BAPTIST HISTORY.

CONTENTS.


THE PRIMITIVE PERIOD.

CHAP.     PAGE
  1. Introductory Remarks--Paedobaptist Concessions .. 13

  2. The Apostolic Fathers--Justin Martyr--Irenæus .. 19

  3. Tertullian--Baptism of Children in Africa-- Origen --First
    Appearance of Infant Baptism--The Clinics-- Christianity in
    England .. 26

THE TRANSITION PERIOD.
  1. The Catechumens--Progress of Infant Baptism--Delay of
    Baptism--Gregory Nazianzen--Chrysostom--Basil--Ephrem
    of Edessa--The Emperor Constantine--Immersion still the
    Mode .. 41

  2. Christian Intolerance--Justin's Law, enjoining Infant Baptism
    --The Novatians--The Donatists--Pelagianism .. 51

THE OBSCURE PERIOD.
  1. The Manichæans--Cautions to the Student--All Opponents
    of Infant Baptism not Baptists--Account of the Paulicians--
    Their Views of Baptism .. 67

  2. Religious Reform in Europe--The Canons of Orleans--Arras
    --Berengarius--Miscellaneous Anecdotes .. 82

          l *                                                                                  5

6     CONTENTS.

THE REVIVAL PERIOD.
CHAP.     PAGE
  1. State of Affairs in Europe during this Period--The [RCC] Crusades
    --Other Important Events--The Scholastic Divines and
    Philosophers--Universities--Printing .. 91

  2. Paulicians in France and Italy--General View of the Reform
    Movement--Various Names given to the Reformers-- Senti-
    ments held by them--False Charge of Manichæism--Their
    Activity--Reinerus Saccho's Account .. 97

  3. Success of the Reforming Parties-- Consternation at Rome--
    Anathemas--The Dominican and Franciscan Orders--San-
    guinary Persecution--[RCC] Crusade against the Albigenses--The
    [RCC] Inquisition Movement in England--John de Wycliffe--The
    Lollards--Bohemia .. 110

  4. Various Opinions respecting Baptism--Berengar--Peter of
    Bruys
    --Henry of Lausanne--Arnold of Brescia-- Cologne--
    England--Lombers--Pope Lucius III .. 123

  5. Heretics of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries--Wycliffe's
    Sentiments on Baptism--The Bohemians--Baptism among
    the Waldenses--Church Government--Immersion .. 141

THE REFORMATION PERIOD.
  1. Rise of the Reformation--Opinions held by the Baptists--
    Misrepresented by the Reformers--Their Wonderful In-
    crease--Support under Sufferings .. 151

  2. German Baptists--Thomas Munzer [Lutheran]--The Peasant War--
    Michael Satler -- Hans Schaffler --Salzburg -- Wolfgang
    Brand-Huebert--The Burggraf of Alzey--Imperial Edicts.. 160

  3. Persecuting Tenets of the Reformers--German Diets--The
    Congregation at Steinborn--Leonard Bernkop--The Crown
    of Straw--Johannes Bair--Hans Pichner--Hans Breal--Bap-
    tists in Italy .. 169

CONTENTS.     7

CHAP.     PAGE
  1. Baptists in Switzerland--Zuingli--Concessions of Bullinger
    and Meshovius--Disputations--Drownings--Felix Mantz
    --Balthazar Hubmeyer--Louis Hetzer--Emigration to Mo-
    ravia--Jacob Hutter .. 178

  2. The Netherlands--Sicke Snyder--Furious Edict--The [RCC] In-
    quisition--Severities of Philip II.--Torture--Lysken--
    Gerrit Hase-poot--Joris Wippe--Private Executions--
    Horrid Rackings .. 195

  3. Biography of Menno Simon--Account of his Publications--
    Church Governmint among the Baptists--Missionary Ex-
    cursions .. 212

  4. Baptists in England--Proclamation of Henry VIII.--Lati-
    mer's Sermon before Edward VI.--Baptists excepted from
    "Acts of Pardon"--Royal Commissions against them--
    Ridley--Cranmer --Joan Boucher-- Rogers--Philpot--
    Bishop Hooper's Scruples--George Van Pare--Protestant
    Persecutions Inexcusable--Congregations in Essex and
    Kent--Bonner--Gardiner--Disputations in Jail--Queen
    Elizabeth's Proclamation against Baptists--Bishop Jewel
    --Archbishop Parker--Dutch Baptists .. 231

  5. Enormities Perpetrated at Munster and other places--Injus-
    tice of Ascribing them to Baptist Sentiments .. 249

THE TROUBLOUS PERIOD.
  1. Baptists Persecuted by all other Sects--Liberal Policy of
    William, Prince of Orange--The "Union of Utrecht"--
    Differences of Opinion--Persecution in Moravia and in
    Switzerland .. 261

  2. Dutch Baptists Persecuted in England--Account of Hendrick
    Terwoort and Jan Pieters--Their Martyrdom--Their Re-
    ligious Sentiments--Whitgift's Invectives against the Bap-
    tists .. 270

  3. Severity of Elizabeth's Government--Bigotry of James I.--
    The Hampton Court Conference-- Emigration --John

8     CONTENTS.

CHAP.     PAGE

    Smyth's Church--Their Confessions--Bartholomew Le-
    gate--Extracts from Baptist Publications on Liberty of
    Conscience--The King's distress at their Increase .. 283

  1. Character of Charles I.--Sufferings during his Reign--First
    Particular Baptist Church--Samuel Howe--Dr. Featley's
    Book--Baptist Confessions of Faith--Toleration hated by
    the Presbyterians--Their attempts to put down the Bap-
    tists--Milton's Lines--The Assembly of Divines--Outcry
    against Immersion--Parliamentary Declaration in favor of
    the Baptists--Fearful "Ordinance" against them-- Their
    Activity during the Commonwealth and the Protectorate--
    Cromwell's Baptist Officers--The "Triers"--Baptists in
    Ireland .. 301

  2. Character of Charles II. and James II.--Commencement of
    Persecution--Venner's Rebellion--Disclaimer by Baptists
    --Severe Sufferings--John James--Act of Uniformity--
    The Aylesbury Baptists--Benjamin Keach Pilloried--Con-
    venticle Act--Five-Mile Act--Their Effects .. 322

  3. History of the Broadmead Church, Bristol .. 345

  4. Declaration of Indulgence--Confession of Faith--Fierce
    Persecution --Thomas Delaune --The Duke of Mon-
    mouth's Rebellion--Account of the Hewlings --Mrs.
    Gaunt--The Dark Time--Another Declaration of Indul-
    gence--William Kiffin--The Glorious Revolution .. 357

  5. Principles and Practices of the Denomination--Human Tra-
    dition Renounced--Freedom of Conscience Demanded
    --Personal Piety requisite to Church Fellowship--Purity
    of Discipline--Cases cited--Mode of Public Worship--
    Plurality of Elders--Communion--Singing--Laying on of
    Hands--The Sabbath .. 379

  6. Biographical Notices--John Smyth, Thomas Helwys, and
    John Spilsbury--Henry Denne--Francis Cornwell, A.M.
    --Christopher Blackwood--Major-General Harrison--Col.
    Hutchinson .. 391

CONTENTS.     9

CHAP.     PAGE
  1. Biographical Notices Continued--Henry Jessey, A.M.--
    John Canne--Vavasor Powell--Abraham Cheare .. 406

  2. Biographical Notices Continued--John Toombes, B.D.--
    Francis Bampfield, A.M.--Henry D'Anvers--Edward Ter-
    rill--Dr. Du Veil--John Bunyan .. 421

  3. Biographical Notices Continued--Thomas Grantham--Han-
    serd Knollys--Benjamin Keach--William Kiffin--Anec-
    dotes .. 434

  4. Baptists in North America--Church at Providence--Bap-
    tists in Massachusetts--Persecuting Enactment against
    them--The Whipping of Obadiah Holmes--First Church
    at Holmes--First Church at Boston--Newport--Swansea
    --Other Churches--Roger Williams--Gregory Dexter--
    Obadiah Holmes--John Miles--Elias Keach .. 460

THE QUIET PERIOD.

  1. General Character of the Period--Baptist General Assembly
    in London--Questions--Particular Baptist Fund--Baptist
    Board--The Deputies--The Widows' Fund--The Book
    Society--Bristol College--Dr. John Ward--Toleration
    Act--Schism Bill--Dissenters excluded from Office--Res-
    trictions--Relief--Decline of the General Baptists--Com-
    munion Controversy--Effects of High Calvinism on the
    Particular Baptists--Commencement of Revival--Fuller
    and Sutcliffe--State of the Denomination in England--
    Foreign and Home Missions .. 483

  2. Biographical Notices--Dr. John Gale--John Skepp--John
    Brine--Dr. Gill [CB]--John Macgowan--Robert Robinson--
    Robert Hall, Sen.--John Ryland--The Stennetts--Benja-
    min Beddome--Samuel Pearce--John Piggott--The
    Wallins--Dr. Andrew Gifford--Mordecai Abbott, Esq.--
    Thomas and John Hollis--Miss Steele--Mrs. Seward . . . . 504

  3. Progress of the Denomination in North America--Suffer-
    ings in New England--Mrs. Elizabeth Backus--Mrs.

10     CONTENTS.

CHAP.     PAGE

    Kimball--Virginia--Whitefield's Preaching--The "New
    Lights"
    --First Churches in Different States--Philadelphia
    Association--Other Associations--Correspondence with
    London Ministers--Great Revivals--Brown University--
    Nova Scotia--New Brunswick--Canada .. 527

  1. Biographical Notices--Shubael Steams--Daniel Marshall
    --Samuel Harris--John Gano--Lewis Lunsford--John
    Waller--Isaac Backus, A.M.--Morgan Edwards--David
    Thomas--Ebenezer Kinnersley--Oliver Hart--Drs. Mer-
    cer, Smith, Manning, Foster, and Stillman .. 553

STATISTICS AND REFLECTIONS.

  1. Effects of the Mission Enterprise--Revivals--Extension of
    the Denomination--Statistical Table--Societies--Diversity
    and Adaptation of Talent--Baptist Agency now employed
    --Peculiarities of the Present Period--Duties of Baptists.   575

CHRONOLOGICAL NOTES.

FROM A. D. 31 TO A. D. 254.

31. The Christian Church founded. [By Jesus before Pentecost]
34. Martyrdom of Stephen.
36. Conversion of the Apostle Paul.
41. Admission of the Gentiles to the church.
44. Martyrdom of the Apostle James.
50. So-called Council at Jerusalem, Acts xv.
60. Paul's voyage to Rome.
63. Paul released from imprisonment.
64. Persecution at Rome under Nero.
68. Martyrdom of Paul and Peter.
70. Destruction of Jerusalem.
100. Death of the Apostle John.
166. Justin Martyr put to Death.
201. Persecution under Severus.
218. Death of Clement of Alexandria.
220. Death of Tertullian.
249. The Decian Persecution.
250. Commencement of Monachism.
254. Death of Origen.

12

CHRONOLOGICAL NOTES.

FROM A. D. 254 TO A. D. 604.

258. Martyrdom of Cyprian.
303. General persecution.
306. Accession of Constantine.
311. Rise of Donatism.
312. Constantine's alleged vision of the cross.
318. Rise of Arianism.
325. Council of Nice--the First General Council.
337. Baptism and Death of Constantine.
373. Death of Athanasius.
381. Second General Council, at Constantinople.
406. Rise of Pelagianism.
420. Death of Jerome.
428. Rise of Nestorianism.
430. Death of Augustine.
431. Third General Council, at Ephesus.
451. Fourth General Council, at Chalcedon.
476. Dissolution of the Western Empire.
529. The Benedictine Rule established.
553. Fifth General Council, at Constantinople.
596. The Mission of Augustine, the monk, to England.
604. Death of Gregory the Great.

40

CHRONOLOGICAL NOTES.

FROM A. D. 604 TO A. D. 1073.

609. Commencement of Moh_mm_danism.
625. Rise of the Monothelite Controversy.
632. Death of Moh_mm_d.
650. Rise of the Paulicians.
680. Sixth General Council, at Constantinople.
735. Death of Venerable Bede.
756. Temporal Power assumed by the Pope.
787. Seventh General Council, at Nice.
814. Death of Charlemagne.
831. Transubstantiation taught by Paschasius Radbert.
840. Death of Claude of Turin.
870. Eighth General Council, at Constantinople.
970. The Paulicians removed to Philippopolis, in Thrace.
993. First instance of Papal Canonization.
1054. Final Separation of the Eastern and Western Churches.
1073. Accession of Pope Gregory VII.

66

CHRONOLOGICAL NOTES.

FROM A. D. 1073 TO A. D. 1517.

1077. Submission of the Emperor Henry IV. to the Pope.
1086. Plenary Indulgences first granted.
1095. Commencement of the [RCC] Crusades to the Holy Land.
1099. Jerusalem taken by the Crusaders.
1123. Ninth General Council, at Rome. Lateran 1.
1124. Peter of Bruys put to death.
1139. Tenth General Council, at Rome. Lateran 2.
1153. Death of Bernard.
1155. Arnold of Brescia burned.
1170. Murder of Becket, December 29th.
1179. Eleventh General Council, at Rome, Lateran 3.
1197. Death of Peter Waldo.
1209. [RCC] Crusade against the Albigenses.
1215. Twelfth General Council, at Rome. Lateran 4.
1216. The Dominican Order established.
1223. The Franciscan Order established.
1229. Rise of the [RCC] Inquisition.
1245. Thirteenth General Council, at Lyons.
1249. University of Oxford founded.
1257. University of Cambridge founded.
1274. Fourteenth General Council, Lyons 2.
1300. The First Jubilee.
1308. The Papal See removed to Avignon.
1311. Fifteenth General Council, at Vienne.
1378. Commencement of the Great Western Schism.
1384, Death of John de Wycliffe, December 31st.
1409. Sixteenth General Council, at Pisa.
1414. Seventeenth General Council, at Constance.
1415. Martyrdom of John Huss, July 6th.
1416. Martyrdom of Jerome of Prague, May 30th.
1417. Martyrdom of Sir John Oldcastle.
1429. End of the Great Western Schism.
1431. Eighteenth General Council, at Basle.
1438. Invention of Printing.
1483. Birth of Luther, November 10th.
1484. Birth of Zuingli, January 1st.
1489. Birth of Cranmer, July 2d.
1497. Birth of Melanchthon, February 16th.
1498. Savonarola burnt at Florence.
1505. Birth of Knox.
1516. The Greek Testament published by Erasmus.
1517. Commencement of the Reformation.

90

CHRONOLOGICAL NOTES.

FROM A. D. 1517 TO A. D. 1567.

1519. Zuingli settled at Zurich.
1520. Papal Bull issued against Luther.
1521. Diet of Worms.
1522. German New Testament published.
1524. Danish New Testament published.--Insurrection of the Peasants
          in Germany.
1525. Helvetic New Testament published.--Tyndale's New Testament
          published.
1526. Swedish New Testament published.--Belgic Bible published.
1529. Diet of Spires.--Protest of the Reformers.
1530. Confession of Augsburg.--League of Smalcald.-- Death of Car-
          dinal
Wolsey, November 29th.
1531. Death of Zuingli, Oct. 11th.--Death of Ecolampadius, Nov. 23d.
1534. Papal Supremacy abolished in England.-- Insurrection at Munster.
1535. Coverdale's Bible published.
1536. Death of Erasmus, July 12th.--Martyrdom of Tyndale, Oct. 6th.
1539. The Reformation established in Denmark.
1540. Icelandic New Testament published.--Order of the Jesuits estab-
          lished.
1541. Swedish Bible published.
1545. Council of Trent opened, December 13th
1546. Death of Luther, February 18th.
1548. Finnish New Testament published.
1550. Danish Bible published.
1552. Polish New Testament published.
1553. Popery restored in England by Mary.
1555. Martyrdom of Bishops Hooper, Feb. 9th, Ridley and Latimer,
          Oct. 16th.--Peace of Religion, Augsburg, Sept. 25th.
1556. Martyrdom of Cranmer, March 21st.--Death of Ignatius Loyola,
          July 31st.
1557. Geneva English New Testament published.
1558. Accession of Queen Elizabeth.
1559. The Reformation settled in England.-- Establishment of the High
          Commission Court.--Rise of the Puritans.
1560. Death of Melanchthon, April 19th.--Geneva English Bible pub-
          lished.--Geneva French New Testament.
1561. Death of Menno Simon, Jan. 15th.
1563. Polish Bible published.--Close of the Council of Trent, Dec. 4th.
          --Croatian New Testament published.
1564. Pope Pius' Creed published.--Death of Calvin, May 27th.
1567. Publication of the Welsh New Testament.--The Reformation es-
          tablished in Scotland.

150

CHRONOLOGICAL NOTES.

FROM A. D. 1567 TO A. D. 1668.

1568. The Bishop's Bible published.
1571. The Basque New Testament published.
1572. Massacre of Protestants at Paris, Aug. 24th.--Death of John
          Knox
, Nov. 24th.
1574. The Hungarian New Testament published.
1580. Rise of the Brownists.
1581. The Slavonish Bible published.
1584. The Icelandic Bible published.
1587. Death of John Fox, the Martyrologist, April 18th.
1588. The Spanish Armada.--The Welsh Bible published.
1598. Edict of Nantes.
1600. Rise of the Arminian Controversy.
1605. Death of Theodore Beza, Oct 13th.--Gunpowder plot, Nov. 5th.
1611. English Authorized Version published.
1618. Synod of Dort.
1620. Settlement of the Puritans in New England.
1637. Harvard University Founded.
1638. Episcopacy abolished in Scotland.
1641. Massacre of Protestants in Ireland.--Episcopacy overthrown in
          England.
1643. Assembly of Divines convened.--Baptist Confession of Faith
          published.
1645. Archbishop Laud beheaded, Jan. 10th.
1648. Peace of Westphalia.
1649. Rise of the Quakers.
1653. Persecution of the Waldenses.
1658. Death of Oliver Cromwell, Sept. 3d.
1660. Episcopacy restored in England.
1661. Episcopacy restored in Scotland.
1662. Act of Uniformity, England, Aug. 24th.
1664. Conventicle Act.
1665. Five Mile Act.--Great Plague in London.
1666. Great Fire of London.
1672. Corporation Act.
1673. Test Act.
1674. Death of John Milton, Nov. 8th.
1683. Death of Dr. Owen, Aug. 24th.
1684. Death of Archbishop Leighton, Feb. 1st.
1685. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
1686. Persecution of the Waldenses.
1688. Death of John Bunyan, Aug. 30th.--Glorious Revolution in
          England.

260

CHRONOLOGICAL NOTES.

FROM A. D. 1688 TO A. D. 1800.

1689. Episcopacy abolished in Scotland.--Toleration Act, England.
1690. Death of John Elliot, "Apostle of the Indians."
1691. Death of John Flavel, June 26th.--Death of Richard Baxter,
          December 8th.
1696. Death of Philip Henry, June 24th.
1698. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge founded.
1701. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts
          founded.
1709. Death of John Howe, April 2d.
1714. Death of Matthew Henry, June 22d.
1721. Commencement of the Mission to Greenland.
1739. Methodist Societies formed.
1748. Death of Dr. Watts, Nov. 25th.
1749. Rise of the Swedenborgians.
1751. Death of Dr. Doddridge, October 26th.
1764. Brown University, Rhode Island, founded.
1766. First Methodist Class formed in the United States.
1770. Death of Whitefield, September 30th.
1785. American Episcopal Church founded.
1790. Death of John Howard, Jan. 20th.--Death of Benjamin Franklin,
          April 17th.
1791. Death of John Wesley, March 2d.
1792. Baptist Missionary Society founded, October 2d.
1793. Profession of Christianity suppressed in France.
1795. Death of W. Romaine, July 25th.--London Missionary Society
          founded.
1796. Scottish Missionary Society founded.
1797. Death of Parkhurst, the Lexicographer, February 21st.--Dutch
          Missionary Society founded.--Baptist Home Missionary So-
          ciety founded.--Methodist New Connection founded.--The
          Sabbath abolished in France.--Death of Benjamin Beddome,
          September 3d.--Death of Joseph Milner, the Ecclesiastical
          Historian, November 15th.
1798. Death of Schwartz, the Missionary, February 13th.--The Papal
          Government overthrown; the Pope a prisoner in France.
1799. Death of Samuel Pearce, October 10th.--Religious Tract Society
          founded.

482

542     BAPTIST HISTORY.

The list below gives the name of the first Asso-
ciation formed in each state within this period, with the
date of the formation :

1751. Charleston Association, S. Carolina.
1758. Sandy Creek Association, N. Carolina.
1766. Ketockton Association, Virginia.
1767. Warren Association, Rhode Island.
1772. Stonington Association, Connecticut.
1780. Shaftesbury Association, Vermont.
1782. Salisbury Association, Maryland.
1784. Georgia Association.
1785. New Hampshire Association.
1785. Elkhorn, S. Kentucky, and Salem Associations, Kentucky.
1786. Holston Association, Tennessee.
1791. New York Association.
1797. Miami Association, Ohio.1

   A few years after the establishment of the Philadelphia
Association, a correspondence was opened with the Bap-

   1 The following Associations were formed subsequent to the period
embraced in this history :

    1807. Illinois Association.
    1807. Mississippi Association.
    1809. Whitewater Association, Indiana.
    1814. Flint River Association, Alabama.
    1816. Bethel Association, Missouri.
    1821. Louisiana Association.
    1827. Michigan Association.
    1829. Spring River Association, Arkansas.
    1838. Wisconsin Association.
    1838. Desmoines Association, Iowa.
    1840. Union Association, Texas.
    1842. Florida Association.
    1848. Willamette, Oregon.
    1851. San Francisco Association, California.
    1856. Mound City Association, Kansas.
    1858. Nebraska Association, Nebraska.

STATISTICS AND REFLECTIONS.     579

A.D.

1797. English Baptist Home Missionary Society.
1814. Baptist Irish Society.
1816. Baptist Highland Mission.
   "     Society for Aged or Infirm Baptist Ministers.
1824. Baptist Building Fund--London.
   "     American Baptist Publication Society.
1832. American Baptist Home Mission Society.
1838. American and Foreign Bible Society. [Info only]
1840. Bible Translation Society--London.
1841. Baptist Tract Society--London.
1845. Southern Baptist Convention (Home Missions and Bible).
1850. American Bible Union. [Info only]
1853. American Baptist Historical Society.

In the Foreign Mission Department we have--

1792. Baptist Missionary Society--London.
1814. American Baptist Missionary Union, formerly the "Bap-
          tist General Convention."
1816. General Baptist Missionary Society--London.
1843. American Baptist Free Mission Society.
1845. Southern Baptist Convention (Foreign Missions).

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