Deutsch / German Bible History (1)

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No endorsement of M. Luther's soteriology.

**List: German Ministry

the Bible ( die Bibel )
"German is spoken by at least 100 million people, more than three
fourths of whom live in the two Germanies.   It is the official
language of Austria and Luxembourg, and one of the official
languages of Switzerland.   German-speaking communities are
found in adjacent Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland), Italy (South
Tyrol), and Yugoslavia, and throughout the Balkan countries, as
far as the Ukraine.   There are also several million German immi-
grants and their descendants in the United States and South
America.   As a second or acquired language, German is spoken
throughout Europe and by a few people in areas of former
German colonial influence: Cameroun, Togo, Tanzania, South
West Africa
, and scattered groups of Pacific islands.

The early Germanic peoples were linguistically divided into
Eastern (see Gothic) and Western tribes.   The Western Germanic
group included the Lombards (or Langobardi, who settled around
Pavia in Italy, and disappeared), Saxons (see German: Low),
Franks (see Frankish), and Thuringians, Alemanians, Bavarians,
and Hessians.   The first extant example of written German is the
manuscript of the Strassburg Oaths, 812 A.D., written in what is
known as Old High German.   At this time the Northern, or Low,
German dialects were spoken by the Saxons (this dialect de-

veloped into the Plattdeutsch of today) and by the Northern
Franks (whose Low-Franconian dialect became mixed with
Frisian and Saxon elements and formed the basis of modern
Dutch).   The other Germanic groups spoke Southern, or High,
German dialects.   Old High German is commonly said to have
[chang]ed into Middle High German around 1100.   Beginning in
the late 13th century we note some of the linguistic elements that
characterize the German of today.   Luther’s Bible helped to
establish the standard literary form of the language.   Regional
dialectal distinctions are still noted in vernacular German.

Old German versions of the Scriptures were prepared as early as
the 8th century.   (See discussion under Frankish.)   By the time of
the advent of printing in the West, numerous translations of the
Bible had been made into German, and many are still preserved
in the more than 200 extant manuscripts.   The first printed
German Bible employed the text of one of these early versions.
Thought to have been composed around the end of the 14th
century, it contained many words that were already unintelligible
to the mid-15th century reader.   The other 13 pre-Lutheran High
German Bibles were, nonetheless, based on the same text.   Four
Low German editions were printed.   These are here treated under
German: Low.

With Martin Luther and his Bible a new era begins in the history
of the Christian Church, marked by a renewed interest in the
Scriptures.   The importance of Luther’s Bible cannot be over-
estimated.   Not only did it become the foundation of the Refor-
mation spirit in Germany; it served also as the basis of translations
into several other European tongues.   Although revised several
times, it remains essentially as Luther prepared it."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
Many German bibles printed after 1912 are Critical Text.]

"Der codex Teplensis : enthaltend 'Die Schrift des newen Gezeuges'. (Augsburg ; München : Druck und Verlag des Literarischen Instituts von Max Kuttler, 1884)"   [Info only: Old German "based on old Latin" MSS. per Comba]

"Der Codex teplensis enthaltend, 'Die Schrift des Newen Gezeuges'. 1. Theil, Die Vier heiligen Evangelien. 2. Theil, Die Briefe St. Pauli. 3. Theil, Die Briefe St. Jacobi, St. Petri, St. Johannis, St. Judä, das Botenbuch [i.e. Apostelgeschichte] und St. Johannis Offenbarung, nebst drei Anhängen. (Augsburg, München, Druck und Verlag des Literarischen Instituts von Dr. M. Huttler, [1881]-84)"   [Info only: Tepl Bible, which came from Bohemia.   See Waldenses.]

    Louis Keller's research:
    From 1466 to 1518 18 editions of the entire German Bible had been
    issued besides 25 editions of the N. T.

    And he "contends that all editions published down to 1518 were the work
    of the Waldensians;" p. 119: A HISTORY of the CHURCHES..., David W. Cloud.

GERMAN   The first printed German Bible, 1466--1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: "1466" John 3:14-23; 4:7-17 unknown.]

"1466 Bible Mentel, Strassburg
The first Bible printed in a modern language.   The text of this Bible
was taken from a Ms. version attributed to an unknown scholar of the
late 14th century.   All 13 of the other pre-Lutheran Bibles were based on
this text.   Other notable pre-Lutheran printings which followed the
Mentel text were: 1470, Eggensteyn, Strassburg; 1475, Pflanzmann,
Augsburg; 1475, Zainer, Augsburg; 1475?, Sensenschmid &
Frisner, Nürnberg; 1477, Sorg, Augsburg; 1483, Koberger, Nürnberg;
1487, Schönsperger, Augsburg; 1507 Otmar, Augsburg.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
1ST GERMAN BIBLE   "1466" Mark 1:2 appears incorrect (ysaías = Isaiah).
Bohemia?   Especially in Acts, where it has preserved many Old Latin readings per CCEL.]

"1522 New Testament
1523-1524 Genesis-Song of Solomon Lotther, Wittenberg
1532 Prophets Lufft, Wittenberg
The translation prepared by Martin Luther.   So immediate was its
(85 reprintings of the N.T. appeared before the O.T. was com-
pleted in 1532
), and so durable its style, that it remains the standard
Protestant German Bible to this day.   The first complete edition of the
Luther Bible was published in 1534
(Lufft, Wittenberg); revisions by
Luther himself were published in 1541
(known as ‘Melanchthon’s
), 1545 (the ‘Standard Luther text’), and 1567, the first text with
verse divisions.   Several revisions appeared later.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
1ST LUTHER NEW TESTAMENT   "1522" Mark 1:2 correct (den Propheten = the Prophets).]

1522 September Luther NT,
1530 Luther NT,

"Die Septemberbibel. Das Neue Testament, (Berlin, G. Grote, 1883)"   [Info only: facsimile production of M.L.'s 1522 N.T.]

Luther Bibel 1545 (LUTH1545)   [Info only]

German Luther's Bible (1545)   [Info only]

"1527-1529 Bible Froschauer, Zürich
The ‘Zürich Bible’, adapted slightly to reflect Swiss German usage.
(Such adaptation was common practice in the 16th century.)   Thus most
editions of Luther’s Bible published in southern Germany or Switzer-
land, i.e., Augsburg, Basel, and Nürnberg, included either explanatory
notes or different readings to accomodate the German dialects of these
  (See also Low German.)   Growing impatient because of the
delay in publication of Luther’s version of the Prophets
(1532), a com-
mittee of Zürich ministers themselves translated Isaiah-Malachi, and
published their version with the Luther text of the rest of the Bible.
Other such ‘Combined Bibles’ also appeared.   At the beginning of the
20th century a Committee, working from the original languages,
revised the Zürich Bible.   The complete revision was published in 1931
under the auspices of the Church Synod in Zürich.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

1527 Old Testament   Bible? Worms
Translated by Pastor Hans Denk and Ludwig Haetzer {beheaded in 1529}, Anabaptists.
--Dr. Keller
Leaned to the ancient Waldensian version, and for a century the Mennonites preferred the Waldensian version to the Lutheran.--Christian   [Info only: pp. 120, 388-390, DWC.]

"1529 Bible Schoeffer, Worms
The Zürich Bible with slight revisions.   Known as the ‘Baptist Bible’,
it was the first published Protestant Bible to include the name Bible

(Biblia) as a general title.   A century later another significant revision by
J. Breitinger appeared in Zürich.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

"1531 Bible Froschauer, Zürich
A new edition of the Zürich Bible, with a new rendering of Job-Song of
Solomon.   The preface is thought to be written by Huldreich Zwingli,
the famous Swiss Reformer
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

"1573 Psalms Leipzig
A metrical Psalter, translated from French by Ambrosius Lobwasser.   It
was popular among the Reformers.   Another metered version of the
Psalms was published in 1582 by Caspar Ulenberg.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: 1573?]

"1617-1619 Bible Herborn
Translated by Johannes Placator; published earlier (from 1602) in
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: John Piscator.
"from the Latin version of Junius and Tremellius." per S. Bagster]

"Die Heilige Schrift: Altes Testament ... nach Piscator ... Auf veranstaltung der Bibelgesellschaft ... (Bern, Haller, 1847- 48)"   [Info only]

"1780-1783 Pentateuch (Hebrew character)
D. F. Starcke, Berlin
Translated by Moses Mendelssohn for German Jews.   Although
vigorously opposed at first, it became a standard text and was often
republished.   Also printed in Gothic character.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
His grandson was Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy.]

"1826-1836 Old Testament (Hebrew character)   Karlsruhe
Translated by Asher ben Joseph for German Jews."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

"1870 New Testament   1892 Bible   Halle
A revision of Luther’s text by a commission of scholars appointed by
the Eisenach German Evangelical Conference in 1863.   Tentative
editions had appeared in 1867 and 1883.   The most important revisions
of Luther’s text which appeared in the 19th century, it is known as ‘the
Halle issue of the definitive edition of the revised Luther Bible’.   Other
revisions by J. F. von Meyer
(1819), and Rudolf Stier (1856) were
published by BFBS.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
Bible, 1892?]

"Die Heilige Schrift : in berichtigter Uebersetzung mit kurzen Anmerkungen / [übersetzt von Johann Friedrich von Meyer] (Frankfurt am Main : Hermannschen Buchhandlung, 1819)"   [Info only]

       "Luther’s text has been several times revised by
    the German Bible Societies: New Testament, tentative, 1867; definitive,
    (BFBS, 1871); Bible, tentative, 1883, definitive, 1892
    (BFBS, 1896); New Testament further revised, 1938."
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

"1903 New Testament   1905 Bible   Bonn
Translated by F. Schlachter, a Swiss scholar of Biel.   It is known as the
‘Miniature Bible’.   Certain O.T. portions in Schlachter’s translation
appeared before publication of the complete Bible.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: 1951 is CT.]

"1956 New Testament   1964 Bible   WBS, Stuttgart
A revision of the Luther text, prepared by a committee.   A tentative re-
vion of the N.T., published in 1938, was not accorded official sanc-
tion until 1956.   This N.T. was then published with the Luther O.T.
as revised in 1912
.   1n 1964, when the revision of the O.T. was
finished, the complete Luther Bible was published.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
LUTHER (REVISED 1956) VERSION   "1967" Mark 1:2 incorrect (Propheten Jesaja = Prophet Isaiah).
See 1545, 1912 comparison below.]

"Since the mid-16th century there have been numerous publications of
German Scriptures, transliterated into Hebrew character, for the use of
German Jews.   They include the following transliterations from
Luther’s text:
    1540, Cracow, New Testament (incomplete), by Johann Harzuge,
    a Jewish convert to Christianity.
    1820, London, New Testament, by Judah D’Allemand, for the
    London Jews Society
    [BFBS] Vienna, Old Testament, by R. König, Free Church
    of Scotland Mission to the Jews.
    --1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

**File: German Bible History (3)--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only]

**File: German Bible History (3AOH)--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only: Alemannic, or Old High German.]

**File: German Bible History (3JGP)--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only: Jewish-German & Judeo-Polish.]

**File: German Critical Text History

**File: German: Low Bible History
**File: German--Other Bible History

"Luther's German translation, Biblia Germanica, was released in
1534.   It was done directly from the Masoretic Hebrew text and
the second edition of Erasmus Greek text.   He also consulted
the Latin text of Paganinus.   The original Lutheran Bible is still

It has been said that no other translation of the Bible, apart from
the King James Bible, has had a greater impact upon its people
and culture than the German Bible of Luther.

A Swiss-German version of the Lutheran Bible, the Zurich
Bible, was produced in the late 1530s.   It was compared to the
Greek and Hebrew by Leo Judd and a revision was released in

Judd disagreed with Luther and his close associate Zwingli and
advocated the separation of church and state.

The Zurich Bible is still in print.

Luther's Bible has been revised dozens of times.   The revisions
differ dramatically in their faithfulness to Luther's original
translation and to the Received Text.   Versions of Luther's
Bible are available from many sources including Independent
Baptist Publishers.   It is often very hard to identify which
version is being printed.   According to Lutheran sources, the
1868 revision is the last "conservative" edition.


In 1998, La Buona Novella, Swiss publishers published an
edition of the Lutheran New Testament designed to remove
Critical Text influence.   It is not recognized by the Lutheran
denomination.   It should not be confused with the 1992
Lutheran Bible (which is completely Critical Text)
by the Lutheran Church."
--PS   [Info only]

"Another German translation, the Schlachter 2000 is known as a
Received Text Bible.   The Dunelin Road Archive, July 2007,
confirms this as a Bible for German speakers who honor the
Received Text.

Franz Schlachter released his translation in 1905.   A major
revision was released in 1951.
  The 2000 edition is available
from BEAMS, P.O. Box 10200, Gulfport, Mississippi, 39505,

According to my. Jim Garrison, the Schlactor 2000 is
translated from the Received Text (New Testament) and the
Masoretic Text (Old Testament).   It was compared to the Old
Lutheran Bible, the Zurich Bible and the King James Bible.   It
is printed by the Geneva Bible Society."
--PS   [Info only]

"Die Bibel; oder, Die ganze Heilige Schrift des Alten und Neuen Testaments, nach der deutschen übersetzung D. Martin Luthers. Durchgesehene ausg., mit dem von der Deutschen evangelischen kirchenkonferenz genehmigten text. (Berlin, Britische und ausländische bibelgesellschaft, 1912)"   [Info only: BFBS.]

    I. -- Additions of Luther.
    1545, 1912: Mark 6:2. Were astonished, Luther adds: Seiner Lehre.
    1545, 1912: 1 John 5:12. He that hath the Son, Luther adds: Gottes
    --of God.

    II. -- Omissions of Luther.
    1545, 1912: Matt. 1:18. Omit: Jesus.

    IV. -- Luther follows the Vulgate.
    1545, 1912: Eph. 3:3. For: he made known, reads: was made known.

    1912: 1 John 5:7. omits: There are three that bear record . . .
    and the Holy Ghost.   Eras-
    mus: Ed. 3 -- 5 has it.   The Complutensian
    has it with slight variations.   Luther [1545 has
    it].   Tyndale has it, either from the Vulgate
    or Erasmus 3.   Tynd. 2. and Cov. put it in
    1545, 1912: Rev. 19:9. possibly omits: the marriage.

    1545: Acts 13:33. reads: andern Psalm.--CPK, pp. 94-98.

    How was the word baptize translated?
       "Luther, throughout
    his translation of the Bible, NEVER translates it immersion (unter-
    ), or dipping (eintauchung), or plunging (versenkung)
    but always and exclusively, Baptism (Taufe)."
    --CPK, p. 531.
       "Luther used the ancient word Taufen, because, in the fixed
    usage of the German, Taufen meant to baptize."
    --CPK, p. 534.

Schlachter 2000 (SCH2000)   [Info only]

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