Bahasa Malayu / Malay Bible History (1)

Useful Resources

CHM note: The name Allah could be confused for a god of Moh_mm_dism.

**List: Malay Ministry

the Bible ( الكتاب, al-Kitab )
"Malay has been used for centuries as a lingua franca from
Sumatra to the Philippines.   Modern Malay, or Melaju, probably
had its origin, at least in name, in the Pamalaju Kingdom, which
flourished early in the Christian era in east-central Sumatra.
Through political pressure, conquest, commerce, and religion,
Malay spread through the numerous early kingdoms of Sumatra,
Java, and the peninsular Malayan mainland.   Classical Malay was
used in the courts, and a vernacular Malay developed among the
people.   In coastal areas a pidginized Low Malay came into use as
the language of trade.   With varying admixtures of Chinese,
Hindustani, Arabic, and later Portuguese, Dutch, and English, it
was employed as the medium of commerce far beyond the
‘Girdle of Emerald’ - a common Dutch name for the Indonesian

Malay, in its various forms including Indonesian, is spoken by as
many as 20 million people.   ‘High’ Malay is now the literary

language of the educated among the 3.5 million Malay speakers
of the States of Malaya, a member of the Malaysian Federation.
It was the literary usage of Indonesia until the development of
Bahasa Indonesia as a distinct national language.

Malay itself is in a period of rapid change.   The modern usage is
known as ‘National language’ and has much in common with
Indonesian.   It is employed in newspapers, radio broadcasts, and
schools.   Many still favor the traditional usage, which is that of
the Malay Scriptures.   In both Malaya and Indonesia ‘Low’ or
‘Bazaar’ Malay forms are found as well.   The Low Malay and
Baba Malay (q.v.) Scriptures are two forms of this vernacular

Malay is a language of the Malayo-Polynesian family, which
includes more than 400 languages with 115 to 130 million
speakers, from Madagascar to Easter Island.   Closely related to
Malay within this group are Mawken and Jakun.   More distant
linguistically are Tagalog, Ilocano, and other tongues of the
Philippines.   The so-called ‘Mountain language’ of Taiwan also
belongs to this family of languages, to which are related the
Melanesian and Polynesian languages.

The first Malay Gospel, printed in 1629, is significant as the
earliest example of the translation and printing for evangelistic
purposes of a portion of the Bible in a non-European language.
It was published only 34 years before the Eliot Indian Bible
appeared in the New World.   Interestingly enough, the 1677
reprint of the Malay Gospels is dedicated to the same Robert
, Esq., to whom, as head of the ‘New England Company
of Missionaries’ John Eliot had to apply for the means to publish
his Massachusetts version in its successive editions."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

**File: Malay Bible History (3)--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only: Malayan.]

Roman Character unless noted

Diglot with Dutch
"1629 Matthew J. J. Palensteyn, Enckhuysen [Holland]
1638 Matthew   Mark   1646 Luke   John   1651 Gospels
Acts   1652 Psalms   Amsterdam
Translated by Albert C. Ruyl, Jan van Hasel, and Justus Heurnius,
and published under the auspices of the Dutch East India Company.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

   "At length, in 1668, the entire New Testament was printed in Roman letters at Amsterdam,
translated by Daniel Brower, "with all care and fidelity, out of the Greek, Latin, and Belgic languages,
into the Malay."
  The translator was a Dutch minister, who lived and died in the East: he also
prepared a version of the book of Genesis, which was printed in 1662, and again in 1687, at
--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only]

MALAYAN.   BROWER'S TRANSLATION.--The Bible of Every Land. (1860, Second Edition)   Samuel Bagster   [Info only: "1668" John 1:1-14 unknown (@ 1:14 daen cami souda menantang dia pounja berbesaran, jang adda berbesaran seperti Bappa pounja Annac {inserted} sa orang sadja); used "Alla Thalla" for God & Cattahan (Word).]

"1662 Genesis Gravenhage
1668 New Testament Amsterdam
Translated by Daniel Brouwerius, a Dutch minister."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

   "the standard Malay version of the Old and New Testament Scriptures, a trans-
lation prepared by the progressive labours of many learned men, and universally acknowledged to be
a correct and faithful representation of the original text.   This important work was commenced by
Dr. Leidekker, a Dutch minister of Batavia, in 1685; and was carried on from first to last under the
patronage and at the expense of the Dutch East India Company.   Dr. Leidekker, who appears, by his
Malay and Dutch dictionaries, and by his notes on the Hebrew and Latin dictionaries of Coceeius, to
have been eminently qualified for the undertaking, advanced very slowly with the translation,
scrupulously refraining from committing any word to writing that had not been subjected to the most
minute and careful examination.   He translated most of the books of the Old Testament twice; and in
the New Testament had advanced as far as the 6th verse of the 6th chapter of the Epistle to the
Ephesians, when he was called by the Lord of life and death to enjoy the reward of a faithful
   After the decease of this diligent translator, Petrus Van der Vorm, as the principal linguist among
the Dutch ministers in the East, was appointed, in 1701, by the consistory, with the consent of
government, to complete the work; which task he accomplished before the close of the year.   He had
previously given full proof of his ability and proficiency in the Malayan language by composing a
Malayan grammar and other philological works, and particularly by translating the whole of the New
Testament and part of the Old from the Arabic into Malayan.   The Dutch government, however,
justly considered that a work of such vital importance to the Malay race should not be left to the skill
of one man, and accordingly, in 1722, four ministers were appointed to examine and correct it.   Van
der Vorm was one of the individuals chosen for this purpose; the other three were Arnaldus Brandts,
Cornelius Ninaber, and George Hendrick Werndly.   In the progress of this revision, these ministers
uniformly consulted in the first place the Greek and Hebrew texts, with the Latin translations of Arias
Montanus and others, and then the Dutch version: when any difficulty occurred, they referred to the
Chaldee, Syriac, and particularly the Arabic versions, and sometimes to the Septuagint and the
Persian: they also compared the German versions of Luther and Piscator, the French, the English, and
occasionally the Spanish versions, with the Malayan translation before them.   Their meetings com-
menced always with prayer for the enlightening of the Holy Spirit to a right understanding of the
Word of God, and concluded with thanksgiving.   Whenever they differed much concerning the
rendering of a word or passage, they delayed their decision until they had first individually considered
the subject in private, and consulted the natives and competent Malayan scholars on the subject; so
that sometimes months elapsed before they formed a final decision.   The work, thus carefully and
deliberately conducted, occupied about five years, having been commenced in 1723, and completed in
1728.   Two copies appear to have been made, the one in Roman and the other in Arabic characters.
The former was printed at Amsterdam, 1731-1733, under the care of the Rev. G. H. Werndly, above
mentioned, and Dr. Serruns, aided by two Malay chaplains.   The latter was published at Batavia in
1758, in 5 vols. 8vo., under the direction of the Dutch governor, Jacob Mossel."
--The Bible of Every Land. (1860, Second Edition)   Samuel Bagster   [Info only]

"1731 New Testament Wettstein, Amsterdam
1733 Bible Amsterdam
1758 Bible (Arabic script)   Batavia
Translated by Melchior Leidekker, a Dutch minister in Batavia, who
completed the O.T. and most of the N.T. before his death.   The N.T.
was completed by Pieter van der Vorm, and then the whole was
revised by C. H. Werndly, A. Brants, and E. C. Ninaber.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
Leijdecker's 1733 Whole Bible is TR per LAT;
used Xisaj, 'Elmesehh, Allah.]

"..., addressed the
Calcutta Bible Society....   ..., and it was resolved to print
3000 copies of the Malayan New Testament, in 8vo., at Serampore, for the special use of the Amboy-
nese converts.   The design was liberally aided by the Bengal government; and in 1814 the edition
left the press: it was printed in Roman letters from the text of 1731.   Almost all the copies, with
1000 copies of the book of Genesis, were sent to Amboyna, and were there distributed by the resident,
Mr. Martin, assisted by the Rev. Messrs. Kam and Carey."
--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only]

MALAYAN.   SERAMPORE EDITION.--The Bible of Every Land. (1860, Second Edition)   Samuel Bagster   [Info only: "1814" John 1:1-14 unknown (@ 1:14 ma{k-}a kâmij su{d-}ah me{m-}andarg kamulijá^annja, sawâtu kamu-
lijâ^an seperti jarg pûnja ’Anakh {inserted} jarg torggal de{r-}i pa{d-}a Bâpa); used ’Al{l-}ah & Kalimat ( Word ).]

    "BFBS Version: New Testament, BFBS, Calcutta, 1817; this is the
    Leidekker-van der Vorm version revised by J. MacInnes and R. S. Hutch-
    ings; revised again in 1831 by Robert Burn and Claudius H. Thomsen;
    again in 1853 by S. Dyer and J. Evans of the LMS; and again in 1866
    by B. P. Keasberry of the LMS, who had translated some Old Testament
    portions, privately printed.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

MALAYAN.   CALCUTTA EDITION.- -The Bible of Every Land. (1860, Second Edition)   Samuel Bagster   [Info only: Arabic Character   "1817" John 1:1-14 unknown; used Allah.]

"1817 New Testament (Arabic script)   1821 Bible (Arabic
script)   Calcutta Auxiliary BS
A revision of the 1758 Bible, prepared by J. MacInnes, an army major,
and R. S. Hutchings, an Anglican chaplain.
-- 1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

"the Malayan
Scriptures were being prepared in London, at the earnest request of the Auxiliary Bible Society at
Amboyna.   In 1819, 10,000 copies of the New Testament in the Roman character, from the text of
1733, were printed by the British and Foreign Bible Society, under the care of Professor Lee; and in
1822, 5000 copies of the entire Bible from the same text were issued."
--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only]

"1820-1824 Bible (Arabic script)   Netherlands BS, Haarlem
A revision of the 1758 Bible, prepared for the NBS by J. Willmet."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

MALAYAN.   SINGAPORE EDITION.--The Bible of Every Land. (1860, Second Edition)   Samuel Bagster   [Info only: Arabic Character   "1831" John 1:1-14 unknown; used Allah.]

"1828 Matthew (Arabic script)   Printed privately
1831 New Testament (Arabic Script)   BFBS, Singapore
A revision of the 1817 N.T., prepared by Claudius H. Thomsen,
London MS
, and Robert Burn, an Anglican chaplain.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
Thomsen's "1821" Revision of Leijdecker is pro-TR per LAT.
Isl_mic influence: Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, also known as Munsyi Abdullah, was Thomsen's language teacher.]

"1850 Matthew Rotterdam
Translated by K. T. Hermann, Netherlands MS."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

"1853 New Testament   1856 New Testament (Arabic script)
BFBS, Singapore
A revision of the 1831 N.T., prepared by S. Dyer, J. Evans, and
B. P. Keasberry, LMS.   It was then transliterated into Arabic script.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
Keasberry's "1852" NT is pro-TR per LAT.
Isl_mic influence: Munsyi Abdullah also assisted in Keasberry's work.]

"1866 New Testament BFBS, Singapore
A further revision by B. P. Keasberry, LMS, who published Portions
(Psalms, etc.) in his own translation as early as 1847."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

       "Roskott Version: St. Luke’s and St. John’s Gospels, Rehoboth Mission
    Press, near Batavia, 1871-2; tr. by B.[ernhard] N. J. Roskott; New Testament,
    NBSS, Haarlem, 1877.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only:
    e-Text Tahun 2000-2002 OLB/YLSA {Penerjemahan Kontrak Baru ke dialek Ambon};
    used Jesus, Christos, Allah, Tuhan & Logos ( Word ).]

HIGH MALAY--1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: Arabic characters   "1919" John 3:13-21 unknown; used Allah.]

**File: Malay Critical Text History

**File: Malay: Baba Bible History
**File: Malay: Low Bible History

"Wasijat Jang Lama, ija-itoe segala kitab Perdjandjian Lama, ataw kitab Torpat dan Zaboer dan Nabi-nabi. Op nieuw vertaald in het Maleisch en uitgegeven door het Nederlandsche Bijbelgenootschap. (Amsterdam, 1879)"   [Info only: NBS.]

"[Het Nieuwe Testament in het maleisch] (1889)"   [Info only: NT.]

"Wasijat jang baroe ija-itoe segala kitab perdjandjian baroe atawa indjil toehan kita Jesoes Kristoes. Tersalin kapada bahasa malajoe rendah. (Amsterdam, Nederlandsch bijbelgenootschap, 1896)"   [Info only: NBS.]

"Tjerita saratoes ampat dari dalam kitab soetji = honderd en vier verhalen uit de bijbelsche geschiedenis in het maleisch. (Amsterdam : Nederlandsch Bijbelgenootschap, 1916)"   [Info only: NBS.]

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