简体中文 (CS), 繁體中文 (CT), 正體中文 / Chinese Bible History: updated 10/1/2016

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Mandarin is now formally called Kuoyu.

**List: Chinese Ministry

Bible / Bible
**File: Chinese: Wenli, High Bible History
**File: Chinese: Wenli, Easy Bible History

Chinese: Kuoyü...
"Kuoyü, a language officially sponsored as a force for national
unity, is already spoken by almost 300 million Chinese and will
certainly become even more common.   It is based on the Peking
Mandarin usage (which for political reasons has long predomin-
ated among the numerous languages of China), but borrowings
from other Chinese languages have been incorporated, giving
Kuoyü a somewhat artificial or composite nature.

The literary language of China until the 20th century was the
formal Classical Wenli, or Wenyen, but Kuoyü (meaning
‘national language’) has come into almost exclusive use as the
Chinese written language.   It was not until 1917 that Hu Shih
started a movement which advocated the acceptability of writing
in the vernacular, pai hua (‘plain talk’).   Reforms in writing
were advocated from the beginning, and numerous systems were
proposed as alternatives to the cumbersome Chinese ideographic
characters used for Wenli.   Nonetheless, these Wenli characters
have been retained (in some instances simplified) for written
Kuoyü, but each has been assigned a phonetic value - the
Kuoyü pronunciation of the word.   The Chu Yin system (literally
‘sounds injected’, a phonetic alphabet of 21 initial and 16 final
symbols) was introduced in 1919 and has proved the most
successful.   It is now used in schools to teach non-Mandarin-

speaking students how to pronounce the characters in Kuoyü.
There have been numerous attempts to establish roman (Lo-
matze) phonetic systems, notably the Wade system, 1859, and the
official romanized alphabets of 1925 and 1931-1937.

Mainland China, the second largest country in the world, has a
total population of more than 760 million.   However, vast
distances and limited intercommunication have left China with a
mixed linguistic composition.   Although some 94 per cent of its
population may be said to speak ‘Chinese’, there are, in fact,
great regional and local dialectal differences.   The Mandarin
dialects (or languages) are spoken throughout northern, central,
and west-central China by about 550 million.   Mostly mutually
intelligible, all forms of Mandarin, including Kuoyü, are known
as Kuang hua (meaning ‘common language’).   Other Mandarin
languages represented here are Chihli, Kiaotong, Shantung, and
Nanking.

In the southeast, geographically isolated groups of Chinese
dialects have developed: Wu (spoken by about 40 million in the

provinces south of Shanghai, including the Hankow, Kinhwa,
Ningpo, Shanghai, Soochow, Taichow, and Wenchow
usages); Min (spoken by 37 million in Fukien Province, includ-
ing the Amoy and Taiwanese, Foochow Swatow, and distinct
North Min dialects of Kienning, Kienyang, and Shaowu);
Hakka (spoken by 20 million in Kwangtung Province), and
Cantonese (spoken by 45 million around Canton).   Within China
there are also several million speakers of Tai languages, found
mostly in the Yunnan and Kweichow provinces of the extreme
southwest, and the Turkic (Kashgar and Kazakh), Mongolian
(Khalka and Kalmuk), Tungusic (Manchu) languages of the
Altaic family in the north and west.

In the following entries exact chronological arrangement has
been abandoned to allow all publications in each version to be
listed together."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"Chinese Character unless noted
1864 John (tentative)   1865 Matthew-Luke   Acts (tentative)
ABS, Shanghai

1865 Matthew   1866 Gospels   Acts   BFBS, Peking
Translated by the Peking Committee, which included William A. P.
Martin, American Presbyterian Mission; Joseph Edkins, London MS;
S. I. J. Schereschewsky, American Protestant Episcopal Mission;
J. S. Burdon, Church MS; and H. Blodget, American Board of Com-
missioners for Foreign Missions.   Appointed in 1861.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1866 Genesis   1867 Psalms   ABS, Shanghai
Translated by S. I. J. Schereschewsky."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: SIJS was a born-again Jew.]

"1867 Psalms ABS, Peking
Translated by William C. Burns, English Presbyterian Mission."
- -1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1869 Gospels   Acts (Roman character)   1870 Epistles
(Roman character)   China Inland Mission, Chinkiang
The Peking Committee text, transliterated by Maria Taylor, wife of
J. Hudson Taylor.
"
-- 1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1870 Romans-Revelation ABS, Shanghai; BFBS, Peking
1872 New Testament BFBS, Peking
Translated by the Peking Committee; a revision of the portions earlier
published.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1874 Old Testament ABS, Peking
Translated by S. I. J. Schereschewsky."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: SIJS was a born-again Jew.]

"1878 Bible ABS, BFBS
The Schereschewsky O.T. and Peking Committee N.T. became the
standard Mandarin Bible until the publication of the Union Version.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1887 New Testament (Roman character)   BFBS, London
A revision of the Mandarin N.T. by William Cooper, CIM,
transliterated by Mrs. Reuben Lowrie.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1887 Gospels   Acts   1889 New Testament   Genesis
Exodus   National BS of Scotland, Hankow
Translated by Griffith John, CIM."
-- 1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1895 John (Roman character)   ABS, Shanghai
Transliterated by Mrs. R. Lowrie into the Wade romanized system."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1897 Genesis   Job (revised)   1899 Bible (including revised
O.T.)   ABS, Shanghai
A revision of the Schereschewsky O.T., prepared by the translator."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"1899 Acts   1900 Mark   John   1901 Luke   Matthew
1903-1905 Romans-Revelation (in 3 parts)
1904-1908 Gospels   Romans (Roman character)
1906 Gospels (revised)   1907 New Testament   1910 Psalms
ABS, BFBS, NBSS, Shanghai
1911 Job   1914 Pentateuch   1919 Bible   ABS, BFBS,
Shanghai
The Mandarin ‘Union version’, prepared by C. W. Mateer, APM;
John L. Nevius, APM; H. Blodget, ABCFM; George Owen, LMS;
John R. Hykes, American Methodist Episcopal Mission; and T.
Bramfitt, Wesleyan MS
.   A product of the same spirit that fostered the
‘Union’ High and Easy Wenli translations, this version, after the
Kuoyü movement began, was used in government schools and
popularly, as exemplifying the standardized national language.   It is
still in use among Protestants.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Chinese Character 1947 Mark 1:2 incorrect (Isaiah).
Roman Character 1905 Mark 1:2 unknown.]

"1913 Gospels Presbyterian MP, Shanghai
Translated by A. Sydenstricker, Presbyterian, with the help of Pao-
Huei Chu.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: ?]

"1919-1920 New Testament (Chu Yin Phonetics)   BFBS,
Shanghai
The Union version transliterated."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Chu Yin Phonetic Character 1921 Mark 1:2 unknown.]

"1921-1922 New Testament (Wang Chao Phonetics)   BFBS,
London
The Union version transliterated.   The Wang Chao Phonetic system is
named after its inventor, a Chinese scholar and reformer; this script
employs 50 initial and 20 final symbols.
"
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Wang Chao Phonetic Character 1921 John 3:16 unknown.]

"1934 Luke   Acts   Association Press of China
Translated by Gordon Poteat, Baptist."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: ?]

"1934 New Testament (character and phonetic)   ABS, BFBS,
Shanghai
1941 Bible (character and phonetic)   China Bible House,
Shanghai
The Union version in Chinese character, with the Yin phonetics to
indicate Kuoyü pronunciation.
"
--1000 tongues   [Info only: Mixed Chinese & Phonetic 1924 Mark 1:2 incorrect (Isaiah).]

"Xin Jiu yue quan shu. (Shanghai : American Bible Society, 1919)"
http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006173307   [Info only: Mandarin. Union perversion.]

Chinese: Chihli...
"Chihli Colloquial is the North Mandarin dialect spoken in
Hopeh Province (formerly known as Chihli), south of Peking."
-- 1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"Wang Chao Phonetic System
1925 Luke BFBS, Shanghai
Translator unknown."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Wang Chao Phonetic Character 1925 Luke 3:1-7(a) unknown.]

Chinese: Kiaotung...
"Kiaotung is the North Mandarin dialect spoken in eastern
Shantung Province, southeast of Peking."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"Wang Chao Phonetic System
1918 Mark North China Baptist Mission
Translated by mies. of the North China Baptist Mission."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Wang Chao Phonetic Character 1918 Mark 1:2 unknown.]

"Chu Yin Phonetic System
1920 Matthew BFBS, Shanghai
Translated by American Presbyterian Mission and Baptist mies."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: Chu Yin Phonetic Character 1920 Mark 3:1-9 unknown.]

Chinese: Nanking...
See Chinese: Nanking.

Chinese: Shantung...
"Shantung Colloquial is the North Mandarin dialect of Shantung
Province, China."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only]

"Roman Character
1892 Luke   John   1894 Matthew   ABS, Shanghai
Translated by C. H. Judd and E. Tomalin, China Inland Mission."
--1000 Tongues   [Info only: 1894 Mark 3:1-4 unknown.]

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