Sanskrit / Sanscrit Bible History (1) Useful Resources
**List: Sanskrit Ministry
the Bible ( the Bible )
"Sanskrit, the sacred language of the Brahmans, is the Indian
classical language. It served as the primary literary idiom until
the late 19th century and is still the vehicle of much H_ndu
scholarship. In modern times it has served as a purely literary
language, much as Latin served in the Middle Ages in Europe.
(It is interesting to note that in the Indian census of 1961 only
about 2,500 people named Sanskrit as their mother tongue.)
Classical Sanskrit reflects the literary development of a group of
heterogeneous Aryan dialects spoken around the middle of the
second millennium B.C., at about the time of the Aryan in-
vasion of India.
time after 500 B.C. the Sutras were codified, about which time
Sanskrit became standardized in the usage which it has rigidly
maintained ever since. A period of considerable Sanskrit
literary output followed, which lasted until about 1100 A.D.
This was followed by the period of the early Indian prakrits,
or regional vernaculars, from which many of the modern
Indian languages [chang]ed.
The history of Indic writing is extremely complex. An abund---1000 Tongues, 1972 [Info only]
ance of alphabets is a phenomenon not unique to modern India.
The Lalita Vishtara states that at the time of the B_ddha more
than 60 scripts were in use. The basis of modern Indian writing is
held to be the Brahmi script, attributed to the god Brahma.
Numerous forms of Brahmi are known, from inscriptions in
several parts of India. From them developed the Gupta scripts,
out of which grew the numerous individual alphabets common
to various Aryan languages. The southern Indian scripts, in
which the Dravidian tongues are written, [chang]ed from Brahmi
character as employed in the Kalinga and Andhra, or Western
Deccan, alphabets. From these developed the scripts now used
for Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, and Telugu. Grantha character
is also considered a southern Indian script."
**List: Sanskrit Bible History (3)--1860 S. Bagster [Info only]
Devanagari Character unless noted
"1808 New Testament 1811 Pentateuch
1815 Joshua-Esther 1818 Job-Song of Solomon
1822 Prophets Serampore MP
Translated by the Serampore mies., notably William Carey,
who called the language Sungskrit."--1000 Tongues, 1972 [Info only]
"Eventually, the translation was undertaken by
Dr. Yates, formerly the associate of Dr. Carey, and upon whom the mantle of the [respect]able translator
seemed to have fallen. Yielding to the entreaties of mies. in Calcutta and Northern India, and
to the appeals of the people, he began the work in 1840 by the publication of 2500 copies of the
Psalms in Sanscrit verse. It is said of this work that each stanza, and sometimes each line, contains
a complete sense; and that the padas, or half lines, are like so many steps, leading the mind forward,
and affording resting places, till the whole is comprehended.
In 1843 the Bible Translation Society granted £500 towards the translation of the entire Scrip-
tures into Sanscrit under the superintendence of Dr. Yates, and a similar sum was contributed for the
same purpose by the American and Foreign Bible Society. Thus encouraged, Dr. Yates proceeded
rapidly with the work. In 1844 the Gospels were completed; and in 1846, 3000 copies of the
Proverbs had been printed, and an edition of 2500 copies of the New Testament was in the press. In
this version of the New Testament a metrical rendering is given of the quotations from the poetical
parts of the Old Testament, by which means they are more readily distinguished from the other parts
of the text. Dr. Yates was successfully prosecuting the translation of the Old Testament, when his
career of usefulness was suddenly interrupted by death. A short time previous to his decease, foreseeing
his approaching end, he had expressed himself in the following terms in a letter addressed to his
assistant, the Rev. Mr. Wenger:--"I think I may, in reference to your life and mine, use the language
of John,--'You must increase, but I must decrease.' May I only live to see you as far advanced in
the Sanscrit as you now are in the Bengalee, and I shall die in peace, rejoicing in the goodness of God
in raising up one after another to carry on his work." Immediately after the removal of this devoted
translator (1845), on examining the state of the version, it was found that the books of Genesis, Psalms,
Proverbs, and Isaiah, had all passed through the press, and that the rest of the Pentateuch and the
books of Job, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, and Daniel had been prepared in MS. The mies. then
agreed that "the pundit who had long been engaged in writing the rough draft of the version should
proceed in his work, and that Mr. Wenger should, by studying the language prepare himself for revising
and publishing the work." This plan has since been pursued at Calcutta. The second volume of the
Old Testament, containing the historical books from Judges to Esther inclusive, had been completed--1860 S. Bagster [Info only]
in 1852, and a third volume, bringing the translation up to the Song of Solomon, was finished in 1858.
The completion of this important work is still engaging attention, and will probably not be long
delayed. A revised edition of Genesis, with the first twenty chapters of Exodus, has also been pub-
lished. The books of Psalms and Proverbs have been reprinted from the Sanscrit in Bengalee charac-
ters; the book of Genesis and the Gospel of St. Luke have also been issued in the same form."
SANSCRIT.--1860 S. Bagster [Info only: Devanagari Character n.d. John 1:1-14 unknown.]
"1839 Psalms Matthew 1841 New Testament
Baptist MS, American and Foreign BS, Calcutta
1842 Proverbs 1843 Genesis Bible Translation Society,
1845 Isaiah BTS, AFBS, Calcutta.
Translated by W. Yates; Psalms, Proverbs, and Isaiah in verse."--1000 Tongues, 1972 [Info only]
part of Exodus, 1843; Isaiah, 1845."--1000 Tongues, 1939 [Info only]
"Wenger revision: Pentateuch,
Bible Translation Society, Calcutta, 1848; revised by John Wenger, carry-
ing on Yates work. New Testament, Bible Translation Society and
American and Foreign Bible Society, Calcutta, 1851; Judges-Esther,
1852; Job-Canticles, 1858; the Prophetical Books, 1859. The standard
current text. CP: BFBS."--1000 Tongues, 1939 [Info only]
SANSKRIT--1000 Tongues, 1939 [Info only: Devanagari characters "1910" John 3:8-18 unknown.]
SANSKRIT--1000 Tongues, 1939 [Info only: Grantha characters n.d. Book ch:v unknown.]
"1848 Pentateuch Printed privately, Calcutta
1851 New Testament BTS, AFBS, Calcutta
1852 Judges-Esther Calcutta
A revision prepared by John Wenger, BMS, who continued the work
of Yates."--1000 Tongues, 1972 [Info only:
See Wm. Cathcart, pp. 1230b-1231.]
"1854 Luke 1856 Psalms 1857 Proverbs
Calcutta Auxiliary BS
A transliteration of the Wenger version into Bengali character."--1000 Tongues, 1972 [Info only:
BENGALI CHARACTER "1854" Luke 3:1-4 unknown.
"Genesis, 1855;" per 1939]
"1858 Job-Song of Solomon 1872 Prophets Calcutta
The Yates-Wenger version, completing the Bible."--1000 Tongues, 1972 [Info only]
"1858 Psalms (with Oriya, Oriya character)
Calcutta Auxiliary BS
1876 John (with Malayalam, Malayalam character) Madras
1884 Mark Luke John (Pothi Devanagari character)
Calcutta Auxiliary BS
1886 John (with Tamil, Tamil character)
Madras Auxiliary BS
1890 Matthew (with Kannada, Kannada character) Bangalore
1893 Luke (with Telugu, Telugu character) Madras
All transliterations of the Yates-Wenger version."--1000 Tongues, 1972 [Info only:
TAMIL CHARACTER "1886" John 2:1-4 unknown.
KANNADA CHARACTER "1890" Matthew 3:1-4 unknown.
MALAYALAM CHARACTER "1876" John 3:16 unknown.
ORIYA CHARACTER "1858" Psalm 110:1 unknown.
TELUGU CHARACTER "1893" Luke 15:10 unknown.]
SANSKRIT--1000 Tongues, 1972 [Info only: DEVANAGARI CHARACTER "1910" Mark 1:2 unknown.]
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