Bible Dictionary: C.   1840

  1. CAB, a Hebrew measure of about three
    pints, 2 Kings 6:25.   See MEASURES.
  2. CABINS, cells, especially those of a
    prison, Jer. 37:16.
  3. CA'BUL, [h] (displeasing, dirty), the
    name which king Hiram gave to the
    cities given to him by Solomon, 1 Kings
  4. CÆ'SAR, [g] (one cut out, or a head of
    ), a title of the Roman emperor,
    derived from the proper name of the
    first emperor, Julius Cæsar.   Augustus
    was the second of that dignity, Luke 2:
    1.   Tiberius Cæsar is mentioned, Luke
    3:1, and he is intended in chap. 20:22-
    25.   Claudius Cæsar, Acts 11:28, and
    Nero Cæsar, Acts 25:12.   Judea being
    a Roman province, freemen might appeal
    from an inferior court to the supreme
    tribunal, which was appealing to Cæsar,
    Acts 25:10-12.   Our
    Saviour meant
    civil government, by Cæsar, in his dis-
    course with the Herodians, Matt. 22:21.
  5. CÆSARE'A, [g] (a bush of hair), a
    city and port of
    Palestine, on the Medi-
    terranean sea, seventy-five miles north-
    west from Jerusalem.   The Tower of
    Strato was erected here for the defence
    of the harbour; but Herod the Great
    improved the port by a breakwater, and
    built the city, which he called Cæsarea,
    in honour of his patron Augustus, to
    whom also he erected a superb temple,
    adorned with the statue of that em-
    peror.   It soon rose to an extraor-
    dinary height of magnificence, and be-
    came the residence of the Roman pro-
    consul; hence the fact of Paul being
    kept a prisoner for two years at Cæsarea,
    and that so many things are mentioned
    as having occurred in relation to Chris-
    tians in this great city, Acts 8:40; 10:1;
    12:19; 23.; 24.; 25:4-14.   Our en-
    graving represents the present condition,
    merely ruins of Cæsarea.
  6. CÆSARE'A PHILIPPI: this city was
    originally called Laish, Judg. 18:7,
    and afterwards Dan, ver. 29; but Philip,
    the youngest son of Herod the Great,
    having obtained the government of
    Iturea, Luke 3:1, enlarged and embel-
    lished this city, giving it this new name,
    in honour of himself and of his patron,
    the emperor Tiberius: it was situated
    near to mount Hermon, on the eastern
    side of the source of the river Jordan,
    Matt. 16:13; Mark 8:27.
  7. CAGE, an enclosure of twigs or wire
    in which birds are kept, Jer. 5:27.   Pro-
    phetic Babylon is so called, Rev. 17:2.
  8. CAI'APHAS, Καιαφας (a searcher), the
    Jewish high-priest who condemned our
    Saviour: he had married a daughter of
    Annas, who had long enjoyed the same
    dignity, John 18:13.   Caiaphas pro-
    phesying that "it was expedient for one
    man to die for the people, that the whole
    nation might not perish,"
    was doubtless
    influenced by the Holy Spirit, as inti-
    mated by John: but the crafty politician
    seems to have intended merely that it
    was necessary to sacrifice Jesus, though
    an atrocious violation of justice, as a
    measure of policy, to prevent the Ro-
    mans from finding occasion to take
    away their place, the lucrative, but
    corrupted office, in the Jewish church,
    John 11:48-52; Matt. 26:57-60.   Caia-
    phas, however, was deposed, two years
    afterwards by Vitellus, the Roman gover-
    nor of Syria.
  9. CAIN, קין (a possession), the first-born of
    the human family, Gen. 4:1.  
    Eve is
    thought to have regarded her first-born
    son as [a] promised [d]eliverer; but, to
    her sorrow, she witnessed his being the
    first deist, while the depraved charac-
    ter and fearful crimes of this "father of
    illustrate the evil nature
    and ruinous tendency of infidelity, Gen.
    4:1; John 3:12.
  10. CAIN, a city of Judah, Josh. 15:57.
  11. CAI'NAN, [h] (possession, or purchaser),
    a son of Enos, Gen. 5:9; Luke 3:37.
  12. CAI'NAN, a son of Arphaxad, Luke 3:36.
  13. CAKE, a delicate small loaf of bread,
    Exod. 12:39; Lev. 24:5; Jer. 7:18.
    A cake not turned, means imperfectly
    baked only on one side, Hos. 7:18, as
    the ten tribes were only professors of
    the true religion, while inclining to the
    practice of idolatry.
  14. CA'LAH, [h] (favourable, or humility, or
    floor), a city built in Assyria, by Ashur
    or Nimrod, Gen. 10:12.
  15. CALAMITY, grievous trouble, Deut.
    32:35; Jer. 49:8, 32.
  16. CALAMUS, an aromatic reed or cane,
    Exod. 30:23; Ezek. 27:19.   Some
    think the sugar cane is intended, as it is
    called sweet cane, Jer. 6:20.
  17. CALDRON, a large pot for boiling food,
    1 Sam. 2:14; Mic. 3:3.   Jerusalem, on
    account of its miseries, was called a
    caldron by the people, Ezek. 11:3.
  18. CA'LEB, [h] (a dog), an honourable
    man of the tribe of Judah, and a faith-
    ful servant of God: he, with
    among the twelve who were deputed by
    Moses to survey the land of Canaan,
    made a faithful report, Num. 13:6;
    14.   Caleb was a chief of great [impor-
    tance] in the settlement of the tribes in
    Canaan, Josh. 14:6-13; 15.
  19. CALEB, or CHELUBAI, a son of Hezron,
    1 Chron. 2:9, 18, 42.
  20. CALEB, the son of Hur, grandson of
    the former, 1 Chron. 2:19, 50.
  21. CALEB, a town or place of Judah, 1
    Sam. 30:14: probably the same as
    Caleb-Ephratah, 1 Chron. 2:24.
  22. CALF, the young of a cow, Job. 21:
    10.   The flesh of a fatted calf was re-
    garded as choice food by the Israelites,
    Gen. 18:7; 1 Sam. 28:24; Luke 15:23.
  23. CALF, the molten, an idol made by
    Aaron, in compliance with the Israel-
    ites, as a visible symbol of the Deity;
    this grievous crime of Aaron brought
    much misery on the people and per-
    plexity to Moses, Exod. 32:4, 20-30.
  24. CALKERS, carpenters who stop the
    chinks in ships, Ezek. 27:9, 27.
  25. CALL, to name, Gen. 2:19: to com-
    mand by name, Exod. 2:7, 20; Num. 16:
    12: to declare, Mal. 3:15: to pray,
    Psal. 4:1: to worship in faith and love,
    Rom. 10:13: to acknowledge, Heb. 2:11:
    to invite, Matt. 9:15: to influence,
    Acts 2:39.
  26. CALLED, did call or name, Gen. 21:
    3: did denominate or declare, 1:5, 10:
    did summon or command, Num. 12:5:
    did influence to obedience, Gal. 1:15;
    Rom. 8:30; 9:24.
  27. CALLED, named, Gen. 11:9: denomi-
    nated, Jam. 2:7; Acts 11:26: invited,
    Matt. 20:16: appointed to office, Heb.
    5:4: regenerated, Rom. 1:7; 1 Tim. 6:
    12: constituted, 1 John 3:1: mani-
    fested and declared, Isa. 9:6.   Men are
    called by the [invitation] of
    the gospel to repent of sin, and believe
    on Christ for salvation and eternal life
    Isa. 55:1-3; Rev. 22:17; yet the saints
    are not only invited, but influenced to
    obedience, by the regenerating and new-
    creating grace of the Holy Spirit, 2 Tim.
    1:9; Eph. 2:10; 1 Thess. 1:5; Tit. 3:4-7.
  28. CALLING, the act of inviting or sum-
    moning, Num. 10:2: the ordinary occu-
    pation, 1 Cor. 7:20: the [saving] grace
    by which men become reconciled to God,
    Heb. 3:11: the privileged condition of
    true Christians, as the adopted children
    of God, 1 Cor. 1:26; Eph. 1:18: the glori-
    fied state of the saints in Heaven, 2 Thess.
    1:10, 11.
  29. CALLING, addressing any one, 1 Pet.
    3:6: inviting or summoning, Matt. 11:
    16: bringing, Isa. 41:4; 46:11: in-
    voking, Acts 7:59.
  30. CALM, serenity or stillness, as the sea
    after a storm, Psal. 107:29; Matt. 8:26.
  31. CALM, quiet or still, Jonah 1:11, 12.
  32. CAL'NEH, [h] (our consummation, or as
    ), a city in the land of Shinar,
    built by Nimrod, Gen. 10:10.   It is sup-
    posed to have been Calno, Isa. 10:9, and
    Canneh, Ezek. 27:23, and the modern
  33. CALVARY, Κρανιον (cranion, the place of a
    , Luke 23:33, a small hill near
    Jerusalem, where criminals were exe-
    cuted, and where the soldiers
    , Matt. 27:33-35; John 19:17,
    18.   See GOLGOTHA.
  34. CALVE, to bring forth, as a cow, Job
    21:10, or the hind, Jer. 14:5.
  35. CALVES, the young of oxen, 1 Sam. 6:
    7, and of deer, Job 39:1: idols in
    the form of calves, as made by king
    Jeroboam, to prevent the ten tribes from
    returning to the kingdom of Judah, by
    their going to worship at Jerusalem,
    1 Kings 12:28: the ignorant people,
    Psal. 68:30: expressions of praise
    and thanksgiving, Hos. 14:2.
  36. CAME, did come, Gen. 19:1: did
    originate, 10:14: did befal, 2 Tim. 3:11:
    did occasion, 1 Cor. 15:21: was ap-
    pointed, Matt. 20:28: did reveal him-
    self, Gen. 20:3; Num. 22:9.
  37. CAMEL, a beast of burden, invaluable
    to travellers in the deserts of Asia and
    Africa, 1 Chron. 5:21; Job 1:3.   This
    animal requires but little food of the
    coarsest kind, while capable of enduring
    surprising fatigue, on which accounts
    the Arabs call it the ship of the desert,
    Gen. 24:10, 61.   There are two species
    mentioned in Scripture: the Arabian
    camel or dromedary, with one hairy
    bunch on its back; the fleetness of this
    animal is very great, being able to travel
    with a load of nearly 2000 lbs. weight
    for about 100 miles a day, 1 Sam. 30:
    17.   The Bactrian camel, with two
    bunches on its back: this abounds in
    central Asia, from Persia to China, Est.
    8:10.   The natural history of this
    animal, in its adaptation to its native
    regions, remarkably illustrates the wis-
    dom and goodness of God.   Our engrav-
    ing will convey an idea of the mode of
    traveling on camels, in the caravans of
    merchants, through the great deserts of
    Arabia.   See DROMEDARY.   "A camel
    to go through the eye of a needle"
    a Jewish proverbial expression, denot-
    ing an impossible thing, Matt. 19:24.
    "Strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel,"
    23:24, denoting carefulness to observe
    small rites and ceremonies while neglect-
    ing the great duties of the law of God,
    is another proverbial phrase, alluding to
    the "straining out" of flies and worms
    from wine before drinking.
  38. CAMELEON, a small animal of the
    lizard kind, with four feet and a long
    flat tail, and its head joined to the body
    without any neck, Lev. 11:30.   This
    animal is remarkable for its faculty of
    changing its colour; it feeds on insects,
    though the vulgar error supposes that it
    lives on the air.
  39. CAMP, the lodgment of an army in
    tents, Exod. 14:19, 1 Kings 16:16.
    The orderly arrangement of the camps
    formed by the several tribes of Israel
    and of the whole people, in their passage
    through the wilderness, was divinely
    directed, Num. 1. 2. 4. 10.
  40. CAMP, to make a lodgment in the
    open field, as an army of soldiers, Lev.
    11:30; Jer. 50:29.
  41. CAMPHIRE, the cypress or Egyptian
    henna, which produces the drug, a kind
    of gum, called camphor.   The sacred
    writer intends the flowery clusters hang-
    ing like lilac blossoms on the cypress:
    they being beautiful in colour, and ex-
    quisitely odoriferous, the ladies of Egypt,
    carry them, as for perfuming, in their
    bosoms, Sol. Song 1:14; 4:13.   They
    use the powder of its dried leaves to
    give their nails a reddish tinge: this
    tree grows to the height of two hundred
    feet in Borneo and Sumatra.
  42. CAN, to be able, in respect of wisdom,
    strength, or authority, Gen. 41:38; 2 Sam.
  43. CA'NA, Κανα (zeal, possession, or cane),
    a town of Zebulon in Galilee, six miles
    from Nazareth, John 2:1.   Our engrav-
    ing represents the modern village of
  44. CA'NAAN, [h] (a merchant or trader), the
    youngest son of Ham, and grandson of
    Noah, Gen. 9:18.   Canaan is believed
    to have discovered and ridiculed the
    nakedness of the [respect]able patriarch,
    as he lay exposed within his tent, in
    which act of wickedness he was counte-
    nanced by his father Ham.   God, there-
    fore, to reprove both, inspired his servant
    to utter that memorable prediction called
    the "curse of Noah," Gen. 9:22-27,
    relating to the degradation of the poste-
    rity of Canaan.   The curse was executed
    on the Amorites, Hivites, &c., by Joshua,
    who was of the posterity of Shem, and
    on the scattered remains of that people
    at Thebes, Carthage, &c., by the Romans
    descended from Japhet.
  45. CANAAN, THE LAND OF: this country
    fell to the lot of Canaan, the son of Ham,
    to which he gave his own name.   Canaan
    was about 200 miles long, and nearly 80
    broad, lying along the eastern border of
    the Mediterranean sea.   David and Solo-
    mon governed several provinces beyond
    the limits of Canaan, which enlarged
    their kingdom, 1 Kings 4:21-24.   Canaan
    was bounded on the north by the moun-
    tains of Lebanon in
    Syria, on the east
    by Arabia Deserta, on the south by the
    wilderness of Arabia Petrea and Idumea,
    and on the west by the land of the
    Philistines and the Mediterranean sea.

    Besides the name of its first possessor,
    Canaan has been variously denominated,
    as the Land of the Hebrews, Gen. 40:15;
    Palestine, Exod. 15:14; the Land of
    Promise, Heb. 11:9; the Land of Israel,
    Judah, Judea, the Holy Land, Zech. 2:
    12.   Canaan has been the theatre of the
    most extraordinary transactions which
    have ever taken place under the Divine
    government upon earth.   This is the
    country where the chief patriarchs
    walked with God--where the theocracy
    of Israel was established--where the
    prophets received most of their divine
    --where the temple of Je-
    hovah was erected under his special
    direction--where the incarnate Son of
    God accomplished the work of human
    redemption--and where the apostles
    were miraculously endowed with the
    gifts of the Holy Spirit, to fulfil their
    commission as ambassadors for Christ
    to invite sinners of all nations into the
    kingdom of Messiah for the blessings of
    pardon, purity, and immortality, in the
    eternal glory of God.   Canaan, in the
    times of David and Solomon, contained
    a population of about 5,000,000; but now
    it has only about 1,500,000 inhabitants.
    Since the destruction of Jerusalem by
    the Romans, it has been the scene of
    strange revolutions, especially during
    the crusades, profanely called holy wars [Isl_m-RCC]:
    it now forms two wretched provinces,
    ACRE and DAMASCUS, under the mise-
    rable government of pashas, subject or
    tributary to the sultan of Turkey.   The
    population consists of Turks, Syrians,
    Bedouin Arabs, Copts, Druses of Leba-
    non, Roman, Armenian, and Greek
    Christians, and Jews.
  46. CANAANITE, the native population of
    Canaan, Gen. 12:6: a native of Canaan
    from the original family, 38:2: an
    enemy to true religion, Zech. 14:21: a
    native of Cana, Matt. 10:4.
  47. CANAANITES, the descendants of
    Canaan, particularly the seven nations,
    as comprehended by Moses in the doom
    of God to destruction on account of
    their crimes--"the Hittites, and the
    Girgashites, and the Amorites, and the
    Canaanites, and the Perizzites, and the
    Hivites, and the Jebusites,"
    Deut. 7:1;
    Gen. 10:15-19; 15:18-21.   These people
    had become exceedingly corrupt so early
    as the time of Abraham; and though
    Melchisedek, and probably some others
    with him, were most illustrious excep-
    tions, yet generally their practices were
    extremely abominable.   Sodom and three
    other cities were devoured by fire from
    heaven in the days of Abraham, Gen.
    19.; and when the iniquity of these
    nations had arisen to its height, in the
    commission of adultery, incest, bestiality,
    and every species of wickedness, even
    sacrificing their own children to sense-
    less idols, God, in righteousness, employed
    the Israelites as the ministers of His
    judgments, rather than plague, pesti-
    lence, and famine, to manifest His abhor-
    rence of uncleanness, and His indignation
    against idolatry, Lev. 18:24-30; Deut.
    8:2-5; Psal. 106:36-38.
  48. CANAANITESS, a woman of the native
    Canaanites, 1 Chron. 2:3; Gen. 38:2.
  49. CANDACE, Κανδακη (pure possession), the
    queen of the Ethiopians, whose chief
    treasurer became a Jewish proselyte,
    and afterwards a Christian by the
    ministry of Philip the deacon: tradition
    reports, that this noble disciple was
    honoured in the conversion of his royal
    mistress, and many others in Ethiopia
    Acts 8:27.
  50. CANDLE, a roll of wax or tallow with
    a wick for giving light in a house, Jer.
    25:10: a lamp, Luke 15:8: the
    rational soul of man, Prov. 20:27:
    natural light, Rev. 22:5: prosperity,
    Job 29:3.   Searching Jerusalem with
    candles, denotes the perfect knowledge
    of God relating to all the secret crimes
    of wicked men, Zeph. 1:12.
  51. CANDLESTICK, the support of a candle
    to give light, Matt. 5:16.   The golden
    candlestick, made for the Levitical taber-
    nacle, consisted of six branches besides
    the upright supporter, each of the seven
    having a lamp furnished with oil to burn
    continually before the most holy place,
    Exod. 25:31-39; 26:35.   Our engrav-
    ing represents the probable form of the
    sacred candlestick.
  52. CANDLESTICKS, lamp-stands, 1 Kings
    7:49; 1 Chron. 28:15.   The two
    candlesticks, Rev. 11:4, are supposed to
    denote two [important] churches or congre-
    gations, with their two olive-trees or
    ministers, Zech. 4:3, 11, 14.   The seven
    golden candlesticks, Rev. 1:20, are spoken
    of in allusion to the one made for the
    tabernacle: the mystery, or allegorical
    representation of the seven branches or
    candlesticks, denotes the seven sister
    churches, sources of divine and saving
    light to those of the surrounding heathen,
    in the neighbouring cities of Asia Minor.
  53. CANE, the sweet cane or odoriferous
    calamus reed, Isa. 43:24; Jer. 6:20.
    See CALAMUS.
  54. CANKER, a worm or fly that destroys
    fruits, 2 Tim. 2:17.
  55. CANKERED, corroded or destroyed as
    by rust, Jam. 5:3.
  56. CANKERWORM, a species of rough
    caterpillar peculiarly destructive to the
    vine, Joel 1:4; 2:25; Nah. 3:15, 16.
  57. CAPER'NAUM, Καπερναυμ (the field of
    , or city of comfort), the chief
    city of Galilee, on the western shore of
    the sea of Tiberias: it was the principal
    place of our
    Saviour's residence during
    His public ministry
    ; but on account of
    the infidelity of its people it was doomed
    to ruin, Matt. 4:13; 11:23.   Capernaum
    consisted lately of but a few poor
    cottages, and its modern name is Tal-
    hune or Talhhewn.
  58. CAPH'TOR, [h] (a sphere, a buckle, or
    a hand), supposed to be the isle of Crete
    by some, but others regard it as a pro-
    vince in Asia Minor, Jer. 47:4; Amos
  59. CAPH'TORIM, [h], (the people of
    ), Deut. 2:23.
  60. CAPPADOCIA, [g] (a sphere, &c.,
    as Caphtor), a province in Asia Minor,
    on the south of the Euxine sea.   Its
    inhabitants were infamous for their
    vices, yet Christianity was introduced
    here by Cappadocian Jews, who heard
    Peter's famous sermon at Pentecost,
    Acts 2:9, and thirty years after that
    apostle addressed some in that district
    as Christians, 1 Pet. 1:1.   Several of the
    early pastors of the churches in Cappa-
    docia have been canonized as saints,
    among whom were, [...].
  61. CAPTAIN, a leader, general, or chief of
    an army, Gen. 26:26; 2 Kings 5:11;
    of a body of soldiers, Exod. 15:4; 2 Kings
    1:9, 11; or of a tribe or people, Num. 2:
    3, 5: a magistrate or judge, Deut. 1:15.
    God, as the commander and protector of
    those who confide in Him, is called Cap-
    , 2 Chron. 13:12.
  62. CAPTAIN OF SALVATION, a title given
    to Christ, as He is the Prince of life, who,
    by His word and Spirit, leads believers in
    the ways of holiness and safety to the en-
    joyment of eternal salvation, for which He
    became qualified by His sufferings as the
    , Acts 3:15; Heb. 2:10.   Christ
    was "captain of the LORD'S host" to lead
    , Josh. 5:14, [15].
  63. CAPTIVE, a prisoner taken in war,
    Gen. 14:14: a criminal in a dungeon,
    Exod. 12:29: one in degrading subjec-
    tion, 2 Tim. 2:26.   Captives were some-
    times punished by the Romans by a
    dead body being bound face to face with
    a corpse, the effluvia of which destroyed
    the living person; this practice may illus-
    trate, Rom. 7:24.
  64. CAPTIVITY, a state of subjection and
    servitude to which prisoners taken in
    battle were reduced, Deut. 28:[41];
    2 Kings 24:15: bondage to inward
    corruption, Rom. 7:23: subjection to
    the grace of Christ, 2 Cor. 10:5.   Christ led
    captivity captive, when in His ascension
    He triumphed over all His and our ene-
    mies, Eph. 4:8.
    elites were oppressed in bitter servitude
    under the Pharaohs in Egypt, but re-
    deemed by the hand of God with awful
    miracles under the ministry of His ser-
    vant Moses, Exod. 1.-15.
    maneser, king of Assyria, overthrew the
    kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel, and
    carried captive into his own country the
    whole population: they were never re-
    stored as a nation, but certain individuals
    and parties of the Israelites, from time
    to time, returned and were reunited with
    their brethren the Jews, 2 Kings 17.
    chadnezzar having conquered Judea,
    and burned to ashes the city and temple
    of Jerusalem, carried the people to
    Babylon; but after seventy years, as
    predicted by the prophets, they were
    restored by the decree of Cyrus under
    the influence of the prophet Daniel,
    2 Chron. 36:13-23; Dan. 6:28.   See
  68. CARBUNCLE, a precious gem of a
    brilliant red colour, in value next to
    the diamond: it is seldom found larger
    than a quarter of an inch long, chiefly
    in the East Indies, Exod. 28:17; Isa.
    54:12; Ezek. 28:13.
  69. CAR'CAS, [h] (an eagle), a chamberlain
    to king Ahasuerus, Est. 1:10.
  70. CARCASE, the corpse of a man or beast,
    Lev. 5:2; Isa. 5:25; Heb. 3:17: an idol,
    as being a lifeless and abominable, thing,
    Jer. 16:18.
  71. CAR'CHEMISH, [h] (a lamb carried
    ), a city of Mesopotamia on the river
    Euphrates, belonging to the Assyrians,
    2 Chron. 35:20; 2 Kings 23:29.
    This city is thought to be the same as
    the ancient Circesium, and its modern
    name is Kerkish.
  72. CARE, concern about a thing, 1 Sam.
    10:2: painful anxiety, Ezek. 4:16.   Care
    is commendable as it is piously exercised
    on lawful things, 2 Kings 4:13; 2 Cor.
    7:13: but a fault, as arising from
    irreligious want of confidence in God,
    Luke 21:34.   The apostle exhorting to
    be careful for nothing, means distress-
    ingly anxious, Phil. 4:6.
  73. CARE, to be concerned, 2 Sam. 18:3;
    Luke 10:40: to provide for and supply,
    Luke 10:34.
  74. CAREFUL, concerned or anxious, Dan.
    3:16: kindly attentive, 2 Kings 4:13:
    diligently thoughtful, Tit. 3:8: dis-
    tressed, Jer. 17:8.
  75. CAREFULLY, attentively, Deut. 15:15:
    earnestly, Heb. 12:17: with affectionate
    solicitude, Phil. 2:28.
  76. CAREFULNESS, painful anxiety, Ezek.
    12:18, 19; 1 Cor. 7:32: honourable
    solicitude, 2 Cor. 7:11.
  77. CARELESS, without regard to security,
    Judg. 18:7, or to the favour of God,
    Isa. 32:9, 11.
  78. CARELESSLY, regardless of humanity
    and of the fear of God, Isa. 47:8;
    Zeph. 2:15.
  79. CAR'MEL, [h] (vineyard of God), a city
    of Judah, about ten miles south-east of
    Hebron, the residence of Nabal, Josh. 15:
    55; 1 Sam. 25:2.
  80. CARMEL: Mount Carmel is the highest
    peak of a range of mountains, rising in
    the valley of Jezreel, and terminating
    in a promontory, 2200 above the level
    of the sea, and forming the bay of Accho,
    on the Mediterranean.   Modern travel-
    lers tell us that the oaks, wild vines, olive
    trees, and fragrant flowers abounding
    upon it show its former fertility, as "the
    excellency of Carmel,"
    Isa. 35:2;
    though its present appearances indicates
    the fulfilment of the prediction of the
    prophet, Amos 1:2.   Mount Carmel is
    famous for the deeds of the prophet
    Elijah, 1 Kings 18:19-42.   Upon the
    summit of this famous mountain is a
    chapel, dedicated to Elijah; and the
    modern name is El Kirmel.   Our en-
    graving gives a view of the north-eastern
    side of the mountains of Carmel.
  81. CARMELITE, a native of or resident
    in the city or district of Carmel, 1 Sam.
    30:5; 2 Sam. 23:35.
  82. CARNAL, fleshly, animal, or sensual,
    Rom. 7:14.   Habitually thinking of
    and seeking mere worldly pleasures,
    profits, or honours, indicates a carnal
    mind, which is not subject to the law of
    God; and cherishing its alienation from
    God it must be in a state of condemna-
    tion, Rom. 8:6, 7.   Holy men, feeling
    the secret working of corruption in their
    nature, complain of being carnal, Rom.
    7:14.   The temporary ceremonies of
    religion are called carnal ordinances,
    Heb. 9:10.   Necessary things pertaining
    only to this life are called carnal, as
    distinguished from those which are
    spiritual, Rom. 15:27.
  83. CARNALLY, criminally, Lev. 18:18:
    sensually, Rom. 8:6.
  84. CARPENTER, an artificer in wood, Isa.
    41:7; 2 Kings 12:11.   Jesus was so
    called in contempt, because of his being
    employed in early life at the trade of
    his reputed father, Joseph, who was a
    carpenter, Mark 6:3; Matt. 13:55.
  85. CARPUS, Καρπος (fruit or fruitful), a
    Christian friend of Paul, residing at
    Troas, and as some suppose, one of the
    seventy disciples, 2 Tim. 4:13.
  86. CARRIAGE, a vehicle for carrying loads,
    Judg. 18:21: luggage, Acts 21:15.
  87. CARRIED, did carry, Gen. 31:18;
    Judg. 16:3: did remove, 2 Kings 17:
  88. CARRIED, conveyed, 1 Sam. 6:10; 2
    Kings 20:17: supported, Isa. 63:9: in-
    fluenced, Eph. 4:14: endured, Isa. 53:4.
  89. CARRY, to convey, Gen. 37:25:
    to lead, Exod. 33:15.
  90. CARSHE'NA, [h] (the spoil of war), one
    of the seven chief princes in the court of
    king Ahasuerus, Est. 1:14.
  91. CART, a wheel-carriage used to carry
    loads, 1 Sam. 6:7.
  92. CART-ROPE, a thick rope suited to har-
    ness a cart, Isa. 5:18.
  93. CARVED, engraved in wood, 1 Kings
    6:18, 19: sculptured in wood, as images,
    2 Chron. 34:3, 4.
  94. CARVING, engraving in wood, Exod.
  95. CASE, state or condition, Exod. 5:19.
  96. CASEMENT, the frame of a window,
    Prov. 7:6.
  97. CASIPH'IA, [h] (money or covetousness),
    a district in the city of Babylon, though
    some have thought it a place near the
    Caspian sea, Ezr. 8:17.
  98. CAS'LUHIM, [h] (the cover of tables),
    a son of Mizraim, the progenitor of the
    Philistines, Gen. 10:14.
  99. CASSIA, the aromatic bark of a species
    of bay-tree, a valuable article of com-
    merce, Ezek. 27:19.   Some have
    thought that an extract of the cassia
    spice was intended in Exod. 30:24;
    Psal. 45:8.
  100. CAST, the distance of a stone's throw,
    Luke 22:41.
  101. CAST, to throw, Gen. 38:20: to
    take out, Matt. 7:5: to make, by pour-
    ing melted metal into a mould, Exod.
    25:12.   To cast out persons is to expel
    them, Gen. 21:10; Exod. 34:24.
    God casts the sins of men behind his
    back, or into the depths of the sea, by
    His act of free and full forgiveness
    , Isa.
    38:17; Mic. 7:19.
  102. CAST, thrown, Dan. 3:21: cut off
    from a society, John 9:22: made by
    pouring melted metal into a mould,
    Exod. 38:27.
  103. CASTING, throwing, Matt. 4:13: de-
    grading, 2 Sam. 8:2: rejecting, Rom.
  104. CASTLE, a large fortified house to
    withstand the attacks of enemies, 1 Chron.
    11:5; Acts 21:34.
  105. CASTOR (a beaver), CASTOR and POL-
    , [g] (sons of Jupiter), images
    of twin brothers represented on horse-
    back with lances, used as an ornamental
    sign of a ship, Acts 28:11.   In the
    Grecian mythology they were sons of
    Jupiter, supposed to have cleared the
    seas of pirates, and, as deities, to have
    power over storms; hence they were
    worshipped by the heathen sailors.   Fiery
    exhalations appearing at sea were taken
    for them, and two being seen were
    thought to betoken a prosperous voyage.
  106. CATCH, to seize, Judg. 21:21: to
    entangle in words, Mark 12:13.   To
    catch men, is to plunder them as robbers,
    Jer. 5:26; Ezek. 19:3; or to engage them
    to holiness by the gospel, Luke 5:10.
  107. CATERPILLAR, a species of worm that
    preys upon the leaves of herbs and trees,
    1 Kings 8:37; Jer. 51:14, 27.
  108. CATTLE, quadrupeds, Gen. 1:25:
    domestic beasts, 13:2; Eccles. 2:7.
  109. CAUGHT, did catch, as beasts of prey,
    Judg. 15:4: did seize, Acts 16:19:
    did take, as a captive, Judg. 1:6: per-
    suaded, 2 Cor. 12:16.
  110. CAUL, the membranous bag which
    encloses the heart, Exod. 29:13: a
    woman's cap of net-work for a head-
    dress, Isa. 3:18.
  111. CAUSE, a controversy relating to pro-
    perty, Exod. 22:9; 18:19-26: a com-
    plaint, Josh. 20:4: a reason, Num. 16:
    11: a crime, Acts 13:28; Job 3:3.
  112. CAUSE, to move, Gen. 45:1: to ori-
    ginate, 2 Kings 19:7: to occasion, Neh.
  113. CAUSED, originated, Gen. 2:21: occa-
    sioned, Acts 15:3: induced, Dan. 9:21.
  114. CAUSELESS, without just reason, 1 Sam.
    25:31; Prov. 26:2.
  115. CAUSEWAY, a raised footpath, 1 Chron.
  116. CAUSING, exciting, Sol. Song 7:9;
    Jer. 29:10.
  117. CAVE, a hollow place under ground, or
    in the side of a rock, Gen. 19:30; Josh.
    10:16; 1 Kings 18:4.
  118. CEASE, to leave off, Exod. 9:29: to
    fail, Gen. 8:22: to give over, Ezra 4:
    23: to be quiet, Judg. 15:7: to refrain,
    2 Pet. 2:14: to distrust, Prov. 23:4.
  119. CEASED, did cease or leave off, Exod.
    9:33: failed, Judg. 5:7: was ended,
    Acts 20:1.
  120. CEASING, failing, 1 Thess. 2:13; 5:17:
    intermission, Acts 12:5.
  121. CEDAR, one of the largest species of
    forest trees; the trunks of some of them
    grow to the height of seventy or eighty
    feet, measuring thirty or forty feet in
    girth, and their branches are thick and
    long, spreading out in nearly a horizon-
    tal direction, each overshading upwards
    of one hundred feet in circumference, 1
    Kings 4:33; Ezek. 17:3, 22.   Cedar
    wood was regarded as imperishable; it
    is of a red colour and bitter taste, offen-
    sive to insects, and hence it has been
    known to last upwards of two thousand
    years: hence also various instructive
    allusions to it in the Scriptures, Lev. 14:
    4; Num. 19:6; Ezek. 27:24.   Mount
    Lebanon anciently abounded with cedars,
    vast numbers of which were used by
    king David and king Solomon for beams
    and boards in their palaces and in the
    temple, 1 Kings 5:6-10; Ezra 3:7; but
    now few are to be seen by travellers,
    they having been used in the countries
    surrounding Syria.   Our engraving repre-
    sents the principal clusters of the cedars
    in Lebanon.   Holy men are compared to
    cedars for their spiritual dignity, beauty,
    and happiness, Psal. 92:12.
  122. CEDAR-WOOD, a strip of the cedar-tree,
    Lev. 14:4: timber of the cedar, 1 Chron.
  123. CE'DRON, [g], or KIDRON (black or
    sad), a brook which flows on the east of
    Jerusalem, between the city and mount
    Olivet, into the sea of Sodom, 2 Sam. 15:
    23; John 18:1.   Hinnom was at the
    foot of Olivet, where all the filth of
    Jerusalem, was cast into the Cedron,
    1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:4, 10, 13.
  124. CEILED, under-roofed, as with boards
    and ornaments, 2 Chron. 3:5; Jer. 22:
  125. CEILING, the inner covering of the
    roof of a house, 1 Kings 6:15.
  126. CELEBRATE, to praise, Isa. 38:18:
    to commemorate, Lev. 23:32, 41.
  127. CELESTIAL, heavenly, pertaining to
    heaven, 1 Cor. 15:40.
  128. CELLARS, store-rooms under or on the
    ground, 1 Chron. 27:28.
  129. CEN'CHREA, [g] (millet, small pulse),
    a village forming the sea-port of Corinth
    on the eastern side of the isthmus, as
    the western port was Lecheum, Acts
    18:18.   A Christian church was formed
    at Cenchrea, Rom. 16:1.
  130. CENSER, a fire-pan, for the burning of
    incense, by the priests in the sanctuary;
    censers were variously formed, some as
    dishes or ladles, and others like cups
    with lids, having holes for the air: they
    were commonly of brass, Lev. 10:1; Num.
    16:6, 39, but some were made of gold,
    1 Kings 7:50; Rev. 8:3.   The cen-
    ser is called "spoon," Num. 7:14, 20,
    and "vial," Rev. 5:8.   No Jewish or
    contemporary authority for the form
    of the sacred censers has yet been dis-
    covered: we have, therefore, given a
    Grecian example, as a probable ap-
    proximation to some used in the taber-
    nacle or temple.
  131. CENTURION, a Roman captain over a
    hundred soldiers, Matt. 8:5; Acts 10:
    1; 23:23.
  132. CE'PHAS, Κηφας (a [...] stone), a
    Syriac name given to Simon, John 1:42;
    Gal. 2:9: this was rendered by the
    Greeks Petros, and by the Latins Petrus,
    and in English Peter.   See
  133. CEREMONIES, ritual observances, es-
    pecially of religious worship, Num. 9:3.
  134. CERTAIN, several, Num. 16:2; Dan.
  135. CERTAIN, sure, Deut. 13:14: unfail-
    ing, Dan. 2:45: without doubt, Jer.
    26:15: fixed, 1 Cor. 4:11.
  136. CERTAINLY, surely, Gen. 18:10:
    undoubtedly, 1 Sam. 20:3.
  137. CERTAINTY, truth, 1 Sam. 23:23;
    Luke 1:4: that which is fixed, Josh.
    23:13: full persuasion, Dan. 2:8.
  138. CERTIFY, to assure, 2 Sam. 15:28: to
    give information, Esth. 2:22: to autho-
    rise, Ezra 7:24.
  139. CESAR.--See CÆSAR.
  142. CHAFED, extremely provoked, 2 Sam.
  143. CHAFF, the husks of corn, Job 21:18;
    Psal. 1:4; Matt. 3:12.
  144. CHAIN, a series of links to fasten
    things together, Exod. 28:14: a
    prison, Psal. 149:8; Acts 12:7: an
    ornamental collar made of links, Gen.
    41:42; Judg. 8:26.
  145. CHAINWORK, fastenings made of chains,
    1 Kings 7:17.
  146. CHALCEDONY, a precious stone of vari-
    ous colours: one of the varieties of this
    stone is probably the modern cornelian,
    Rev. 21:19.
  147. CHALDEA, [h] (Chasdim), not[?] Chal-
    dea, is in the Hebrew text, signifying,
    like demons, or like robbers.   Some sup-
    pose that it derived its name from Chesed,
    the son of Nahor, brother of Abraham,
    Gen. 22:22.   Chaldea was the ancient
    land of
    Shinar, 11:2, a large country of
    Asia, of which the capital city was Baby-
    : it was bounded on the north by
    Mesopotamia, on the south by Arabia
    Felix, on the west by Persia, and on the
    east by Arabia Deserta.   This country
    is extremely fertile, for though it sel-
    dom rains, it is watered by the great
    rivers the Euphrates and the Tigris, Jer.
    50:10; Ezek. 23:16.   It is now called
  148. CHALDEANS, the people of Chaldea,
    Isa. 23:13.   They were anciently ex-
    tremely addicted to robbery and plunder,
    Job 1:17.
  149. CHALDEANS, a tribe of the ancient
    Chaldeans, forming the philosophers and
    priesthood of the people: they were pre-
    tenders to universal knowledge, espe-
    cially as astronomers, astrologers, and
    soothsayers, who were held in the highest
    estimation among the people at Babylon,
    Dan. 2:2; 3:8.
  150. CHALDEES, the Chaldeans, 2 Kings
    24:2; Isa. 13:19.
  151. CHALK STONES, stones of lime, Isa.
  152. CHALLENGE, to claim, Exod. 22:9.
  153. CHAMBER, a retired apartment in a
    dwelling-house, Gen. 43:30; 1 Kings
    20:30; Dan. 6:10.
  154. CHAMBERS OF THE SOUTH, are the
    clouds, Job 9:9; Psal. 104:3, 13.
  155. CHAMBERING, immodest behaviour,
    Rom. 13:13.
  156. CHAMBERLAIN, a keeper of the king's
    bed-chamber, Esth. 2:15, 21: a city
    treasurer, Rom. 16:23.
  157. CHAMOIS, a kind of goat whose species
    is now unknown; but some suppose it
    to be the cameleopard, Deut. 14:5.
  158. CHAMPAIGN, a plain open country,
    Deut. 11:30.
  159. CHAMPION, a single combatant of ex-
    traordinary courage, 1 Sam. 17:4, 51.
  160. CHANCE, an unexpected event, 1 Sam.
    6:9.   The word [could be] ren-
    dered, occurrence.
  161. CHANCE, to happen, Deut. 22:6.
  162. CHANCELLOR, the president of the
    king's council, Ezra 4:8.
  163. CHANGE, an alteration, Heb. 7:12: a
    substitute of one thing for another, as
    new raiment for old, Zech. 3:4: a suit
    of clothes, Gen. 45:22.
  164. CHANGE, to alter, as a colour, Jer.
    13:23, or laws, Acts 6:14, or condition
    in life, Hos. 4:7.   God is infinite and
    eternal, and cannot change, Mal. 3:6.
  165. CHANGED, altered, as the rate of
    wages, Gen. 31:7, or raiment, 41:14;
    or opinions, Acts 28:6: transformed,
    as in holiness, 2 Cor. 3:18; or by im-
    mortality, 1 Cor. 15:51.
  166. CHANGERS, exchangers, as of large
    coin for smaller, or that which is foreign
    for what is current money, Matt. 21:
    12; John 2:14, 15.
  167. CHANGING, transferring, as of pro-
    perty, Ruth 4:7.
  168. CHANNEL, the bottom, as the bed of
    a river, Isa. 8:7, or the sea, 2 Sam.
  169. CHANT, to sing loudly, or in choirs,
    Amos 6:5.
  170. CHAPEL, a sanctuary, a place for wor-
    ship: Bethel is so called, as the seat of
    idolatry to king Jeroboam, Amos 7:13.
  171. CHAPITERS, ornaments on the tops of
    columns and pillars, Exod. 36:38; 1
    Kings 7:16.
  172. CHAPMEN, traders or merchants, 2
    Kings 9:14.
  173. CHAPT, rent, as clayey ground in a
    season of drought, Jer. 14:4.
  174. CHARGE, a commission to public duty,
    Num. 27:19; Deut. 31:14: a solemn
    command to duty, 1 Tim. 5:7; 6:13.
  175. CHARGE, to command, Exod. 19:21:
    to exhort, 1 Thess. 5:21: to instruct,
    Deut. 3:28: to undertake a duty, Neh.
  176. CHARGEABLE, expensive, 2 Sam. 13:
    25; Neh. 5:16: burdensome, 2 Cor. 11:
    9; 1 Thess. 2:9.
  177. CHARGED, commanded, Gen. 26:11:
    instructed, Deut. 1:16: exhorted, 1 Thes.
    2:11: burdened, 1 Tim. 5:16: regarded,
    Job 1:22.
  178. CHARIOT, a carriage for travelling in
    state, pleasure, or war, Gen. 41:43;
    46:29; 1 Kings 10:26; 22:35.   "Cha-
    riots of the sun,"
    were used in the service
    of idolatry, 2 Kings 23:11.   Elijah is
    called the "chariot of Israel," 2:11, 12,
    as a prophet.   Egyptian and Persian
    sculptures afford the nearest contempo-
    rary authorities for the form of the Israel-
    itish vehicle: we have taken an example
    of the former, as the most common, for
    our illustration.   Those of Persia are more
    Grecian in the style of their decorations.
  179. CHARIOTS, carriages, Gen. 50:9: angels,
    these are so called, as they are the
    ministers in favour of the saints, Psal. 68:
    17; 2 Kings 2:11; 6:17; Zech. 6:1, 8.
  180. CHARITABLY, benevolently, kindly,
    Rom. 14:15.
  181. CHARITY, kindness of heart, love.   The
    Greek word translated charity, is com-
    monly rendered love in other parts of
    the New Testament, that being [one of] its
    correct meaning[s].   Charity is the princi-
    pal spiritual grace of the Christian,
    crowning every other with permanence,
    in fidelity and zeal towards God, and in
    labours of active benevolence towards
    man.   Charity or love is the chief fruit of
    the Holy Spirit, the perfection of moral
    excellence, and without which all profes-
    sions are worthless in the sight of God,
    1 Cor. [13]:13; Col. 3:14; 1 John 4:16.
  182. CHARMED, overcome, as some serpents
    are with music, Jer. 8:17.
  183. CHARMER, a pretender to a sort of
    divination by music, Deut. 18:11; Psal.
  184. CHARRAN, generally called Haran,
    Acts 7:2; Gen. 11:31, 32.   See HARAN.
  185. CHASE, to drive forcibly, or destroy as
    enemies, Lev. 26:7, 8; Deut. 32:30.
  186. CHASED, did chase, or drive, Judg. 9:
    40; Neh. 13:28.
  187. CHASTE, free from defilement in body
    or mind, Tit. 2:5; 1 Pet. 3:2.
  188. CHASTEN, to chastise, or punish with
    affection, Prov. 19:18; Heb. 12:6: to
    afflict for the purpose of amendment,
    Rev. 3:19: to humble one's self before
    God, Dan. 10:12.
  189. CHASTENED, lightly punished for the
    purpose of improvement, Deut. 8:5:
    humbled, Psal. 69:10.
  190. CHASTISE, to punish, Lev. 26:28;
    Luke 23:16: to oppress, 1 Kings 12:
    11: to discipline, Jer. 31:18.
  191. CHASTISEMENT, the correction of an
    offender, Deut. 11:2; Heb. 12:8.   Christ
    bore the chastisement of our peace, when
    He suffered the inflictions of the Divine
    justice for our sins to secure our eternal
    , Isa. 53:5.
  192. CHE'BAR, [h] (strength), a river of
    Chaldea, falling into the Euphrates,
    Ezek. 1:3.
  193. CHECK, a reproof, Job 20:3.
  194. CHECKER WORK, squares and flowers
    curiously formed in ornamental work
    to represent drapery, 1 Kings 7:17.
  195. CHEDORLA'OMER, [h] (as a gene-
    ration of servitude
    ), a king of Elam, the
    ancient Persia, and chief of a confede-
    racy of petty kings, who ravaged seve-
    ral provinces, and were with their leader
    slain by Abraham, Gen. 14:1-17.
  196. CHEEK, the side of the face, Luke 6:
    29: half the head, Deut. 18:3.   To
    smite the cheek, or to pull off the hair of
    the beard, indicated extreme contempt
    as well as cruelty, 1 Kings 22:24; Isa.
    50:6.   See BEARD.
  197. CHEEK-BONE, the prominent bone on
    the side of the face, Psal. 3:7.
  198. CHEEK-TEETH, the large teeth, or
    tusks of a fierce beast, Joel 1:6.
  199. CHEER, to comfort or make joyful,
    Deut. 24:5; Eccles. 11:9: to be filled
    with courage, hope, and joy, Acts 23:
    11; 27:22, 36.
  200. CHEERFUL, lively, joyful, Prov. 15:
    13: generous, 2 Cor. 9:7.
  201. CHEERFULLY, freely or joyfully, Acts
  202. CHEERFULNESS, joy or gladness, Rom.
  203. CHEESE, curds newly pressed from the
    milk, esteemed a great delicacy in the
    East, 1 Sam. 17:18.
  204. CHEM'ARIM, [h] (the black ones), idols
    of Chemar, or the moon, the designation
    of the priests of Moloch, Zeph. 1:4.
  205. CHE'MOSH, [h] (a conqueror, or sub-
    ), an idol deity of the Moabites, 1
    Kings 11:7, 33.   Revelling, drunkenness,
    and the grossest abominations, prevailed
    in his worship, 2 Kings 23:13.
  206. CHER'ETHIM, and
  207. CHER'ETHITES, [h] (who cut or tear
    ), titles of the Philistines, Ezek. 25:
    16; Zeph. 2:5.   Some of the life-guards
    of David were so called, 2 Sam. 8:18.
  208. CHERISH, to nourish or support with
    kindness, 1 Kings 1:2; 1 Thess. 2:7.
  209. CHE'RITH, [h] (cutting or piercing), a
    brook in the plain of Jezreel flowing
    eastward into the river Jordan, 1 Kings
  210. CHE'RUB, [h] (as a child, or fulness of
    ), an angelic being, Psal. 18:10.
  211. CHER'UBIM, [h] in the plural: these
    appear to have denoted an order of
    angels of surpassing brightness and glory,
    Gen. 3:24; Ezek. 9:3; 41:18: they
    are therefore variously represented by
    the sacred writers, as having two faces,
    Ezek. 41:18; four faces, Ezek. 1:5-15;
    10:12, and full of eyes, Rev. 4:6-8.   Re-
    presentations of cherubim, in figures of
    beaten gold, were made by Moses, to
    overshadow the mercy-seat, supposed to
    indicate the intense interest taken by
    angelic beings in the work of human
    redemption by Jesus Christ: but these
    figures are not fully described, nor are
    the learned agreed as to their exact re-
    semblance, Exod. 25:18-20; 1 Pet. 1:
    12.   Their endowments, as indicated by
    their representations, were extraordi-
    nary; and they appear to show the
    knowledge, holiness, and power, pos-
    sessed by the angels, as executioners of
    the will of God: they are believed also
    to teach us what should be sought as
    necessary intellectual and moral quali-
    fications of the ministers of Christ.   Cor-
    rect representations of the sacred cheru-
    bim are not known to exist, though
    many attempts have been made to ex-
    hibit their form, derived from the descrip-
    tions given by Moses and Ezekiel; but
    the winged figures in the sculptures at
    Persepolis, may be regarded as corrup-
    tions of the original form: we give one
    therefore in our engraving.
  212. CHE'SED, [h] (as a destroyer, or as a
    ), a son of Nahor, brother of Abra-
    ham, from whom, or rather from one
    more ancient of his name, descended
    the Chaldeans, Gen. 22:22.
  213. CHESNUT-TREE: this is believed to be
    the plane-tree, as the bark of that noble
    tree easily peels off, Gen. 30:37.
  214. CHEST, a strong box, 2 Kings 12:9;
    Ezek. 27:24.
  215. CHEW, to grind with the teeth, Lev.
    11:4; Num. 11:33.
  216. CHICKENS, the young of fowls, of the
    domestic hen, Matt. 23:37.
  217. CHIDE, to reprove or blame, Exod.
    17:2; Judg. 8:1.
  218. CHIDING, the act of reproving, Exod.
    17:17; Num. 3:32.
  219. CHIEF, the principal, Gen. 40:9, 22:
    the head of a people or tribe, Deut. 1:
    15: the most honourable, Matt. 23:6:
    the most influential, Luke 14:1: the
    most active, Ezra 9:2: the most valu-
    able, 1 Sam. 15:21: the most wonder-
    ful, Job 40:19.
  220. CHIEFEST, the very best, 1 Sam. 2:29:
    the most honourable, 9:22: the most
    influential, Mark 10:44: the highest in
    authority, 2 Cor. 11:5.
  221. CHIEFLY, especially, Rom. 3:2; Phil.
  222. CHILD, a babe, an infant, Gen. 18:
    13: Exod. 2:8: one young in years, 1
    Sam. 1:15: a young man, Gen. 21:15,
    16: one deficient in knowledge, Isa. 10:
    19: one of small experience, 1 Kings 3:7.
  223. CHILD-BEARING, the act of bearing
    children, 1 Thess. 2:15.
  224. CHILDISH, ignorant, simple, in the
    manner of children, 1 Cor. 13:11.
  225. CHILDREN, infants, Matt. 2:16: off-
    spring, Gen. 30:1: young men, 2
    Kings 2:24: descendants, as the people
    of Israel, Exod. 12:37; or the children
    of Abraham, John 8:39.
  226. CHILDREN OF GOD, men of piety
    bearing the moral image of God, Rom.
    8:16; 1 John 3:10.
  227. CHILDREN OF LIGHT, men of active
    holiness, Eph. 5:8.
  228. CHIL'ION, [h] (finished, or perfect), a
    Bethlehemite, the husband of Orpah the
    Moabitess, Ruth 1:2-5.
  229. CHIM'HAM, [h] (Chimhan, as a trouble),
    a son of Barzillai, who entertained king
    David in his flight from Absalom, 2 Sam.
  230. CHIMNEY, the passage through which
    the smoke ascends from the hearth in a
    house, Hos. 13:3.
  231. CHIN'NERETH, [h] (a harp), a town
    of Galilee, where the Jordan enters the
    lake to which it gave its name, Num.
    34:11; Deut. 3:17: it is called
    Chinneroth, Josh. 11:2; 12:3, and Cin-
    neroth, 1 Kings 15:20.   Its name is be-
    lieved to have been changed to Tiberias,
    from which the lake was so called, John
    6:23.   See TIBERIAS.
  232. CHIOS, Χιος (an opening), an island of
    the Egean sea, near the coast of Asia
    Minor, now called Scio, Acts 20:15.   Its
    inhabitants were barbarously massacred
    in 1823, by the Turks.
  233. CHISLEU, the ninth month of the
    sacred year, Zech. 7:1.   See MONTH.
  234. CHIT'TIM, [h] or KITTIM, Gen. 10:4
    (those that bruise), a son of Javan, and great-
    grandson of Noah, 1 Chron. 1:7.
  235. CHIT'TIM, the islands of the Mediter-
    ranean, peopled by the descendants of
    Kittim, from whom they were denomi-
    nated, Gen. 10:4, 5; Num. 24:2; Ezek.
    27:6; Dan. 11:30.
  236. CHI'UN, [h] (Saturn), in the Arabic and
    Persian languages, and denoting that
    idol deity, as worshipped by the cor-
    rupted Israelites, Amos 5:26.   Chiun is
    rendered Remphan, in the Greek of
    Acts 7:43.   See REMPHAN.
  237. CHLO'E, [g] (green herb), a Christian
    matron of some note in the church at
    Corinth, 1 Cor. 1:11.
  238. CHODE, did chide, Gen. 31:36; Num.
  239. CHOICE, a selection, Acts 15:7: the
    best, Gen. 23:6; Ezek. 24:5.
  240. CHOICE, valuable, 2 Kings 19:23:
    able, 2 Chron. 25:5: pure, Prov. 8:
    10: handsome, 1 Sam. 9:2.
  241. CHOICEST, the best, Isa. 5:2; 22:7.
  242. CHOKE, to hinder by obstruction, Matt.
  243. CHOKED, prevented growing, Matt.
    13:7: suffocated, Mark 5:13.
  244. CHOLER, vehement anger, Dan. 8:7.
  245. CHOOSE, to select, Num. 16:7; 1 Sam.
    2.; 1 Kings 18:23: to appoint, Isa.
    66:4: to accept or approve, Isa. 14:1;
    Zech. 1:17: to prefer, Phil. 1:22: to
    practise, Isa. 56:4; 65:12.
  246. CHOP, to cut with a blow, Mic. 3:3.
  247. CHORA'ZIN, [g] (this secret), a city
    of Galilee, honoured by the ministry of
    Christ, Matt. 11:21: it is now a wretched
    place called Tell-oui.
  248. CHOSE, did choose, Gen. 6:2; Josh.
    8:3: did select, Acts 6:5.
  249. CHOSEN, selected, John 13:18; Acts 10:
    41; 15:22: appointed, Eph. 1:4; 2 Thess.
    2:13: accepted, Isa. 41:9; 48:10:
    approved, Matt. 20:16.
  250. CHRIST, Χριστος (anointed): this title
    was given to our
    Saviour, because of His
    being consecrated by the Holy Spirit to
    His sacred offices of prophet, priest, and
    king, of his church
    , Psal. 45:7; Isa. 61:
    1: this consecration of Christ was pre-
    figured by the manner in which the
    ancient priests, prophets, and kings, were
    designated to office, by the [applicat]ion of
    holy oil or ointment
    , Exod. 29:7; 1
    Sam. 16:13; 1 Kings 19:16.   While
    the custom of anointing to office will be
    evident from these references, the cere-
    mony itself denoted the necessity of
    spiritual endowments; and, as the Re-
    possessed an infinitude of the
    gifts of the Spirit, He is emphatically
    called the CHRIST, in Hebrew the MES-
    , John 1:41; 3:34.
  254. CHRISTIAN, Χριστιανος (one anointed), a
    disciple of Christ, participating of his
    grace by the influence of his Spirit
    , 1
    Pet. 4:16: hence the disciples were
    called Christians first in Antioch
    , Acts 11:
    26.   Some suppose they were so called
    in reproach by their enemies; but others
    regard the name as given them in honour
    by the Divine direction.
  255. CHRONICLES, registers of times: these
    appear to have been made and preserved
    with care in all civilised countries, espe-
    cially since the invention of writing,
    Esth. 2:23; 6:1.
  256. CHRONICLES, the titles of two books
    of sacred histories, so called because
    they are records of ancient times, com-
    piled by the Divine direction from the
    public diaries or registers of events, 1
    Kings 14:19; 1 Chron. 27:24; Esth.
    2:23: they contain many important re-
    cords, omitted in the other books of
    sacred history, and embrace a period of
    3468 years, from the creation of the
    world to the end of the captivity in
    Babylon.   These books are called in
    Hebrew, [h] (Divrey hyyamim),
    literally, the words of days.
  257. CHRONICLES I.: this book contains
    an epitome of sacred history from the
    creation of
    Adam to the death of David,
    a period of 2990 years.   It traces espe-
    cially the origin and progress of the
    tribes of Israel to the establishment of
    their monarchy, with a circumstantial
    narration of the events which occurred
    in the reign of David.
    See Commentary.
  258. CHRONICLES [II.]: this book continues the
    narrative, recording the principal events
    Solomon's reign, the dissolution of the
    monarchy into two kingdoms, and the
    decline and overthrow of both Israel
    and Judah, through the incorrigible
    idolatry and wickedness of the people:
    it closes with a brief record of the edict
    of Cyrus, for the return of the Jews from
    captivity in Babylon, thus comprehend-
    ing a period of 478 years.   These books
    of Chronicles should be read and com-
    pared with the books of Samuel and
    Kings: they are essential to the more
    complete understanding of the condition
    of Israel in those times; and they are
    invaluable on account of the aids which
    they afford to us in the study of both
    sacred and profane history.
    See Commentary.
  259. CHRYSOLITE, a gem of the topaz or
    beryl kind, Rev. 21:20.
  260. CHRYSOPRASUS, a gem of the emerald
    kind, with a golden shade in its green
    colour, Rev. 21:20.
  261. CHURCH, a congregation: the word
    έκκλησια, translated church, was used to
    denote any assembly, as it is so rendered,
    Acts 19:32-39.   A
    Christian "church
    is a congregation of faithful men,"
    18:17; and such churches were
    gathered from the Jews and from the
    heathen in many cities, towns, and vil-
    lages, not only "throughout all Judaea and Ga-
    lilee and Samaria,"
    Acts 9:31, but in
    surrounding countries by the ministry
    of the apostles, 15:41.   Such were the
    several congregations of believers in
    Jerusalem, Rome, Corinth, Ephesus, &c.,
    14:23, and in the houses of distinguished
    disciples, Col. 4:15; Phil. [1:]6.   The uni-
    versal church [theory is not Scriptural].
    • Church, a local, visible assembly of scripturally baptized believers.
      They preach and practice the faith once delivered to the saints.
      See New Testament Church.
    • Church.   Christ Jesus, the Founder of this organization and the
      Saviour of its members, to be their only Priest and King, their only
      Lord and Lawgiver, and the only Head of the churches.   The churches
      to be executive only in carrying out their Lord's will and completed
      laws, never legislative, to amend or abrogate old laws or to make
      new ones
      .--JMC   See Book.
    CHM Note: The [family of God] consists of
    the great [company] of the redeemed, part of whom
    only are yet in Heaven, Heb.
    12:23.   Christian divines speak of the
    [spiritual] church[es], including all upon
    Earth who are truly pious [members], worshipping
    God by Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. 10:32; Eph.
    3:10: this is also called the church [generic sense]
    militant, on account of the holy warfare
    of its members against sin in this world:
    but the redeemed in Heaven having com-
    pleted their conflict with the world, the
    flesh, and the devil, are sometimes styled
    the church triumphant, and the church
    of the first-born, Heb. 12:23.
    "But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city [polis] of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, To the general assembly [paneguris = a mass-meeting] and church [ekklesia] of the firstborn [prototokos], which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect," Hebrews 12:22-23.
  262. CHURL, a morose, uncivil, covetous
    man, Isa. 32:5.
  263. CHURLISH, rude, uncivil, and intract-
    able, 1 Sam. 23:3.
  264. CHURNING, the act of shaking cream
    to separate the oily part for use as but-
    ter, Prov. 30:33.
    (blackness of iniquities), a king of Mesopo-
    tamia, who oppressed Israel for eight
    years, until conquered by Othniel the
    first of the Judges, Judg. 3:8.
  266. CHU'ZA, [g] (the seer, or prophet), king
    Herod's steward, whose wife, Joanna,
    contributed to the support of our Saviour
    in his ministry, Luke 8:3.
  267. CILI'CIA, [g] (which rolls, or over-
    ), a country of Asia Minor, on the
    north-eastern extremity of the Mediter-
    ranean; its chief city was Tarsus, the
    birth-place of the apostle Paul: Acts
    21:39: it is now called Karamania.
  268. CINNAMON, an agreeable aromatic,
    Exod. 30:23; Prov. 7:17; the spice
    sold under this name is the bark of a
    tree, a species of laurel of India: it was
    anciently obtained from Arabia.
  269. CIRCLE, the whole surface to the
    utmost boundary, Isa. 40:22.
  270. CIRCUIT, a course round a place, 1
    Sam. 7:16: the apparent motion of the
    sun, occasioned by the real motion of
    the earth, Psal. 19:6.
  271. CIRCUMCISE, to cut around, Gen. 18:
    11: to repress, subdue, or sanctify, Deut.
    10:16; 30:6.
  272. CIRCUMCISION, the cutting off the
    small skin of the prepuce, as the rite
    was enjoined upon Abraham with the
    male part of his family, to be the sign of
    the covenant of God with the patriarch,
    when he renewed to him the promise of
    the Messiah, Gen. 17:10-26.   Physicians
    have regarded circumcision as medically
    beneficial; and it was practised by the
    Arabians, Israelites, and Saracens, the
    descendants of Abraham; but especially
    by the Israelites, to whom it was or-
    dained as the initiatory ordinance of the
    Hebrew church.   This, however, with
    all the Levitical ceremonies, was abo-
    lished by the perfect mediation of Christ,
    Acts 15:1, 24; Col. 3:11.   The Israel-
    ites are called the circumcision, and the
    Gentiles the uncircumcision, Rom. 4:9.
    the thing signified by the original cere-
    mony, the cutting off of every evil affec-
    tion by the renewal of the soul in holi-
    ness to secure devotedness of heart in
    the true service of God as promised by
    Moses, Phil. 3:3; Col. 2:11; Deut. 10:16.
  274. CIRCUMSPECT, looking around, watch-
    ful, cautious, especially with regard to
    personal behaviour, Exod. 23:13.
  275. CIRCUMSPECTLY, cautiously, in observ-
    ing propriety of conduct, Eph. 5:15.
  276. CISTERN, a large vessel to preserve
    water for household purposes, 2 Kings
    18:31.   Cisterns are peculiarly need-
    ful in tropical countries; and they are
    now found in Palestine, at intervals of
    fifteen or twenty miles: one of which is
    described by a modern traveller, six
    hundred and sixty feet long, by two hun-
    dred and seventy feet broad.   Broken
    cisterns were calamities of a grievous
    kind in the East; and such are the
    groundless confidences of the ungodly
    in times of trial, Jer. 2:13.   The left
    ventricle of the heart is called a cistern,
    Eccles. 12:6.
  277. CITIZEN, an inhabitant of a city, Acts
    21:39, or a person entitled to its privi-
    leges: the honour of citizenship in some
    cities, as at Rome, was sometimes pro-
    cured by strangers at a very high price,
    Acts 22:28.
  278. CITY, a fortified or walled town, Gen.
    4:17; Josh. 6:3: the inhabitants of a
    city, Gen. 34:24: Christian privileges
    in social worship, Heb. 12:22: the place
    of felicity in heaven with God, 11:10-
    16.   Cities, in many instances, in the
    early stages, were very inconsiderable,
    both for the number of their inhabitants
    and the magnitude of their buildings, as
    are many cities of the East even in our
    times: some however were very large in
    their prosperity and splendour, as Nine-
    veh, Babylon, &c.
  279. CITY OF DAVID, a division in the
    southern part of Jerusalem, including
    mount Zion, where the Jebusites had a
    fortress, which David rebuilt with a
    palace for himself and houses for his
    chief officers, giving it his own name, 1
    Chron. 11:5, 8.   Bethlehem, his birth-
    place, is so called, Luke 2:11.
  280. CITY OF GOD, a title of Jeru-
    salem, Psal. 46:4.   See Deut. 12:5-8.
  281. CLAD, clothed, 1 Kings 11:29; Isa. 59:17.
  282. CLAMOROUS, noisy, contentious, Prov.
  283. CLAMOUR, contention, Eph. 4:31.
  284. CLAP, to strike together, as the hands,
    for applause, Psal. 47:1; or in con-
    tempt, Job 27:23.
  285. CLAPPED, or CLAPT, did beat hands
    together for gladness, 2 Kings 11:12;
    and in scorn, Ezek. 25:6.
  286. CLAU'DA, [g] (a broken voice), a
    small island in the Mediterranean, on
    the south side of Crete, Acts 27:16.
  287. CLAU'DIA, [g] (lame), a Christian
    lady at Rome, supposed to have been a
    daughter of the British king Caractacus,
    but married to Pudens, a Roman noble-
    man, 2 Tim. 4:21.   Claudia is thought to
    have used her influence in promoting the
    introduction of Christianity into Britain.
  288. CLAU'DIUS CÆSAR, the fifth Roman
    emperor: he succeeded Caligula, A.D.
    41, Acts 11:28.   Having reduced Judea
    again to a Roman province, he banished
    all Jews from Rome, 18:2.
  289. CLAU'DIUS LYSIAS, a tribune of the
    Roman guard at Jerusalem, where he
    acted with prudence and humanity in
    favour of Paul, Acts 23:26.
  290. CLAVE, did cleave, break, or split,
    Gen. 22:3; 1 Sam. 6:14: did divide,
    Num. 16:31: did unite with, Neh. 10:
    29; Acts 17:34.
  291. CLAWS, the feet of beasts or birds, Deut.
    14:6; Dan. 4:33.
  292. CLAY, soft glutinous earth, Jer. 18:
    4-6: a peculiar kind of clay was used
    for sealing places and things instead of
    wax, Job 38:14.
  293. CLAY-GROUND, earth adapted for the
    making of bricks, or for the work of the
    potter, 1 Kings 7:46.
  294. CLEAN, free from filth, Isa. 30:24:
    pure, Job 15:15: free from ceremonial
    defilement, Lev. 16:30: what is lawful,
    Lev. 11:47: innocent, Acts 18:6:
    purified or healed, Mark 1:41: sanctified,
    John 13:11; 15:3.
  295. CLEAN ANIMALS, were those which di-
    vided the hoof and chewed the cud, as
    enjoined upon the Israelites, Lev. 11:34.
    This distinction existed before the deluge,
    founded probably upon the practice of
    animal sacrifices, Gen. 7:2; but Moses
    distinguished between clean and unclean
    fowls and fishes, Lev. 11:9, 47: the rea-
    sons appear to have been partly the un-
    wholesomeness of some of the creatures
    as food, and especially to lead the Israel-
    ites to avoid the abominations of the
    heathen, practising universal holiness,
    as the people of God.
  296. CLEANNESS, guiltlessness, 2 Sam. 22:
    2: destitution, as of food, Amos 4:6.
  297. CLEANSE, to prepare by ceremonial
    purification, Num. 8:6: to remove sin
    by pardon and sanctification, 1 John 1:7-9.
  298. CLEANSING, purification, Lev. 13:7;
    Mark 1:44.
  299. CLEAR, bright, as noon-day, Zech. 14:
    6: transparently bright, Rev. 21:11, 18:
    free from blame, Gen. 24:8; Exod.
  300. CLEARER, more conspicuous, Job 11:
  301. CLEARING, excusing, Num. 14:18:
    reforming [improving], 2 Cor. 7:[9-10,] 11.
  302. CLEARLY, evidently, Rom. 1:20: in-
    structively, Job 33:3.
  303. CLEARNESS, brightness, Exod. 24:
  304. CLEAVE, to adhere, Luke 10:10; Jer.
    38:38: to be united with in affec-
    tion, Gen. 2:24; Acts 11:23.
  305. CLEFTS or CLIFTS, precipices, defiles,
    or passages between rocks or mountains,
    Isa. 2:21; Jer. 49:16; Exod. 32:22.
  306. CLEMENCY, mildness or mercifulness,
    Acts 24:4.
  307. CLEM'ENT, [g] (mild or merciful),
    an [important] preacher of the gospel, pro-
    bably a bishop of the Philippian church,
    Phil. 4:3.   Some have supposed that
    this was the Clemens who became
    bishop of the Christian congregation at
    Rome, A.D. 91: the evidence is, however,
    insufficient and contradictory.
  308. CLEOPAS, [g] (the whole glory),
    believed to be
    Alpheus, and brother of
    Joseph, who had married the virgin
    Mary.   He was husband to her sister
    Mary, and father of Simon, James, Jude,
    and Joseph or Joses, who were hence
    called the brethren of Christ, Luke 24:
    18; John 19:25; Matt. 13:55.
  309. CLERK, an official writer: the town-
    clerk of Ephesus appears to have been
    the recorder of the city, Acts 19:35.
  310. CLIFT, a precipice, Exod. 33:22.
    See CLEFTS.
  311. CLIMB, to ascend, Amos 9:2: to
    creep, 1 Sam. 14:13; Luke 19:4.
  312. CLIPT, cut with shears, Jer. 48:37.
  313. CLODS, lumps of earth or turfs, Job
    21:33; Isa. 28:24.
  314. CLOKE, an upper garment to cover the
    ordinary clothes, Matt. 5:40: a pretence
    to conceal some sin, John 15:22; 1 Pet.
  315. CLOSE, concealed, Num. 5:13: near,
    Jer. 42:16; Acts 27:13: joined, Job
  316. CLOSE, to enclose or repair, Amos 9:
    11; Jer. 22:15.
  317. CLOSED, did shut, Num. 16:33: did
    encompass, Jonah 2:5: rolled up, Luke
  318. CLOSER, more united, Prov. 18:24.
  319. CLOSET, a small private room, Joel
    2:16: a place of retirement, Matt. 6:6.
  320. CLOTH, stuff woven from wool, flax,
    or silk, for the purpose of garments or
    coverings, Num. 4:6-9; Matt. 14:51.
  321. CLOTHE, to invest with garments,
    Exod. 40:14; Est. 4:4: to overspread,
    Isa. 50:3: to adorn, Psal. 132:16: to
    confound, 18: to beautify, Matt. 6:30.
  322. CLOTHED, did clothe, Gen. 3:21: did
    cover, Job 10:11.
  323. CLOTHED, covered, 1 Chron. 21:16:
    adorned, 1 Pet. 5:5.
  324. CLOTHING, necessary garments, Job
    22:6: pompous robes, [Mark] 12:38.
  325. CLOUD, a collection of vapours floating
    in the air, Gen. 9:13-16; 2 Sam. 22:
    12.   Clouds forming an appearance of
    grandeur, frequent allusion is made to
    them by the sacred writers, especially
    to denote a multitude, Isa. 60:8; Heb.
    12:1, and to indicate divine protection,
    Isa. 4:5.   This text and others refer to
    the Israelites in Egypt, in their passage
    of the Red Sea, and through the desert
    of Arabia, where they were secure en-
    joying the Divine defence and favour,
    Exod. 13:20-22; Neh. 9:12.
  326. CLOUDY, formed of a cloud, Exod.
    33:9; Neh. 9:12.
  327. CLOUTED, patched with cloth, Josh.
  328. CLOUTS, cloths for mean purposes,
    Jer. 38:11.
  329. CLOVEN, divided, Acts 2:3, as if cleaved
    into two parts.
  330. CLOVEN-FOOTED, having the foot di-
    vided into two parts, Lev. 11:3, 26.
  331. CLUSTER, a bunch, as of grapes, raisins,
    or flowers, Gen. 40:10; Num. 13:23;
    1 Sam. 25:18.

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