Русский / Russki / Russian Bible History (1)

Useful Resources
No endorsement of Orth. church's soteriology.

**List: Russian Ministry

Bible ( Библия )
"Russian, spoken by about 125 million people of the Soviet
Union, is, as a result of compulsory education, becoming a
common tongue throughout Eastern Europe and in what are
now the southern areas of the USSR.   The language was
originally spoken by the Eastern Slavic peoples who first
appeared in European Russia at the end of the first millennium
A.D.   Russia derives its name from the ‘Russ’ or ‘Ros’, a Scandi-
navian people who settled around Novogorod in the 9th
century and established the dynasty out of which the Russian
Empire grew.

Russia under the Tsars became a European political and cultural
power, primarily during the 15th to 18th centuries.   The
Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 proclaimed the establishment of
the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, which included
most of northern European and Asiatic Russia.   In 1922 the
Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Trans-caucasian Republics were
added.   The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is now com-
posed of 15 constituent Republics, 20 Autonomous Republics
(self-governing areas within the constituent republics), and 8
Autonomous Regions.

The largest nation in the world, the Soviet Union is also one of
the most interesting regions of the world linguistically.   Its in-
vasions and folk migrations have given Russia more than 100
distinct ethnic groups, speaking a babel of tongues belonging to
six or more language families.   Of the 230 million inhabitants of
the USSR, more than 80 per cent speak Indo-European tongues:
Slavic (Russian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian), Baltic (Latvian,
Latgalian, Lithuanian), Iranian (Ossete, Tadjiki, etc.), Dardic
(Romany), Thrace-Phrygian (Armenian), and Germanic
(Yiddish).   There are also the Altaic tongues: Turkic (Azerbai-
, Tatar, Yakut, etc.), Bulgaric (Chuvash), Mongolian
(Buriat, etc.), and Tungusic (Evenki, etc.); the Caucasian

tongues (Abkhasian, Georgian, etc.); the Uralic tongues:
Finnic (Estonian, Karelian, Cheremiss, Mordvin, etc.), Permian
(Perm, Ziryen, and Votiak), Ugric (Vogul, Ostiak, etc.), and
Samoyedic (Nenen, Selkup-Ostiak, etc.); the Palaeo-Siberian
tongues (Chukcha, Koryak, Kamchadal, etc.); and the Eskimo-
Aleut tongues of the Asiatic Eskimo.

Russian and numerous other languages of Russia are written in
an alphabet prepared, according to tradition, by St. Cyril, a
Macedonian my., who, with his brother Methodius,
the southern Slavic tribes in the 9th century.   The
Cyrillic alphabet in use in the USSR was officially instituted in
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
priests C&M were Eas. Orth. (860s) and later also Rom. Cat. (867) linked.]

"Russian-speaking Christians were served by the Slavonic Bible
before the preparation of Russian translations at the beginning
of the 19th century."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

**File: Russian Bible History (3)--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only: Modern Russ.]

       "First publication, Romans in 1815(?) at
    St. Petersburg
    (?).   The metrical Psalms; St.
    Petersburg, 1818; tr. by Gabriel Pakatsky.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

"1815? Romans (with Slavonic)   St. Petersburg
The first publication of a Book of the Bible in modern Russian;
published with the sanction of the Holy Synod.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

       "The Gospels, Russian Bible Society, St.
    Petersburg, 1819; tr. by a Committee
    appointed by the Holy Synod at the request
    of Czar Alexander I.   New Testament, 1821.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

"1819 Gospels (with Slavonic)   1820 Gospels   Acts-
2 Corinthians   James-Jude (with Slavonic)
1821 New Testament (with Slavonic)   Russian BS,
St. Petersburg
Translated by a committee selected by the Holy Synod, at the request of
Tsar Alexander I, and revised by ecclesiastical members of the RBS

(A. 1813-1826).   The first BFBS publication in Russian was in
1838 - a reprint of the 1823 edition of this text.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

"Gospodan Minek Īisusan Khristan svi͡atoĭ evangelʹi͡a Matfeĭ, Marko, Luka i I͡Uann Peldest : Si͡urmadoz ėrzi͡an kelse / Pepi͡ataz i͡armak velga Rossīi͡anʹ Bibleĭskoėn Promkson. (Peterburgse : Tīpografīaso Nīkolaen Grechan, 1821)"   [Info only]

       "The Psalter,
    1822, tr. by Gerasim P. Pavsky.
      Genesis-Ruth, 1825; tr. by the
    Holy Synod’s committee.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

"1822   Psalms   1825 Genesis--Ruth   RBS, St. Petersburg
Translated under the direction of the Holy Synod; the Psalms were
prepared by Gerasim P. Pavsky
.   An edition slightly revised by E.
Stallybrass appeared in 1861
(BFBS, London)."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
See Mongolian.]

"Gospoda Nashego Iisusa Khrista novyĭ Zavi︠e︡t, na Slavi︠a︡nskom i ruskom i︠a︡zyki︠e︡. (Sankt Peterburg, v tipografīi Rosīĭskago Bibleĭskago obshchesshva, 1822)"   [Info only: NT.]

"Gospoda Nashego Īisusa Khrista Novbyĭ Zavi͡et. (Leipt͡sig : V Tipografīi Karla Taukhnt͡sa, 1838)"   [Info only: NT.]

RUSSIAN--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: CYRILLIC (OLD) CHARACTER   "1844" Mark 1:2 correct (пророковъ = prophets).]

"In the 1840s Professor G. P. Pavskii actually completed the
first Russian translation of the Old Testament directly from the Hebrew, but he was put on trial for his
trouble and his work did not survive."
--East-West C&M Report, Spring 1999   [Info only]

"Gospoda nashego Iisusa Khrista novyǐ zavi︠e︠t ... (London, 1855)"   [Info only: NT.]

"1858 Song of Solomon Printed privately, London
Translated for Louis-Lucien Bonaparte.   (See note to No. 23.)"
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

"1860-1862 New Testament St. Petersburg
A new version, prepared by a committee under the direction of E. I.
Loviagin, appointed by the Holy Synod, and of Philaret, Metro-
politan of Moscow under Tsar Alexander II.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
See Textus Receptus Greek 1894 N.T.   See 1877 text.]

       "Makarios Version:
    Jeremiah and Lamentations, publisher not given, Moscow, 1860; tr. by
    Archimandrite Makarios.   Job, Ezekiel, Daniel, and Hosea-Malachi,
    1861; Pentateuch, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Proverbs and Isaiah,
    1863; Joshua-Judges, Samuel and Kings, 1867; Chronicles-Esther,
    1868.   The complete Old Testament possibly printed in a periodical,
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

"1860-1868 Old Testament Printed privately, Moscow
Translated by Archimandrate Makarios.   Published, after his death in
1847, in editions that usually contained a single Book.
  (Ruth and
Psalms in this verion are not known to be extant.
)   The publication in
1867 of Makarios’s translation of 1 Samuel-2 Kings marked the
completion of the translation of the whole Bible in Russian, in various
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

"1862-1863 Joshua-Ruth   1 Chronicles-Esther   Proverbs
St. Petersburg
Translated by G. P. Pavsky.   Portions of an O.T. translation by
Pavsky, who, as Professor of Hebrew at St. Petersburg, had earlier
prepared his translation for the use of his students.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]
       "Pavsky Version: the Psalter, 1822 (see above); Chroni-
    cles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon,
    1862; Joshua, Judges, and Ruth, 1863.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

"1866-1870 1, 2 Samuel   Proverbs   Isaiah-Malachi
BFBS, London
Translated for the BFBS by V. A. Levinsohn."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: See 1877 text.]

"1868-1875 Old Testament (in 4 parts)   BFBS, St. Petersburg
Translated by a committee, supported by the Holy Synod, which in-
cluded D. A. Chwolson, E. I. Loviagin, and M. A. Golubev, who
was replaced after his death by P. J. Savvaitov.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: See 1877 text.]

"1872-1875 Old Testament BFBS, London
Completion of the O.T. translation begun by V. A. Levinsohn.   It was
prepared for the BFBS by D. A. Chwolson.   The first complete
Russian Bible in one volume, published in 1877
(BFBS, Vienna),
included the Levinsohn-Chwolson O.T. and Holy Synod N.T. of
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
See Masoretic Text Hebrew 1894 O.T.]

       "Old Testament, 1868-75; tr. by the Syn-
    od’s committee, of which D. A. Chwolson was the principal translator.

    (New Testament revised by E. I. Loviagin; Gospels, 1860; Acts-Revela-
    tion, 1862.
       Other versions of note: BFBS Version: Proverbs and Isaiah, BFBS,
    1866: tr. by V. A. Levinsohn; Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, 1867;

    Daniel, Hosea-Malachi, 1868; 1 and 2 Samuel, 1870; 1 and 2 Kings,
    1872; tr. largely by D. A. Chwolson; Chronicles-Esther, Job, Psalms,
    Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon, 1873; Old Testament, 1875.

    (Printed with Synod’s New Testament, 1877.)   First
    BFBS edition: New Testament, 1838; Bible, 1877.   First ABS edition:
    New Testament, 1917; Bible, 1918.   CP: ABS, BFBS.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

RUSSIAN--1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: Cyrillic characters   "1875" John 3:16-29a unknown.]

       "Tolstoy Version: a Gospel
    harmony, Geneva, 1890; tr. by Leo Nikolaievitch Tolstoy.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: ?]

"1906 New Testament St. Petersburg
Translated by K. P. Pobiedonostsev, Procurator of the Holy Synod, to
perfect the translation of the Russian N.T.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: perfect?]

"1912-1914 Joshua   1, 2 Samuel (with Hebrew)   Vilna
Translated by O. K. Steinberg."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

"1926, 1925 Bible Prokhanoff & Jidkoff, Leningrad
The Holy Synod text, transliterated into official Soviet orthography."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

RUSSIAN   New orthography--1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: Cyrillic characters   "1926" John 2:22b-3:2a, 3:15-20 {correct w/ "Jesus" @ 3:2a}.]

"1953 Matthew   1958 Gospels   1963 Gospels   Acts
BFBS, London
Translated by a group of Orthodox and Evangelical scholars, in-
cluding Bishop Cassian, A. P. Wassilieff, and Nicholas Koulomzine.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:

RUSSIAN--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: CYRILLIC CHARACTER   "1956" Mark 1:2 correct (пророков = prophets).]

**List: Russian Bible Society, USA

**File: Russian Critical Text History

**File: Greek: Modern Bible History [See 1710 New Testament.]

"Gospoda nashego Īisusa Khrista Novyĭ Zavi͡etʺ. (Londonʺ : [s.n.], 1869)"   [Info only: NT.]

"Gospoda nashego Iisusa Khrista svi͡atoe evangelīe ot Matvei͡a, Marka, Luki i Ioanna. (Sanktpetersburg : Sinodalʹnai͡a tip., 1891)"   [Info only]

"Gospoda Nashego Iisusa Khrista svi͡atoe evangelīe ot Matfei͡a, Marka, Luki i Ioanna. (Pekin : Tipo-lit. Russkoĭ Dukhovnoĭ Missīi, 1919)"   [Info only]

[Chr. Helps Ministry (USA)] [Chr. Home Bible Course]