or condition
in life, Hos. 4:7. God is infinite and
eternal, and cannot change, Mal. 3:6.
- CHANGED, altered, as the rate of
wages, Gen. 31:7, or raiment, 41:14;
or opinions, Acts 28:6: transformed,
as in holiness, 2 Cor. 3:18; or by im-
mortality, 1 Cor. 15:51.
- CHANGERS, exchangers, as of large
coin for smaller, or that which is foreign
for what is current money, Matt. 21:
12; John 2:14, 15.
- CHANGING, transferring, as of pro-
perty, Ruth 4:7.
- CHANNEL, the bottom, as the bed of
a river, Isa. 8:7, or the sea, 2 Sam.
- CHANT, to sing loudly, or in choirs,
- CHAPEL, a sanctuary, a place for wor-
ship: Bethel is so called, as the seat of
idolatry to king Jeroboam, Amos 7:13.
- CHAPITERS, ornaments on the tops of
columns and pillars, Exod. 36:38; 1
- CHAPMEN, traders or merchants, 2
- CHAPT, rent, as clayey ground in a
season of drought, Jer. 14:4.
- CHARGE, a commission to public duty,
Num. 27:19; Deut. 31:14: a solemn
command to duty, 1 Tim. 5:7; 6:13.
- CHARGE, to command, Exod. 19:21:
to exhort, 1 Thess. 5:21: to instruct,
Deut. 3:28: to undertake a duty, Neh.
- CHARGEABLE, expensive, 2 Sam. 13:
25; Neh. 5:16: burdensome, 2 Cor. 11:
9; 1 Thess. 2:9.
- CHARGED, commanded, Gen. 26:11:
instructed, Deut. 1:16: exhorted, 1 Thes.
2:11: burdened, 1 Tim. 5:16: regarded,
- CHARIOT, a carriage for travelling in
state, pleasure, or war, Gen. 41:43;
46:29; 1 Kings 10:26; 22:35. "Cha-
riots of the sun," were used in the service
of idolatry, 2 Kings 23:11. Elijah is
called the "chariot of Israel," 2:11, 12,
as a prophet. Egyptian and Persian
sculptures afford the nearest contempo-
rary authorities for the form of the Israel-
itish vehicle: we have taken an example
of the former, as the most common, for
our illustration. Those of Persia are more
Grecian in the style of their decorations.
- CHARIOTS, carriages, Gen. 50:9: angels,
these are so called, as they are the
ministers in favour of the saints, Psal. 68:
17; 2 Kings 2:11; 6:17; Zech. 6:1, 8.
- CHARITABLY, benevolently, kindly,
- CHARITY, kindness of heart, love. The
Greek word translated charity, is com-
monly rendered love in other parts of
the New Testament, that being [one of] its
correct meaning[s]. Charity is the princi-
pal spiritual grace of the Christian,
crowning every other with permanence,
in fidelity and zeal towards God, and in
labours of active benevolence towards
man. Charity or love is the chief fruit of
the Holy Spirit, the perfection of moral
excellence, and without which all profes-
sions are worthless in the sight of God,
1 Cor. :13; Col. 3:14; 1 John 4:16.
- CHARMED, overcome, as some serpents
are with music, Jer. 8:17.
- CHARMER, a pretender to a sort of
divination by music, Deut. 18:11; Psal.
- CHARRAN, generally called Haran,
Acts 7:2; Gen. 11:31, 32. See HARAN.
- CHASE, to drive forcibly, or destroy as
enemies, Lev. 26:7, 8; Deut. 32:30.
- CHASED, did chase, or drive, Judg. 9:
40; Neh. 13:28.
- CHASTE, free from defilement in body
or mind, Tit. 2:5; 1 Pet. 3:2.
- CHASTEN, to chastise, or punish with
affection, Prov. 19:18; Heb. 12:6: to
afflict for the purpose of amendment,
Rev. 3:19: to humble one's self before
God, Dan. 10:12.
- CHASTENED, lightly punished for the
purpose of improvement, Deut. 8:5:
humbled, Psal. 69:10.
- CHASTISE, to punish, Lev. 26:28;
Luke 23:16: to oppress, 1 Kings 12:
11: to discipline, Jer. 31:18.
- CHASTISEMENT, the correction of an
offender, Deut. 11:2; Heb. 12:8. Christ
bore the chastisement of our peace, when
He suffered the inflictions of the Divine
justice for our sins to secure our eternal
redemption, Isa. 53:5.
- CHE'BAR, [h] (strength), a river of
Chaldea, falling into the Euphrates,
- CHECK, a reproof, Job 20:3.
- CHECKER WORK, squares and flowers
curiously formed in ornamental work
to represent drapery, 1 Kings 7:17.
- CHEDORLA'OMER, [h] (as a gene-
ration of servitude), a king of Elam, the
ancient Persia, and chief of a confede-
racy of petty kings, who ravaged seve-
ral provinces, and were with their leader
slain by Abraham, Gen. 14:1-17.
- CHEEK, the side of the face, Luke 6:
29: half the head, Deut. 18:3. To
smite the cheek, or to pull off the hair of
the beard, indicated extreme contempt
as well as cruelty, 1 Kings 22:24; Isa.
50:6. See BEARD.
- CHEEK-BONE, the prominent bone on
the side of the face, Psal. 3:7.
- CHEEK-TEETH, the large teeth, or
tusks of a fierce beast, Joel 1:6.
- CHEER, to comfort or make joyful,
Deut. 24:5; Eccles. 11:9: to be filled
with courage, hope, and joy, Acts 23:
11; 27:22, 36.
- CHEERFUL, lively, joyful, Prov. 15:
13: generous, 2 Cor. 9:7.
- CHEERFULLY, freely or joyfully, Acts
- CHEERFULNESS, joy or gladness, Rom.
- CHEESE, curds newly pressed from the
milk, esteemed a great delicacy in the
East, 1 Sam. 17:18.
- CHEM'ARIM, [h] (the black ones), idols
of Chemar, or the moon, the designation
of the priests of Moloch, Zeph. 1:4.
- CHE'MOSH, [h] (a conqueror, or sub-
duer), an idol deity of the Moabites, 1
Kings 11:7, 33. Revelling, drunkenness,
and the grossest abominations, prevailed
in his worship, 2 Kings 23:13.
- CHER'ETHIM, and
- CHER'ETHITES, [h] (who cut or tear
away), titles of the Philistines, Ezek. 25:
16; Zeph. 2:5. Some of the life-guards
of David were so called, 2 Sam. 8:18.
- CHERISH, to nourish or support with
kindness, 1 Kings 1:2; 1 Thess. 2:7.
- CHE'RITH, [h] (cutting or piercing), a
brook in the plain of Jezreel flowing
eastward into the river Jordan, 1 Kings
- CHE'RUB, [h] (as a child, or fulness of
knowledge), an angelic being, Psal. 18:10.
- CHER'UBIM, [h] in the plural: these
appear to have denoted an order of
angels of surpassing brightness and glory,
Gen. 3:24; Ezek. 9:3; 41:18: they
are therefore variously represented by
the sacred writers, as having two faces,
Ezek. 41:18; four faces, Ezek. 1:5-15;
10:12, and full of eyes, Rev. 4:6-8. Re-
presentations of cherubim, in figures of
beaten gold, were made by Moses, to
overshadow the mercy-seat, supposed to
indicate the intense interest taken by
angelic beings in the work of human
redemption by Jesus Christ: but these
figures are not fully described, nor are
the learned agreed as to their exact re-
semblance, Exod. 25:18-20; 1 Pet. 1:
12. Their endowments, as indicated by
their representations, were extraordi-
nary; and they appear to show the
knowledge, holiness, and power, pos-
sessed by the angels, as executioners of
the will of God: they are believed also
to teach us what should be sought as
necessary intellectual and moral quali-
fications of the ministers of Christ. Cor-
rect representations of the sacred cheru-
bim are not known to exist, though
many attempts have been made to ex-
hibit their form, derived from the descrip-
tions given by Moses and Ezekiel; but
the winged figures in the sculptures at
Persepolis, may be regarded as corrup-
tions of the original form: we give one
therefore in our engraving.
- CHE'SED, [h] (as a destroyer, or as a
breast), a son of Nahor, brother of Abra-
ham, from whom, or rather from one
more ancient of his name, descended
the Chaldeans, Gen. 22:22.
- CHESNUT-TREE: this is believed to be
the plane-tree, as the bark of that noble
tree easily peels off, Gen. 30:37.
- CHEST, a strong box, 2 Kings 12:9;
- CHEW, to grind with the teeth, Lev.
11:4; Num. 11:33.
- CHICKENS, the young of fowls, of the
domestic hen, Matt. 23:37.
- CHIDE, to reprove or blame, Exod.
17:2; Judg. 8:1.
- CHIDING, the act of reproving, Exod.
17:17; Num. 3:32.
- CHIEF, the principal, Gen. 40:9, 22:
the head of a people or tribe, Deut. 1:
15: the most honourable, Matt. 23:6:
the most influential, Luke 14:1: the
most active, Ezra 9:2: the most valu-
able, 1 Sam. 15:21: the most wonder-
ful, Job 40:19.
- CHIEFEST, the very best, 1 Sam. 2:29:
the most honourable, 9:22: the most
influential, Mark 10:44: the highest in
authority, 2 Cor. 11:5.
- CHIEFLY, especially, Rom. 3:2; Phil.
- CHILD, a babe, an infant, Gen. 18:
13: Exod. 2:8: one young in years, 1
Sam. 1:15: a young man, Gen. 21:15,
16: one deficient in knowledge, Isa. 10:
19: one of small experience, 1 Kings 3:7.
- CHILD-BEARING, the act of bearing
children, 1 Thess. 2:15.
- CHILDISH, ignorant, simple, in the
manner of children, 1 Cor. 13:11.
- CHILDREN, infants, Matt. 2:16: off-
spring, Gen. 30:1: young men, 2
Kings 2:24: descendants, as the people
of Israel, Exod. 12:37; or the children
of Abraham, John 8:39.
- CHILDREN OF GOD, men of piety
bearing the moral image of God, Rom.
8:16; 1 John 3:10.
- CHILDREN OF LIGHT, men of active
holiness, Eph. 5:8.
- CHIL'ION, [h] (finished, or perfect), a
Bethlehemite, the husband of Orpah the
Moabitess, Ruth 1:2-5.
- CHIM'HAM, [h] (Chimhan, as a trouble),
a son of Barzillai, who entertained king
David in his flight from Absalom, 2 Sam.
- CHIMNEY, the passage through which
the smoke ascends from the hearth in a
house, Hos. 13:3.
- Chinese Bible. See Ministry.
- CHIN'NERETH, [h] (a harp), a town
of Galilee, where the Jordan enters the
lake to which it gave its name, Num.
34:11; Deut. 3:17: it is called
Chinneroth, Josh. 11:2; 12:3, and Cin-
neroth, 1 Kings 15:20. Its name is be-
lieved to have been changed to Tiberias,
from which the lake was so called, John
6:23. See TIBERIAS.
- CHIOS, Χιος (an opening), an island of
the Egean sea, near the coast of Asia
Minor, now called Scio, Acts 20:15. Its
inhabitants were barbarously massacred
in 1823, by the Turks.
- CHISLEU, the ninth month of the
sacred year, Zech. 7:1. See MONTH.
- CHIT'TIM, [h] or KITTIM, Gen. 10:4
(those that bruise), a son of Javan, and great-
grandson of Noah, 1 Chron. 1:7.
- CHIT'TIM, the islands of the Mediter-
ranean, peopled by the descendants of
Kittim, from whom they were denomi-
nated, Gen. 10:4, 5; Num. 24:2; Ezek.
27:6; Dan. 11:30.
- CHI'UN, [h] (Saturn), in the Arabic and
Persian languages, and denoting that
idol deity, as worshipped by the cor-
rupted Israelites, Amos 5:26. Chiun is
rendered Remphan, in the Greek of
Acts 7:43. See REMPHAN.
- CHLO'E, [g] (green herb), a Christian
matron of some note in the church at
Corinth, 1 Cor. 1:11.
- CHODE, did chide, Gen. 31:36; Num.
- CHOICE, a selection, Acts 15:7: the
best, Gen. 23:6; Ezek. 24:5.
- CHOICE, valuable, 2 Kings 19:23:
able, 2 Chron. 25:5: pure, Prov. 8:
10: handsome, 1 Sam. 9:2.
- CHOICEST, the best, Isa. 5:2; 22:7.
- CHOKE, to hinder by obstruction, Matt.
- CHOKED, prevented growing, Matt.
13:7: suffocated, Mark 5:13.
- CHOLER, vehement anger, Dan. 8:7.
- CHOOSE, to select, Num. 16:7; 1 Sam.
2.; 1 Kings 18:23: to appoint, Isa.
66:4: to accept or approve, Isa. 14:1;
Zech. 1:17: to prefer, Phil. 1:22: to
practise, Isa. 56:4; 65:12.
- CHOP, to cut with a blow, Mic. 3:3.
- CHORA'ZIN, [g] (this secret), a city
of Galilee, honoured by the ministry of
Christ, Matt. 11:21: it is now a wretched
place called Tell-oui.
- CHOSE, did choose, Gen. 6:2; Josh.
8:3: did select, Acts 6:5.
- CHOSEN, selected, John 13:18; Acts 10:
41; 15:22: appointed, Eph. 1:4; 2 Thess.
2:13: accepted, Isa. 41:9; 48:10:
approved, Matt. 20:16.
- CHRIST, Χριστος (anointed): this title
was given to our Saviour, because of His
being consecrated by the Holy Spirit to
His sacred offices of prophet, priest, and
king, of his church, Psal. 45:7; Isa. 61:
1: this consecration of Christ was pre-
figured by the manner in which the
ancient priests, prophets, and kings, were
designated to office, by the [applicat]ion of
holy oil or ointment, Exod. 29:7; 1
Sam. 16:13; 1 Kings 19:16. While
the custom of anointing to office will be
evident from these references, the cere-
mony itself denoted the necessity of
spiritual endowments; and, as the Re-
deemer possessed an infinitude of the
gifts of the Spirit, He is emphatically
called the CHRIST, in Hebrew the MES-
SIAH, John 1:41; 3:34.
- Christ Jesus. See Life of Christ.
- CHRIST'S DISCOURSES.--See MINIS-
- CHRIST'S MIRACLES.--See MIRACLES.
- CHRIST'S PARABLES.--See PARABLES.
- CHRISTIAN, Χριστιανος (one anointed), a
disciple of Christ, participating of his
grace by the influence of his Spirit, 1
Pet. 4:16: hence the disciples were
called Christians first in Antioch, Acts 11:
26. Some suppose they were so called
in reproach by their enemies; but others
regard the name as given them in honour
by the Divine direction.
- CHRONICLES, registers of times: these
appear to have been made and preserved
with care in all civilised countries, espe-
cially since the invention of writing,
Esth. 2:23; 6:1.
- CHRONICLES, the titles of two books
of sacred histories, so called because
they are records of ancient times, com-
piled by the Divine direction from the
public diaries or registers of events, 1
Kings 14:19; 1 Chron. 27:24; Esth.
2:23: they contain many important re-
cords, omitted in the other books of
sacred history, and embrace a period of
3468 years, from the creation of the
world to the end of the captivity in
Babylon. These books are called in
Hebrew, [h] (Divrey hyyamim),
literally, the words of days.
- CHRONICLES I.: this book contains
an epitome of sacred history from the
creation of Adam to the death of David,
a period of 2990 years. It traces espe-
cially the origin and progress of the
tribes of Israel to the establishment of
their monarchy, with a circumstantial
narration of the events which occurred
in the reign of David.
- CHRONICLES [II.]: this book continues the
narrative, recording the principal events
in Solomon's reign, the dissolution of the
monarchy into two kingdoms, and the
decline and overthrow of both Israel
and Judah, through the incorrigible
idolatry and wickedness of the people:
it closes with a brief record of the edict
of Cyrus, for the return of the Jews from
captivity in Babylon, thus comprehend-
ing a period of 478 years. These books
of Chronicles should be read and com-
pared with the books of Samuel and
Kings: they are essential to the more
complete understanding of the condition
of Israel in those times; and they are
invaluable on account of the aids which
they afford to us in the study of both
sacred and profane history.
- CHRYSOLITE, a gem of the topaz or
beryl kind, Rev. 21:20.
- CHRYSOPRASUS, a gem of the emerald
kind, with a golden shade in its green
colour, Rev. 21:20.
- CHURCH, a congregation: the word
έκκλησια, translated church, was used to
denote any assembly, as it is so rendered,
Acts 19:32-39. A Christian "church
is a congregation of faithful men," Matt.
18:17; and such churches were
gathered from the Jews and from the
heathen in many cities, towns, and vil-
lages, not only "throughout all Judaea and Ga-
lilee and Samaria," Acts 9:31, but in
surrounding countries by the ministry
of the apostles, 15:41. Such were the
several congregations of believers in
Jerusalem, Rome, Corinth, Ephesus, &c.,
14:23, and in the houses of distinguished
disciples, Col. 4:15; Phil. [1:]6. The uni-
versal church [theory is not Scriptural].
- Church, a local, visible assembly of scripturally baptized believers.
They preach and practice the faith once delivered to the saints.
See New Testament Church.
CHM Note: The [family of God] consists of
- Church. Christ Jesus, the Founder of this organization and the
Saviour of its members, to be their only Priest and King, their only
Lord and Lawgiver, and the only Head of the churches. The churches
to be executive only in carrying out their Lord's will and completed
laws, never legislative, to amend or abrogate old laws or to make
new ones.--JMC See Book.
the great [company] of the redeemed, part of whom
only are yet in Heaven, Heb.
12:23. Christian divines speak of the
[spiritual] church[es], including all upon
Earth who are truly pious [members], worshipping
God by Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. 10:32; Eph.
3:10: this is also called the church [generic sense]
militant, on account of the holy warfare
of its members against sin in this world:
but the redeemed in Heaven having com-
pleted their conflict with the world, the
flesh, and the devil, are sometimes styled
the church triumphant, and the church
of the first-born, Heb. 12:23.
"But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city [polis] of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, To the general assembly [paneguris = a mass-meeting] and church [ekklesia] of the firstborn [prototokos], which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect," Hebrews 12:22-23.
- CHURL, a morose, uncivil, covetous
man, Isa. 32:5.
- CHURLISH, rude, uncivil, and intract-
able, 1 Sam. 23:3.
- CHURNING, the act of shaking cream
to separate the oily part for use as but-
ter, Prov. 30:33.
- CHUSH'AN-RISHATHAIM, [h]
(blackness of iniquities), a king of Mesopo-
tamia, who oppressed Israel for eight
years, until conquered by Othniel the
first of the Judges, Judg. 3:8.
- CHU'ZA, [g] (the seer, or prophet), king
Herod's steward, whose wife, Joanna,
contributed to the support of our Saviour
in his ministry, Luke 8:3.
- CILI'CIA, [g] (which rolls, or over-
turns), a country of Asia Minor, on the
north-eastern extremity of the Mediter-
ranean; its chief city was Tarsus, the
birth-place of the apostle Paul: Acts
21:39: it is now called Karamania.
- CINNAMON, an agreeable aromatic,
Exod. 30:23; Prov. 7:17; the spice
sold under this name is the bark of a
tree, a species of laurel of India: it was
anciently obtained from Arabia.
- CIRCLE, the whole surface to the
utmost boundary, Isa. 40:22.
- CIRCUIT, a course round a place, 1
Sam. 7:16: the apparent motion of the
sun, occasioned by the real motion of
the earth, Psal. 19:6.
- CIRCUMCISE, to cut around, Gen. 18:
11: to repress, subdue, or sanctify, Deut.
- CIRCUMCISION, the cutting off the
small skin of the prepuce, as the rite
was enjoined upon Abraham with the
male part of his family, to be the sign of
the covenant of God with the patriarch,
when he renewed to him the promise of
the Messiah, Gen. 17:10-26. Physicians
have regarded circumcision as medically
beneficial; and it was practised by the
Arabians, Israelites, and Saracens, the
descendants of Abraham; but especially
by the Israelites, to whom it was or-
dained as the initiatory ordinance of the
Hebrew church. This, however, with
all the Levitical ceremonies, was abo-
lished by the perfect mediation of Christ,
Acts 15:1, 24; Col. 3:11. The Israel-
ites are called the circumcision, and the
Gentiles the uncircumcision, Rom. 4:9.
- CIRCUMCISION OF THE HEART: this is
the thing signified by the original cere-
mony, the cutting off of every evil affec-
tion by the renewal of the soul in holi-
ness to secure devotedness of heart in
the true service of God as promised by
Moses, Phil. 3:3; Col. 2:11; Deut. 10:16.
- CIRCUMSPECT, looking around, watch-
ful, cautious, especially with regard to
personal behaviour, Exod. 23:13.
- CIRCUMSPECTLY, cautiously, in observ-
ing propriety of conduct, Eph. 5:15.
- CISTERN, a large vessel to preserve
water for household purposes, 2 Kings
18:31. Cisterns are peculiarly need-
ful in tropical countries; and they are
now found in Palestine, at intervals of
fifteen or twenty miles: one of which is
described by a modern traveller, six
hundred and sixty feet long, by two hun-
dred and seventy feet broad. Broken
cisterns were calamities of a grievous
kind in the East; and such are the
groundless confidences of the ungodly
in times of trial, Jer. 2:13. The left
ventricle of the heart is called a cistern,
- CITIZEN, an inhabitant of a city, Acts
21:39, or a person entitled to its privi-
leges: the honour of citizenship in some
cities, as at Rome, was sometimes pro-
cured by strangers at a very high price,
- CITY, a fortified or walled town, Gen.
4:17; Josh. 6:3: the inhabitants of a
city, Gen. 34:24: Christian privileges
in social worship, Heb. 12:22: the place
of felicity in heaven with God, 11:10-
16. Cities, in many instances, in the
early stages, were very inconsiderable,
both for the number of their inhabitants
and the magnitude of their buildings, as
are many cities of the East even in our
times: some however were very large in
their prosperity and splendour, as Nine-
veh, Babylon, &c.
- CITY OF DAVID, a division in the
southern part of Jerusalem, including
mount Zion, where the Jebusites had a
fortress, which David rebuilt with a
palace for himself and houses for his
chief officers, giving it his own name, 1
Chron. 11:5, 8. Bethlehem, his birth-
place, is so called, Luke 2:11.
- CITY OF GOD, a title of Jeru-
salem, Psal. 46:4. See Deut. 12:5-8.
- CLAD, clothed, 1 Kings 11:29; Isa. 59:17.
- CLAMOROUS, noisy, contentious, Prov.
- CLAMOUR, contention, Eph. 4:31.
- CLAP, to strike together, as the hands,
for applause, Psal. 47:1; or in con-
tempt, Job 27:23.
- CLAPPED, or CLAPT, did beat hands
together for gladness, 2 Kings 11:12;
and in scorn, Ezek. 25:6.
- CLAU'DA, [g] (a broken voice), a
small island in the Mediterranean, on
the south side of Crete, Acts 27:16.
- CLAU'DIA, [g] (lame), a Christian
lady at Rome, supposed to have been a
daughter of the British king Caractacus,
but married to Pudens, a Roman noble-
man, 2 Tim. 4:21. Claudia is thought to
have used her influence in promoting the
introduction of Christianity into Britain.
- CLAU'DIUS CÆSAR, the fifth Roman
emperor: he succeeded Caligula, A.D.
41, Acts 11:28. Having reduced Judea
again to a Roman province, he banished
all Jews from Rome, 18:2.
- CLAU'DIUS LYSIAS, a tribune of the
Roman guard at Jerusalem, where he
acted with prudence and humanity in
favour of Paul, Acts 23:26.
- CLAVE, did cleave, break, or split,
Gen. 22:3; 1 Sam. 6:14: did divide,
Num. 16:31: did unite with, Neh. 10:
29; Acts 17:34.
- CLAWS, the feet of beasts or birds, Deut.
14:6; Dan. 4:33.
- CLAY, soft glutinous earth, Jer. 18:
4-6: a peculiar kind of clay was used
for sealing places and things instead of
wax, Job 38:14.
- CLAY-GROUND, earth adapted for the
making of bricks, or for the work of the
potter, 1 Kings 7:46.
- CLEAN, free from filth, Isa. 30:24:
pure, Job 15:15: free from ceremonial
defilement, Lev. 16:30: what is lawful,
Lev. 11:47: innocent, Acts 18:6:
purified or healed, Mark 1:41: sanctified,
John 13:11; 15:3.
- CLEAN ANIMALS, were those which di-
vided the hoof and chewed the cud, as
enjoined upon the Israelites, Lev. 11:34.
This distinction existed before the deluge,
founded probably upon the practice of
animal sacrifices, Gen. 7:2; but Moses
distinguished between clean and unclean
fowls and fishes, Lev. 11:9, 47: the rea-
sons appear to have been partly the un-
wholesomeness of some of the creatures
as food, and especially to lead the Israel-
ites to avoid the abominations of the
heathen, practising universal holiness,
as the people of God.
- CLEANNESS, guiltlessness, 2 Sam. 22:
2: destitution, as of food, Amos 4:6.
- CLEANSE, to prepare by ceremonial
purification, Num. 8:6: to remove sin
by pardon and sanctification, 1 John 1:7-9.
- CLEANSING, purification, Lev. 13:7;
- CLEAR, bright, as noon-day, Zech. 14:
6: transparently bright, Rev. 21:11, 18:
free from blame, Gen. 24:8; Exod.
- CLEARER, more conspicuous, Job 11:
- CLEARING, excusing, Num. 14:18:
reforming [improving], 2 Cor. 7:[9-10,] 11.
- CLEARLY, evidently, Rom. 1:20: in-
structively, Job 33:3.
- CLEARNESS, brightness, Exod. 24:
- CLEAVE, to adhere, Luke 10:10; Jer.
38:38: to be united with in affec-
tion, Gen. 2:24; Acts 11:23.
- CLEFTS or CLIFTS, precipices, defiles,
or passages between rocks or mountains,
Isa. 2:21; Jer. 49:16; Exod. 32:22.
- CLEMENCY, mildness or mercifulness,
- CLEM'ENT, [g] (mild or merciful),
an [important] preacher of the gospel, pro-
bably a bishop of the Philippian church,
Phil. 4:3. Some have supposed that
this was the Clemens who became
bishop of the Christian congregation at
Rome, A.D. 91: the evidence is, however,
insufficient and contradictory.
- CLEOPAS, [g] (the whole glory),
believed to be Alpheus, and brother of
Joseph, who had married the virgin
Mary. He was husband to her sister
Mary, and father of Simon, James, Jude,
and Joseph or Joses, who were hence
called the brethren of Christ, Luke 24:
18; John 19:25; Matt. 13:55.
- CLERK, an official writer: the town-
clerk of Ephesus appears to have been
the recorder of the city, Acts 19:35.
- CLIFT, a precipice, Exod. 33:22.
- CLIMB, to ascend, Amos 9:2: to
creep, 1 Sam. 14:13; Luke 19:4.
- CLIPT, cut with shears, Jer. 48:37.
- CLODS, lumps of earth or turfs, Job
21:33; Isa. 28:24.
- CLOKE, an upper garment to cover the
ordinary clothes, Matt. 5:40: a pretence
to conceal some sin, John 15:22; 1 Pet.
- CLOSE, concealed, Num. 5:13: near,
Jer. 42:16; Acts 27:13: joined, Job
- CLOSE, to enclose or repair, Amos 9:
11; Jer. 22:15.
- CLOSED, did shut, Num. 16:33: did
encompass, Jonah 2:5: rolled up, Luke
- CLOSER, more united, Prov. 18:24.
- CLOSET, a small private room, Joel
2:16: a place of retirement, Matt. 6:6.
- CLOTH, stuff woven from wool, flax,
or silk, for the purpose of garments or
coverings, Num. 4:6-9; Matt. 14:51.
- CLOTHE, to invest with garments,
Exod. 40:14; Est. 4:4: to overspread,
Isa. 50:3: to adorn, Psal. 132:16: to
confound, 18: to beautify, Matt. 6:30.
- CLOTHED, did clothe, Gen. 3:21: did
cover, Job 10:11.
- Clothed. When God designed clothes,
it was for the purpose of covering the body
in a decent way, Gen. 3. See Tract.
- CLOTHED, covered, 1 Chron. 21:16:
adorned, 1 Pet. 5:5.
- CLOTHING, necessary garments, Job
22:6: pompous robes, [Mark] 12:38.
- CLOUD, a collection of vapours floating
in the air, Gen. 9:13-16; 2 Sam. 22:
12. Clouds forming an appearance of
grandeur, frequent allusion is made to
them by the sacred writers, especially
to denote a multitude, Isa. 60:8; Heb.
12:1, and to indicate divine protection,
Isa. 4:5. This text and others refer to
the Israelites in Egypt, in their passage
of the Red Sea, and through the desert
of Arabia, where they were secure en-
joying the Divine defence and favour,
Exod. 13:20-22; Neh. 9:12.
- CLOUDY, formed of a cloud, Exod.
33:9; Neh. 9:12.
- CLOUTED, patched with cloth, Josh.
- CLOUTS, cloths for mean purposes,
- CLOVEN, divided, Acts 2:3, as if cleaved
into two parts.
- CLOVEN-FOOTED, having the foot di-
vided into two parts, Lev. 11:3, 26.
- CLUSTER, a bunch, as of grapes, raisins,
or flowers, Gen. 40:10; Num. 13:23;
1 Sam. 25:18.
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