Bible Dictionary: V. 1840
- VAGABOND, a vagrant or wanderer,
who has no home or settled habitation,
Gen. 4:12, 14: a worthless, despicable,
member of society, Acts 19:13; Psal.
- VAIL, a cover, a kind of hood, scarf, or
mantle, as commonly worn by women
in the East, to conceal their faces, indi-
cating modesty and subjection to their
husbands, Gen. 24:65; 38:14;
Ruth 3:15; Isa. 3:23. Taking away, or
turning aside, the veil of a woman, to look
on her beauty, was regarded as an act of
great insolence; and to such an action
our Lord is believed to refer, Matt. 5:
28. The women in Egypt and some
other nations wear such veils as those
represented in our engraving. Paul
recommends the Christian females of
Corinth to be so covered, as becoming
and decent in public worship, 1 Cor. 11:
3, 15. Moses covered his head with a
veil, to moderate the glory which shone
on his face, after his communion with
God on mount Sinai, Exod. 34:33-35;
2 Cor. 3:13. Ignorance covers, as a
veil, the heathen world, Isa. 25:7; and
the minds of the Jews, superstitiously
attached to their abrogated ritual, through
which they cherish enmity against Christ,
2 Cor. 3:14.
- VAIL OF THE TABERNACLE AND TEM-
PLE: this was a splendid curtain, woven
of the richest materials, separating
between the holy place and the most
holy place, Exod. 26:31-33; 36:35-
38; Lev. 21:23; Heb. 9:3. Before this
veil, at the entrance to the most holy
place, the altar of incense and the candle-
stick with its sacred lamps were set,
where the priests performed the daily
sacrifices and service, Exod. 40:5, 6, 22,
25; Lev. 24:3: but within the veil
the high-priest alone entered only once
a year, on the great day of atonement,
Exod. 30:10; Lev. 16:2, 14, 17, 34;
Heb. 9:3-7. When our Saviour was
crucified, the veil of the temple was
miraculously torn from the top to the
bottom, to indicate the abrogation of the
Levitical ceremonial by the perfect sacri-
fice of Christ, Matt. 27:51; 2 Cor. 3:
- VAIN, worthless, Deut. 32:47; Jam.
1:26: empty, Prov. 31:30: wicked,
2 Sam. 6:20: proud, Job 11:11, 12.
- VAINGLORY, boasting without merit,
Gal. 5:26; Phil. 2:3.
- VAINLY, foolishly, Col. 2:18.
- VALE, low ground, a valley, Gal. 14:
3, 10; Deut. 1:7; Josh. 10:4.
- VALIANT, stout, personally strong,
1 Sam. 14:52: courageous, 2 Sam. 2:7;
- VALIANTEST, most courageous, Judg.
- VALIANTLY, courageously, Num. 24:
18: successfully, Psal. 60:12.
- VALLEY, low ground, especially where
it is lying between hills, Deut. 34:3;
Judg. 7:8. Canaan being a hilly
country, it was remarkable for its valleys,
many of which are mentioned by the
sacred writers. See particularly ESHCOL,
HINNOM, JEZREEL, SALT, and SIDDIM.
- VALOUR, personal courage, Judg. 3:
29; 6:12; 1 Kings 11:28.
- VALUE, worth, Job 13:4: the esti-
mated worth of a thing, Matt. 10:31.
- VALUE, to estimate the worth, Lev.
27:8; Matt. 27:9.
- VALUED, estimated worth or price,
Lev. 27:16; Job 28:16; Matt.
- VANISH, to melt away, as ice and
snow, Job 6:17: to flee away, as a cloud
or shadow, Isa. 51:6; Heb. 8:13.
- VANISHED, did vanish or flee away,
- VANISHED, disappeared, died away,
- VANITY, emptiness, 2 Kings 17:15;
Isa. 40:17: unsatisfactoriness, Eccles. 1:
2; 7:15: wretchedness or pain, Job 7:
3: deceit, Eph. 4:17: wickedness, Psal.
- VAPOUR, moist exhalations: these are
raised from the surface of the earth, both
land and water, by the action of the
sun's heat; and when sufficiently dense,
by electricity or some other means, they
are caused to descend in fertilising rains,
evincing the infinite power, wisdom, and
goodness of God, Job 36:27-33; Psal.
135:7; Jer. 10:13. Raising vapour
artificially by the steam-engine, is now
wonderfully serving to illustrate the
powers of nature, and the mysteries of
- VARIABLENESS, inconstancy or change-
ableness: while we see this property
belonging to all created things, there is
not even the shadow of it attaching to
the being and perfections of God, Jam. 1:
- VARIANCE, disagreement, discord, or
strife, Matt. 10:35; Gal. 5:20.
- VASH'TI, [h] (that drinks, or thread, or
woof), the Persian queen, who refused to
obey her consort, king Ahasuerus, when
inflamed with wine, he capriciously com-
manded her to exhibit her beauty to his
intoxicated lords, at the great court
festival: her unjust degradation, which
was the consequence, was overruled by
Divine Providence for the elevation of
Esther, and by her means to promote
the deliverance of the Jews, Est. 1.; 2.;
- VAUNT, to boast scornfully, Judg. 7:
2; 1 Cor. 13:4.
- VEHEMENT, ardent, determined, 2 Cor.
7:11: violent, Sol. Song 8:6; Jon.
- VEHEMENTLY, violently, Matt. 14:31;
- VEIN, a course, as of silver in a mine,
- VENGEANCE, avengement, penal retri-
bution, Gen. 4:15; Deut. 32:35, 45.
Divine dispensations of punishment to
the wicked is called vengeance, 2 Thess.
1:8; Judg. 7.
- VENISON, the flesh of deer, Gen. 25:
28; 27:3, 33.
- VENOM, poison, as of a serpent, Deut.
- VENOMOUS, poisonous, Acts 28:4.
- VENT, an outlet, Job 32:19.
- VENTURE, hazard, undesignedness,
1 Kings 22:34.
- VERIFIED, proved to be true, Gen.
42:20. God's word is verified when
His promise is fulfilled, 1 Kings 8:26.
- VERILY, surely, certainly, Gen. 42:
21; Exod. 31:13; Matt. 5:18; Acts 16:
- VERITY, truth, Psal. 111:7; 1 Tim.
- VERMILION, a bright red paint, which
was used for colouring chambers, Jer.
22:14, and for sketching figures, Ezek.
- VERY, true, Gen. 27:21: exceeding,
Num. 12:3; Jam. 5:11: real, Heb. 10:1.
- VESSEL, a dish or basket, Deut. 23:
24: a pitcher or pot, Jer. 18:4: a pail
or cask, 2 Kings 4:3: an instrument for
any work or service, as of brass, iron,
Josh. 6:19, 24, or cloth, Acts 10:11.
The vessels of the tabernacle were
sacred, Exod. 40:10; Num. 18:3;
others were common, 2 Tim. 2:20.
Wicked men are vessels of wrath, Rom.
9:22; holy men are vessels of mercy,
23. Paul was a "chosen vessel," de-
signed as an apostle to the Gentiles,
- VESTMENTS, robes, as for the priests
and worshippers of Baal, 2 Kings 10:22.
- VESTRY, a room for robing ministers,
as the apartment for the keeping of the
robes of the idolaters, 2 Kings 10:22.
- VESTURE, an upper robe, Gen. 41:42;
Deut. 22:12. Our Saviour's vesture,
for which the soldiers cast lots, was of
a peculiar manufacture, adapted to the
accomplishment of the inspired prophecy,
Psal. 22:18; John 19:23, 24. Christ
being clothed with a "vesture dipped in
blood[,]" as represented in the vision to
John, and having a name written on it,
"KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS[,]"
denoted His sovereign power to vindicate
His honour in the destruction of enemies,
- VEX, to distress, Exod. 22:21: to
injure or afflict, Lev. 18:18: to perse-
cute, Acts 12:1: to punish, Num. 25:
- VEXATION, distress, Deut. 28:20;
Isa. 65:14; 2 Chron. 15:5.
- VEXED, did vex or distress, as with
oppression, Num. 20:15; Judg. 2:18;
or invasion by war, 10:8; 1 Sam. 14:47:
did provoke, Isa. 63:10.
- VEXED, distressed, Judg. 16:16; 2
Kings 4:27; Matt. 15:22.
- VIAL, a small vessel of the bottle kind,
1 Sam. 10:1: a kind of censer for incense,
- VIALS: the vials of apocalyptic angels
were censers; and the "pouring out" of
them denotes signal interpositions of
Divine Providence, especially in punish-
ing the enemies of the church of Christ,
- VICTORY, the act of overcoming an
enemy, as in battle, 2 Sam. 19:2; 23:
10; or in the triumph of faith in a
Christian, 1 John 5:4; or of divine truth
in the gospel, Matt. 12:20; or of divine
power in the resurrection, Isa. 25:8;
1 Cor. 15:54, 57.
- VICTUALS, food, as meat and drink,
Gen. 14:11; 1 Sam. 22:10; Matt. 14:
- VIEW, to look at intently, 2 Kings 2:
7, 15: to survey or examine, Josh. 2:7;
- VIEWED, did view or survey, Josh. 7:
2; Neh. 2:13.
- VIGILANT, watchful in duty, 1 Tim.
3:2; 1 Pet. 5:8.
- VILE, worthless, 1 Sam. 15:9; Jer.
15:19: base, 1 Sam. 3:13: Isa. 32:
5, 6: corrupt, Rom. 1:26.
- VILELY, dishonourably, 2 Sam. 1:21.
- VILER, more vile or baser, Job 30:
- VILEST, basest, most unprincipled,
- VILLAGE, a small town, Matt. 21:2;
Luke 24:13; Lev. 25:31.
- VILLANY, base or dishonourable words
and practices, Isa. 32:6; Jer. 29:
- VINE, the well-known beautiful shrub
which produces grapes, of which there
are several kinds, Gen. 40:9, 10; Lev.
25:5. Many instructive allusions are
made by the sacred writers to the vine,
on account of its fruitfulness; as an
emblem of peace, 1 Kings 4:25; Mic. 4:
4; of the mother of a family, Psal.
128:3; and of a nation, Isa. 5:1;
Jer. 2:21. Our Saviour also compares
Himself to a vine, and His disciples to
the branches, as bearing the fruits of
holiness, deriving their virtues from his
fulness of grace and blessings, John 15:
- VINE-DRESSERS, cultivators of vines,
2 Kings 25:12; Joel 1:11.
- VINEGAR, an acid liquor made by a
second fermentation of vinous drinks:
some vinegar appears to have been very
strong, Prov. 10:26; 25:20: but this
diluted, or a weaker kind, made a beve-
rage peculiarly grateful in the hot sea-
sons, as harvest, Ruth 2:14. Vinegar,
and all juices from the vine, were for-
bidden to be used by Nazarites, Num.
6:3; Luke 1:15.
- VINEYARD, a piece of ground cleared
and fenced for the planting and cultiva-
ting of vines, Gen. 9:20; Lev. 19:10;
25:3, 4; Matt. 21:28, 33. A good
vineyard contained a thousand vines,
the rental of which would be as many
silverlings or shekels, Isa. 7:23. The
prophets speak of the Israelitish church
under the similitude of a vineyard, Psal.
80:15; Isa. 5:1-7.
- VINTAGE, the grape harvest, Lev.
26:5; Mic. 7:1.
- VIOL, a stringed musical instrument,
Isa. 5:17; 14:11; Amos 6:5.
- VIOLATED, profanely transgressed,
- VIOLENCE, daring outrage, Gen. 6:
11; Luke 3:14; Acts 21:35: force,
27:41. Our Saviour's saying, "the
kingdom of heaven suffereth violence,
and the violent take it by force[,]" denotes
the ardour of mind with which many
were seeking salvation, after the preach-
ing of John the Baptist, Matt. 11:12.
- VIOLENT, passionate, daring, forcible,
Psal. 7:16; Eccles. 5:8.
- VIOLENTLY, forcibly, Gen. 21:25:
eagerly, precipitately, Matt. 8:32.
- VIPER, a small kind of serpent, seldom
exceeding three feet in length, disin-
guished for the venomousness of its bite,
by which poison is distilled into the
wound; it is, therefore, regarded with
peculiar dread, Job 20:16; Isa. 30:6;
59:5; Acts 28:3. Hence the appro-
priateness of the censure addressed to
the hypocritical Pharisees and Sadducees
by John the Baptist and our Saviour,
Matt. 3:7; 12:34; 23:33.
- VIRGIN, a chaste unmarried woman,
Gen. 24:16; 2 Sam. 13:2; Acts 21:9.
Virgin is sometimes applied to a city,
nation, or country, 2 Kings 19:21; Jer.
- The virgin birth of Jesus.
- VIRGINITY, the condition or purity of
a virgin, Lev. 21:12; Judg. 11:37.
- VIRTUE, moral goodness or holiness,
Phil. 4:8; 2 Pet. 1:3: divine power or
energy, as for the healing of diseases,
Mark 5:30: courage in maintaining the
truth of the gospel, and in enduring afflic-
tions, 2 Pet. 1:5.
- VIRTUOUS, morally or socially good,
Ruth 3:11; Prov. 12:4; 31:10.
- VIRTUOUSLY, commendably, exempla-
rily, Prov. 31:29.
- VISAGE, the face or countenance, Isa.
52:14; Dan. 3:19.
- VISIBLE, that may be seen, Col. 1:16.
- VISION, the act of seeing, or thing
seen, especially the appearance of an
angel, Gen. 15:1; Luke 24:23. Before
the writing of Divine Revelation, God
was pleased frequently to reveal Himself
to the patriarchs, to pious persons, and
to the prophets, by dreams and visions;
thus illuminating their minds and making
His voice to be heard, He filled them with
heavenly knowledge, Gen. 28:12;
46:2; 2 Sam. 3:1, 15; Job 4:13;
33:14, 15; Isa. 6:1; Dan. 2:19;
8:1, 26. Christ gave a vision of His
divine glory to some of His apostles on
the mount of transfiguration, Matt. 17:
9; and Ananias, Cornelius, Peter, Paul,
and John, were especially instructed by
this means, Acts 9:10, 12; 10:3, 19;
16:9; 26:13; 2 Cor. 12:1; Rev. 9:
17. Prophecy is called vision, as by this
means God communicated His mind to
the prophets, 2 Chron. 32:32; Jer. 14:
14; Hab. 2:2.
- Vision. See Bibliology.
- VISIT, to see, especially by going to
an object, Jam. 1:27: thus Moses left the
court of Egypt to investigate the condi-
tion of his brethren of Israel, Acts 7:
23: so Paul, with Barnabas, visited the
brethren in the several cities where his
ministry had been the means of their
conversion, 15:36. God visits men by
His daily mercies, Job 7:18; by His
gracious influences, Psal. 106:4; and by
punishing the wicked, Exod. 32:34;
- VISITATION, the act of visiting, as
God favours men by His providential
dispensations, Luke 19:44; 1 Pet. 2:12;
by His gracious influences, Job 10:12; by
death, Num. 16:29.
- VISITED, did visit or go to see, Judg.
15:1; Matt. 25:36: did favour, as God
in His merciful providence, Gen. 21:1;
1 Sam. 2:21.
- VISITED, favoured, as with providen-
tial mercies, Exod. 4:31; or with cove-
nant blessings, Luke 1:68; 7:16.
- VISITING, taking account of, as in
judgment, Exod. 20:5; 34:7.
- VOCATION, a calling, as the state and
profession of peace and friendship with
God, into which believers are called by
His word and Spirit, Eph. 4:1.
- VOICE, the sound of a person speaking
or crying, Gen. 27:22; 29:11: the
singing of birds, Eccles. 12:4: the sound
of a trumpet or of thunder, Rev. 8:13;
10:3: advice or counsel, Gen. 3:17; 21:
12; Exod. 18:19, 24. God's voice, to
which we must hearken, is His revealed
will, Exod. 15:26; Heb. 4:7. John the
Baptist called himself only the "voice[,]"
proclaiming his glorious Lord as the
Messiah, John 1:23. To change the
voice is to refrain from reproof, and give
consolation, Gal. 4:20.
- VOID, destitute, as the earth was at
the creation without inhabitants, Gen. 1:
2; as a city is when ruined by war, Nah.
2:10; as ungodly persons are, without
true wisdom, Deut. 32:28; as the
vow of a woman was without force,
when disallowed by her husband, Num.
30:12; as the word of God cannot be
without efficacy, because of His gracious
influences, Isa. 55:11; as the conscience
of a good man is without guilt living in
the fear of God, Acts 24:16.
- VOLUME, a roll, as of parchment, in
which form books were in the times of
the sacred writers, Psal. 40:7; Heb. 10:7.
- VOLUNTARILY, willingly, Ezek. 46:
- VOLUNTARY, willing, as a contribution,
offering, or service, not required by law,
but arising from the free inclination of
a person, Lev. 1:3; Ezek. 46:12; Col.
- VOMIT, matter thrown up from a dis-
ordered stomach, Isa. 19:14; 28:8;
2 Pet. 2:22.
- VOMIT, to cast up from the stomach,
Lev. 18:25; Prov. 23:8; Jon. 2:10.
- VOMITED, did vomit, Jon. 2:10.
- VOW, a solemn promise of some special
service or offering, Gen. 28:20; 31:
13. Vows were common in the early
ages, with a view to obtain peculiar
blessings, as children, Job 22:27; 1 Sam.
1:11; and under the Levitical dispensa-
tion there were special regulations given
for them in the laws of Moses, Lev. 7:
16; 22:18, 23; Num. 30:2, 13. The
most remarkable vows were those of
Nazarites, Num. 6:2, 21. See NAZARITE.
- VOW, to make a solemn promise, Num.
6:2; Eccles. 5:4; Mal. 1:14.
- VOWED, did vow or promise solemnly,
Gen. 28:20; Judg. 11:30.
- VOYAGE, a course of travelling by sea,
- VULTURE, a large bird of prey resem-
bling an eagle; there are several species
of it, of most indelicate voracity, abound-
ing in the mountainous parts of Egypt
and Arabia, Lev. 11:14; Job 28:7;
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