English Bible History (1)

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English Ministry

the Holy Bible
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"English is now the most widely spoken language in the world.
Although second to Mandarin Chinese in number of native
speakers, it is known either as mother tongue or acquired
language by almost one fifth of the world’s population - nearly
600 million people.   To half this number it is the mother tongue,
not only in the English-speaking realms of Great Britain, North
America, Australia, and New Zealand, but also in Africa, Asia,
Oceania, and the isles of the Caribbean.   In addition, English is an
acquired tongue to 300 million, making it the most nearly
universal language of the mid-20th century.   ....

The division between Middle and Modern English is usually
placed at about 1500 A.D.   The development of the English
language and of Scripture translation prior to the modern period
has been discussed under Anglo-Saxon.   Despite the existence of
manuscript copies of the Wycliffe Bible in the early 16th century,
the people of England had little or no access to the Scriptures.
Printing had begun in England as early as 1477, but no English
Bible was printed in the 15th century, although it appeared in
several languages on the Continent."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
The Wycliffe Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate.   See Latin CT.]

"Perceiving that ‘it was impossible to stablysh the laye people in
any truth excepte the scripture were playnly layde before their
eyes in their mother tongue,’
William Tyndale, a graduate of
Oxford, determined that even the plowboys of England should
have the Bible.   Having vainly sought the aid of the Bishop of
London, and aware of opposition among the state and ecclesi-
astical authorities, he left England in 1524 to seek both a place to
work and a friendly printer.   At Cologne, discovery by hostile
officials caused him to flee to Worms with the partly printed
sheets of a quarto New Testament.   There in 1525 the English
Bible in printed form was born in exile.   Tyndale brought out

5,000 copies of an octavo edition - the first printed English New
Testament.   Although the ecclesiastical authorities had forbidden
the importation of Tyndale’s work, copies were speedily
smuggled into England in the bottom of packing cases and
wrapped into bales of goods.   Whether the quarto edition was
ever finished is uncertain.   Tyndale’s own reference to it as a
‘thing begun rather than finished’ suggests that it was not.

As the contraband Scriptures were smuggled across the Channel
from Antwerp, the English clergy sought to discredit the work.
The Bishop of London assured
[lied to] his congregation that he had
personally discovered two hundred errors in it.   Yet, the demand
for the Book grew, and the clergy was reduced to fighting fire
with fire.   To block further production, the Bishop of London
bought a large quantity of the Testaments and burned them.
The purchasing of so many of his Testaments provided Tyndale
with funds to bring out a new and better edition.   Pirated
editions by George Joye
soon appeared, and revisions by
Tyndale himself were published in 1534 and 1535.   In all, there
were 40 printings before 1566.   Yet Tyndale remained an
expatriate, his work proscribed.   In May 1535 he was betrayed
and imprisoned in Vilvorde Castle near Brussels, where, 17
months later, he was strangled and burned at the stake, praying
Lord, open the King of England’s eyes’.

That his prayer was answered is attested by the fact that an
English Bible had already been published.   Dedicated to the
King, it found favor in ‘the eyes of England’.   It is to Myles
Coverdale that the publication of this, the first printed English
Bible, is due.   But it was Tyndale’s work that laid the foundations
of the English Bible.   Vigorous and apt in its phrasing, pene-
trating in its grasp of the true meaning of the original, Tyndale’s
version so entered into the succession of historic English Bibles
that, to this day, everyone who opens the most widely used
versions can hardly read a chapter in the New Testament with-
out encountering far more of Tyndale’s work than that of all his
successors.   William Tyndale determined to a great extent the
character of the great versions of the English Bible and contri-
buted powerfully to the influence of the Bible upon the life of
the English-speaking peoples."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

"Myles Coverdale was modestly aware of his limited knowledge
of the original Greek and Hebrew, yet he grieved ‘yt other
nacyons shulde be more plenteously provyded for with ye
scripture in theyre mother tongue than we’.   Possibly encouraged
by Thomas Cromwell, Henry VIII’s Chancellor of the Exchequer,
he undertook to provide his ‘nacyon’ with the Bible.   No royal
permission for publication was secured, although the Convoca-
tion of the Church had petitioned the King in 1534.   Of Cover-

dale’s place and method of work we know almost nothing.   The
printers were perhaps Joannes Soter and Eucharius Cervicornus
of Marburg.   Brought to England in unbound sheets, a different
title page was substituted, reading ‘faithfully translated into
Englyshe’.   The Bible appeared in 1535, dedicated to the King
by his humble subject and daily orator, Myles Coverdale.   Not
until two years later, on publication of the second edition, was a
license for the printing issued.

The major importance of Coverdale’s Bible is its place as the
first in a vast stream of English Bibles, which, in one translation
or another, have issued from the press for four centuries to bless
the English-speaking peoples."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
MC referred to German & Latin texts for part of his OT.]

"Matthew’s Bible of 1537 is of importance, not as an original
translation, but as a union of the earlier translations of William
Tyndale and Myles Coverdale upon which the later revisions -
the Bishops’ Bible, the Great Bible, and the King James Version
- were chiefly based."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
The King James Bible (1769) is the best English translation.]

"As shown in the following listing, there has been no dearth of

English translations of the Bible.   ..., and the King James Version
maintains its place as the ‘World’s Best Seller’."
-- 1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

       "First publication: The New Testament in 1525 at Worms, Ger-
    many; tr. by William Tyndale.   Pentateuch, Hans Luft, Marburg,
    1531; Jonah, Antwerp, 1531.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

"1525 New Testament (incomplete)   P. Quentell, Cologne
1525 New Testament P. Schoeffer, Worms
1531 Pentateuch J. Hoochstrater, Antwerp, Marburg
Translated by William Tyndale (Hynchus).   Revisions of the N.T. by
Tyndale himself appeared in 1534 and 1535
(often reprinted); the
revised Pentateuch was published in 1534 as well.   In 1531? Tyndale’s
version of Jonah was published in Antwerp.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
1ST TYNDALE NEW TESTAMENT   "1525" Mark 1:2 correct (the prophetts = the prophets).]

First English Bible https://www.bibles.org.uk/pdf/bibles/English/Tyndale.pdf

       "Bible, place and printer un-
    certain, 1535; tr. by Myles Coverdale.   First Bible printed in Eng-
    (Coverdale’s Version), James Nycolson, Sowthwarke, 1537."
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only:
    MC, a Lutheran pastor per CC.]

ENGLISH: Myles Coverdale’s Version, 1535--1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: "1535" John 3:7-17 unknown.]

"1535 Bible ? Cervicornus & Soter [Cologne or Marburg]
Translated by Myles Coverdale.   The printer is uncertain; long
thought to have been C. Froschauer of Zürich.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
COVERDALE VERSION   "1535" Mark 1:2 correct (the prophetes = the prophets).]

1535 Coverdale Bible, https://www.bibles-online.net/1535/

       "Matthew Version: Bible, R. Grafton and E. Whitchurch, London,
    1537; tr. probably by John Rogers, substituting Tyndale’s published and
    unpublished text
    for that of Coverdale but using the latter’s text from
    Ezra through Malachi....
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only:
    JR, an English Lutheran commentator per CC.]

1537 Matthews Bible, https://www.bibles-online.net/1537/

"1537   Bible Grafton & Whitchurch, London
‘Matthew’s Bible.’   Thomas Matthew, given as translator, is held to be
a pseudonym for Tyndale
(on whose work the text was based) or John
Rogers, who edited this important Bible.   It was probably printed in
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
MATTHEW’S BIBLE   "1537" Mark 1:2 correct (the Prophetes = the Prophets).]

1549 Matthews Tyndale Bible, https://www.bibles-online.net/1549/

"1539 Bible J. Byddell, for Thomas Barthlet, London
Translated by Richard Taverner (on the basis of Matthew’s Bible)."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
TAVERNER’S BIBLE   "1551" Mark 1:2 correct (the Prophetes = the Prophets).
RT, an English Lutheran {translated Aug. Conf. too} per CC.]

1551 Taverneres Bible, https://www.bibles-online.net/1551Taverners/

       "The Great Bible:
    (Coverdale’s version revised), Bible, Rychard Grafton & Edward Whit-
    church, London, 1539.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only:
    "Thru the Vulgate several additions were made" p. 349, H. S. Miller.]

"1539 Bible Grafton & Whitchurch, London
Revised by Coverdale from Matthew’s Bible.   The project was
instigated by Thomas Cromwell, hence the Bible is sometimes known as
‘Cromwell’s Bible’.   A prologue by Archbishop Cranmer in the 2nd
(1540) has led to its also being called ‘Cranmer’s Bible’, but
it is usually termed the ‘Great Bible’ due to Cromwell’s decree that it
should be a ‘Byble of the largyest volumne’.   Coverdale’s version of the
Psalms for this Bible is that contained in the Book of Common
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
GREAT BIBLE   "1539" Mark 1:2 correct (the Prophetes = the Prophets).]

1541 Great Bible, https://www.bibles-online.net/1541/

"1552 New Testament R. Jugge, London
A revision of Tyndale’s text prepared by Jugge, with the help of a
group of ‘godly learned men’.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

1552 Jugge's Tyndale NT   https://www.bibles-online.net/1552/

       "Geneva Version: New Testament,
    Conrad Badius, Geneva, 1557; tr. by William Whittingham; Bible,
    Rouland Hall, 1560; tr. by Whittingham, Anthony Gilby and Thomas
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

ENGLISH: Geneva Version, 1560--1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: THE GENEVA BIBLE   "1560" John 2:21-3:2, 15-21 (correct w/ Jesus @ John 3:2a).]

"1557 New Testament C. Bradius, Geneva
1560 Bible R. Hall, Geneva
The ‘Geneva Version’, translated by William Whittingham, with
the assistance of Anthony Gilby, Thomas Sampson, and others.
The 1557 N.T. was a private work by Whittingham.   The earliest
English Bible in roman type, and the first to include verse divisions,
the Geneva Bible attained immediate popularity, particularly among
the Puritans.   The earliest editions are known as the ‘Breeches Bible’,
because of the wording of Genesis 3:7.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
GENEVA VERSION   "1560" Mark 1:2 correct (the Prophetes = the Prophets).]

1557 Geneva NT, https://www.bibles-online.net/1557/

       "Bishops’ Bible: (the Great Bible revised under the
    leadership of Archbishop Matthew Parker
    ), Richard Jugge, London,
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only:

"1568 Bible R. Jugge, London
The ‘Bishops’ Bible’, revised from the Great Bible version by
Matthew Parker and a group of Bishops and scholars, including W.
Alley, W. Barlow, T. Bentham, T. Bickley, R. Cox, R. Davies,
G. Goodman, E. Grindal, E. Guest, R. Horne, J. Parkhurst, A. Perne,
A. Pearson, E. Sandys, and E. Scrambler.   The first edition is some-

times known as the ‘Treacle Bible’, because of the wording of Jeremiah
8.22.   It is interesting that a note in Psalm 65 refers to Ophir as the
‘Ilande . . . founde by Christopher Columbo’.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
BISHOPS’ BIBLE   "1568" Mark 1:2 correct (the prophetes = the prophets).]

"1576 New Testament C[hristopher]. Barker, London
A revision of the Geneva N.T. by Laurence Tomson.   It was often
(after 1587) with the Geneva O.T.   An edition of 1599
first contains Revelation in the translation of Franciscus Junius.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
FJ, a Huguenot.]

       "King James Version: Bible, Robert Barker, London, 1611; tr. by a
    large group of scholars working at the University of Cambridge, the
    University of Oxford and at Westminister, apparently finally overseen by
    Bilson, Bishop of Winchester, and Miles Smith, afterwards Dean of
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only:
    Thomas Bilson, pp. 151, 156-157; M. Smith, pp. 151, 170; all "The Glorious History of the English Bible {KJB,}" David W. Cloud.]

"1611 Bible R. Baker, London
The ‘King James Version’, or ‘Authorized Version’, prepared at the
proposal of King James I by six companies of scholars, numbering
about 50, under the direction of Lancelot Andrews, John Harding, and
Edward Lively.   Two series of early printings are distinguished,
primarily on the basis of...Ruth 3.15:
[one] is generally held to have been the
first published.
  Although the ‘Authorized Version’ was, in fact,

[providentially preserved with God’s] authority, within fifty years it had become the
standard Protestant Bible.
"--1000 Tongues {CHM note: adapted.}   [Info only:
KING JAMES VERSION   Mark 1:2 correct (the Prophets).
L. Andrewes, pp. 151, 154-156; J. Harding, pp. 151; E. Lively, pp. 151, 165; all "The Glorious History of the English Bible {KJB,}" David W. Cloud.]

1611 KJV First Edition, https://www.bibles-online.net/1611/

"1612 Psalms G. Thorpe, Amsterdam
Translated with annotations by Henry Ainsworth.   Other early
editions of the Psalms included: Coverdale? (translation of J. van den
Campen or Campensis), 1533;
Thomas Sternhold, 1548-1550;
Sternhold and Hopkins, 1562
(a metrical version which was often
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
John Campanus, a Baptist.]

"1642 Bible J. Broers, Amsterdam
KJV with notes taken from the Geneva Bible and Junius’ annotations
on Revelation ‘placed in due order’.
  Edited by John Canne.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info:
J. Canne was a Baptist.]

"1726-1727 Matthew Batley & Chandler, London
The Beausobre and Lenfant version translated from French."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:

"1762 Bible J. Bentham, Cambridge
The ‘standard’ edition, prepared by Thomas Paris of Trinity College,
Cambridge, in a serious attempt to correct the text of the KJV by
up-dating spelling and punctuation and unifying marginal annotations
and references
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info: 1769 KJB.]

"1769 Bible T. Wright & W. Gill, Oxford
The Oxford ‘standard’ edition, which attempted to modernize the
diction of the KJV.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
Dr. Blayney.]

1769 Bible https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008593015

       "First English Bible with American imprint: Robert
    Aitken, Philadelphia, 1782.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

"1782 Bible R. Aitken, Philadelphia
Supposedly the earliest KJV Bible printed in the United States.
Known as ‘the Bible of the Revolution’, this is the only Bible which
received the approval and recommendation of Congress.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

"....   In 1833 a slight revision of
the Bible
(mainly grammatical) by Noah Webster was published in
New Haven.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

1839 Bible S. Collingwood and Co., University Press: Oxford.
The KJV printed for the Trinitarian Bible Society, instituted in the year 1831.
  [Info only:
See TBS tract.]

**File: English Bible History (3)--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only]

**File: English--Other Bible History

**File: English Critical Text History

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