Twi Bible History (1)

Useful Resources

**List: Twi Ministry

the Bible ( the Bible )
Twi: Akuapem...
"Akuapem, or Akwapim, is a Twi dialect spoken by almost
145,000 people in the Akwapim District, inland from Accra, and
into east-central Ghana.   The administrative term ‘Akan’ is used
to denote all forms of Twi (Fante, Asante, and Akuapem) and
usually the Twi-like Kwa languages (Agni, Baoulé, and Nzema),
totalling almost 3 million speakers in all.   The Twi languages and
their local dialectal forms are, in general, mutually intelligible.

The story of the Twi Bibles is an interesting illustration of the
linguistic problems involved in the preparation of Scriptures for
a people who speak a tongue in various dialects and have no
established literary language.   In the 1850’s, when Johannes
Christaller translated the Bible into ‘Twi,’ he chose, after careful
linguistic study, a form of the language which fell phonetically
between the linguistic extremes of Fante and Asante-Akyem.
He chose his vocabulary, not from a single dialect, but from a
composite glossary of terms understandable to speakers of all
Akan dialects.   This Bible, in a dignified but idiomatic Twi, was
used by most of the Twi dialect communities.

After almost 90 years, it became evident that a revision of the
Twi Bible was needed.   Since the Fante had published their own
Bible in the 1940’s, it was decided to prepare a common Twi
Bible, striving for a text that could be used by both the Asante-
Akyem and Akuapem dialect groups.   A committee was
appointed to devise a common orthography, intended to
express the slightly differing sounds of the dialects, and to reach
compromises on certain grammatical and syntactical differences.
In many areas compromises were reached, but on the difficult
question of vowell harmony both sides stuck to their own
version.   Despite considerable urging from impartial observers,
no common agreement could be reached.   In this impasse, the
Bible Society was asked to print both dialect versions, which,
having the same text, differed only in othography and dialect
usage.   The request was granted, and thus Scriptures were
finally provided for the Twi."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

       "Spoken on the Gold Coast, West Africa."--1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

**File: Twi Bible History (3)--1860   S. Bagster   [Info only]

       "First publication, the
    Gospels in 1859 by the BFBS; tr. by J. G. Christaller, of the Basel
    Mission, with native assistants.   New Testament, 1864; tr. by Mr.
    Christaller and J. A. Mader.   Bible, 1871; tr. by Mr. Christaller.

    There have been several revisions by Mr. Christaller.   CP: BFBS.
    --1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only]

ASHANTI: Twi, or Tshi dialect--1000 Tongues, 1939   [Info only: n.d. John 3:12-17, 29-34 {correct w/ God 3 times @ John 3:34}.]

"1859 Gospels   Acts   BFBS, Basel
1861 Genesis   Romans   1-3 John   Revelation
1862 1 Corinthians-2 Thessalonians
1863 1 Timothy-Jude   BFBS, Stuttgart
1864 Gospels (revised)   1866 Psalms   Proverbs
1870 New Testament (revised)   1871 Bible
1878 New Testament (further revised)

1897 New Testament (revised)   1900 Bible (revised)
BFBS, Basel
Translated by Johannes Gottlieb Christaller, Basel Mission, and J. A.
Mader.   The revisions were all the work of Christaller, who made
slight corrections until his death in 1895.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

"1940 Mark BFBS, London
Translated by Eugene L. Rapp, Basel Mission, and a committee."
- -1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

"1857 New Testament BFBS, London
The complete N.T., revised by E. L. Rapp, issued as an interim
edition during the deliberations of the Asante-Akuapem Committee.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
should be 1957, not 1857.]

"1957 Mark   John   BFBS, London
The Rapp revision in Akuapem orthography."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

TWI: AKUAPEM--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: "1957" Mark 1:2 incorrect (Yesaia = Isaiah).]

"1964 Bible BSS in West Africa, Ghana
The Bible, with Akuapem dialectal usage and Akuapem orthography,
prepared by a committee including C. A. Akrofi, Eugene L. Rapp,
H. J. Keteku, and J. A. Birikorang.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

Twi: Asante...
"Asante, or Ashanti, is a Twi dialect spoken by about 900,000
people, mainly in the Ashanti Region of central and southwest-
central Ghana.   The Asante are usually known administratively
as Akan, a term which also includes speakers of Fante, Akuapem,
and other related Kwa languages of Ivory Coast.   The Akyem
dialects, sometimes considered a fourth major Twi dialect
group, are now usually included with Asante in what are often
termed the Asante-Akyem dialects.

Until 1957 the Asante used the standard ‘Twi’ Scriptures, here
listed under Twi: Akuapem."
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only]

"1957 [m]ark   John   BFBS, London
Prepared by a committee, using Asante orthography, based on the
revision of the Twi Bible by Eugene L. Rapp.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only:
"1957" Mark 1:2 incorrect (Yesaia = Isaiah).]

"1964 Bible BSS in West Africa, Ghana
Translated by a committee, including C. A. Denteh, E. L. Rapp,
H. J. Keteku, and J. A. Birikorang.
--1000 Tongues, 1972   [Info only: ?]

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