简体中文 (CS), 繁體中文 (CT), 正體中文 / Chinese: Wenli, High Bible History: updated 9/17/2016

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**List: Chinese Ministry

Bible / Bible
Chinese Bible (1821)   My. Robert Morrison & Robert Milne   [Info only]
"a Received Text Bible.   Morrison was considered a Hebrew and Greek scholar.   On the monument at his grave it reads, ". . .for several years labored alone on a Chinese version of the Holy Scriptures, whom he was spared to see complete and widely circulated among those for whom it was intended."

This Bible was reproduced by the Bible Society of Singapore in 2007."--PS

Chinese: Wenli, High...
"Although the estimated 760 million inhabitants of mainland
China are said to speak ‘Chinese’, China is not a unified linguistic
community.   Such dialects as Mandarin, Wu, Min, Hakka, and
Cantonese are derived from a common origin, but are so differ-
ent as to be mutually unintelligible.   These, however, are spoken
tongues.   Wenli, or Wenyen, like literary Arabic, literary Mon-
golian, and Latin, is a written, rather than a vernacular or spoken
language.   Rather it was, for it has been almost completely
superseded by the national language, Kuoyü.   Further, Wenli was
a written language which could be used throughout China -- its
word symbols, indicating no particular pronunciation, were read
aloud as the local word for a thing or idea.   For example ‘9’ is
universally understood, but read as ‘nine’ by English speakers,
‘neun’ by Germans, ‘dyevyat’ in Russian and ‘tesha’ on the
streets of Tel Aviv.   This rich but inflexible literary usage, which
originally represented a now forgotten spoken tongue of north-
central China, was the High Wenli of Chinese literature.   A much
simplified form of the literary language, which came to be known
as Easy Wenli, was used in government documents and by
limited classical education.

The origin of the ideographic or logographic (each sign denoting
a word rather than a letter or syllable) Chinese system of writing
is not known.   Historical tradition dates its formation as 4600 B.C.,
but the first primitive Chinese writing, possibly pictographic,
probably did not appear before the third millennium.   ....   Written
top-to-bottom and right-to-left, the Chinese script has been
adapted to the Japanese language as well and influenced the
development of Mongolian and Korean writing.

The history of the Bible in China must include the numerous
early versions attested by historical evidence, although unfor-
tunately no translation survives from before the 18th century."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"In the 19th century, the arrival of Protestant mies. added
both numbers and energy to the Christian effort.   Such zeal
characterized the pioneering mies. in the Orient that two
translations of the whole Bible into Chinese appeared almost
simultaneously: that of Joshua Marshman in 1822 and the
Morrison version a year later.
  The hardships encountered by the
first mies. in a xenophobic China were enormous.   To
discourage translation of the Scriptures, the Peking government
forbade, under pain of death, the teaching of Chinese to a
foreigner.   Morrison's instructor always carried poison and was
ready to commit suicide if he should be detected.   Further, when
the wood blocks for printing the first Chinese Bible were being
prepared, the workmen were, in the words of Morrison ‘hunted

from place to place and sometimes seized’.   The first publication
in 1810 had to be camouflaged with a false cover page.
  As printed
Scriptures became more and more abundant throughout China,
the government decreed the death penalty for any European
preparing or diseminating Christian literature and exile to
northern Manchuria for any Chinese deluded by them.

Nonetheless, despite determined opposition, Morrison's Wenli
Bible became known and used in China
, and later it served as the
basis for other and better Wenli versions.   However, this High
Wenli Bible reached only the scholars and well educated
Chinese.   For this reason the latter half of the 19th century saw
the preparation of numerous translations in the vernacular
languages of China, and in the simplified Low, or Easy, Wenli.

In the following entries exact chronological arrangement has
been abandoned to allow all publications in each version to be
listed together."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1810 Matthew   Mark   1813 John   Epistles
1816 Matthew   Mark   John   Romans-Revelation
1817-1822 Old Testament (in 4 parts)   1822 New Testament
Serampore MP
Translated by Joannes Lassar and Joshua Marshman.   A tentative
Matthew was printed as early as 1808 from tamarind wood blocks.
"
-- 1000 Tongues   [Info only: JM was a Baptist.]   [Title--Sheng Jing.]
"1810 Acts London MS, Canton
1811 Luke LMS, BFBS, Canton
1813 Galatians   James-2 Peter   1814 New Testament (in 8
parts)   1815 Genesis   BFBS, Canton
1823 Bible BFBS, Malacca
Translated by Robert Morrison (Luke, Acts, and Pauline Epistles were
revised from a British Museum Ms.)
.   W. Milne helped with the O.T.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Chinese Character Morrison & Milne Version 1823 Mark 1:2 o.k. (prophets).]   [RM was a Presbyterian.]   [Title--Shentian Shengshu.]

"1836 New Testament Singapore
1837 New Testament LMS, Batavia
1838 Old Testament Singapore
1838 Bible LMS, BFBS, ABS, Singapore
Translated by W. H. Medhurst, Karl F. A. Gutzlaff, and Elijah
Bridgman.   The work was often revised by Gutzlaff, who also prepared
his own version (see below).
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1847 John American and Foreign BS, Bangkok
1850 Genesis   1851 Matthew   1852 Gospels   Acts
1853 New Testament   AFBS, Ningpo
1872 New Testament (revised)   AFBS, American
Presbyterian MP, Shanghai
Translated by Josiah Goddard, American Baptist My. Union,
and revised by Edward C. Lord, ABMU, who had already published
several N.T. Books wth commentary (1855-1860).
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: ?]

"1848-1849 Matthew   Acts   1851 Genesis
1866-1868 Bible (in 3 parts)   AFBS, Hong Kong
Translated by William Dean, ABMU."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1850 Gospels   1852 New Testament   LMS, Shanghai
1854 Old Testament   1855 Bible (revised)   BFBS, Shanghai
The ‘Delegates' Version’, prepared by W. H. Medhurst, LMS,
W. J. Boone, American Epi. Mission, W. M. Lowrie, APM,
John Stronach, LMS, and E. C. Bridgman, American Board of Com-
missioners for Foreign Missions.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Delegates’ Version 1922 Mark 1:2 o.k. (prophets); anti-Baptist version.]

"1850-1866 New Testament AFBS, Ningpo
Translated by Thomas H. Hudson, English Baptist MS."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: ?]

1855 Old Testament Chinese Evangelical Society?
Translated by Karl Gutzlaff, who had often revised the Medhurst
translation.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1855 New Testament (in 2 parts)   1859 New Testament
1863 Bible   ABS, Ningpo
Translated by E. C. Bridgman and M. S. Culbertson, ABCFM, who
had broken away from the Delegates' Committee in 1853.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1860 Luke   Acts   American Baptist Mission, Canton
Translated with commentary by Issacher J. Roberts and Charles W.
Gaillard, ABM.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: ?]

"1862 Mark   1868 Acts   1874 John   1875 Hebrews
APM, Shanghai
Translated with commentary by John L. Nevius, Benjamin Hobson,
William Muirhead, and Samuel Dodd, APM.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1864 New Testament Russian Mission, Peking
Translated by members of the Russian Ecc. Mission, Peking."
-- 1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1870 1-3 John LMS, Hong Kong
Translated with commentary by F. Storrs Turner, LMS."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1897 New Testament Hong Kong
Translated by John Chalmers and Martin Schaub, members of the
Union Bible Committee, appointed in 1890.   This tentative N.T.,
representing the previous independent work of Chalmers and Schaub,
was published at their own expense.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: ?]

"1901 Matthew ABS, BFBS, National BS of Scotland, Shanghai
1906 Matthew   Romans   1907 New Testament
Cooperating BSS, Shanghai
1919 Bible ABS, Shanghai
Translated by the Union Bible Committee, including...."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Union Version 1925 Mark 1:2 incorrect (Isaiah).]

**File: Chinese: Wenli, Easy Bible History
**File: Chinese Bible History {Mandarin}

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